Soviet Navy

The Soviet Navy (Russian: Военно-морской флот СССР (ВМФ), tr. Voyenno-morskoy flot SSSR (VMF), lit. 'Military Maritime Fleet of the USSR') was the naval warfare uniform service branch of the Soviet Armed Forces. Often referred to as the Red Fleet (Russian: Красный флот, tr. Krasnyy flot), the Soviet Navy made up a large part of the Soviet Union's strategic planning in the event of a conflict with the opposing superpower, the United States, during the Cold War period between the two countries.[2] The Soviet Navy played a large role during the Cold War (1945-1991), either confronting the North Atlantic Treaty Organisation in western Europe or power projection to maintain its sphere of influence in eastern Europe.[3]

Soviet Navy
Военно-морской флот СССР
Naval ensign of the Soviet Union
Founded1918 (1918)
Disbanded14 February 1992 (1992-02-14)
Country Russian SFSR (1918–1922)
 Soviet Union (1922–1991)
 CIS (1991–1992)
AllegianceCommunist Party of the Soviet Union (until 1990)
President of the Soviet Union (1990–1991)
Commonwealth of Independent States (1991–1992)
Size467,000 personnel (1984)[1]
1,053 ships (1990)
1,172 aircraft (1990)
5 aircraft carriers (1990)
2 helicopter carriers (1990)
3 battlecruisers
30 cruisers
45 destroyers
113 frigates
124 corvettes
63 ballistic missile submarines
72 cruise missile submarine
68 nuclear attack submarine
63 conventional attack submarine
9 auxiliary submarines
35 amphibious warfare ships
425 patrol boats
Part ofSoviet Armed Forces
Nickname(s)Red Fleet
EngagementsRussian Revolution
Russian Civil War
Polish–Soviet War
Soviet–Japanese border conflicts
Invasion of Poland
Winter War (Finland)
World War II (Great Patriotic War)
Soviet invasion of Manchuria
Vietnam War
1966 Soviet submarine global circumnavigation
Cold War
Fleet Admiral Sergey Gorshkov
Fleet Admiral Nikolay Kuznetsov
Vice Admiral Aleksandr Nemits
Vice Admiral Yevgeny Berens
Fleet Admiral Vasili Altfater
Admiral Ivan Yumashev
Naval jack
Guards Red Banner naval ensign

The Soviet Navy was divided into four major fleets: the Northern, Pacific, Black Sea, and Baltic Fleets, in addition to the Leningrad Naval Base, which was commanded separately. It also had a smaller force, the Caspian Flotilla, which operated in the Caspian Sea and was followed by a larger fleet, the 5th Squadron, in the Middle East. The Soviet Navy included Naval Aviation, Naval Infantry, and the Coastal Artillery.

After the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991, the Russian Federation inherited the largest part of the Soviet Navy and reformed it into the Russian Navy, with smaller parts becoming the basis for navies of the newly independent post-Soviet states.

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