Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic

The Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic (Russian SFSR or RSFSR; Russian: Росси́йская Сове́тская Федерати́вная Социалисти́ческая Респу́блика, tr. Rossíyskaya Sovétskaya Federatívnaya Socialistíčeskaya Respúblika, IPA: [rɐˈsʲijskəjə sɐˈvʲetskəjə fʲɪdʲɪrɐˈtʲivnəjə sətsɨəlʲɪˈsʲtʲitɕɪskəjə rʲɪˈspublʲɪkə] (listen)), previously known as the Russian Soviet Republic[7] and the Russian Socialist Federative Soviet Republic[8] as well as being unofficially known as Soviet Russia,[9] the Russian Federation[10] or simply Russia, was an independent federal socialist state from 1917 to 1922, and afterwards the largest and most populous of the Soviet socialist republics of the Soviet Union (USSR) from 1922 to 1991, until becoming a sovereign part of the Soviet Union with priority of Russian laws over Union-level legislation in 1990 and 1991, the last two years of the existence of the USSR.[11] The Russian Republic was composed of sixteen smaller constituent units of autonomous republics, five autonomous oblasts, ten autonomous okrugs, six krais and forty oblasts.[11] Russians formed the largest ethnic group. The capital of the Russian SFSR was Moscow and the other major urban centers included Leningrad, Stalingrad, Novosibirsk, Sverdlovsk, Gorky and Kuybishev.

Russian Soviet Federative
Socialist Republic
Российская Советская Федеративная
Социалистическая Республика
Rossiyskaya Sovetskaya Federativnaya
Sotsialisticheskaya Respublika
[1]
1917–1991
Motto: Workers of the world, unite!
Пролетарии всех стран, соединяйтесь!
Proletarii vsekh stran, soyedinyaytes'! (tr.)
Anthem: (1917–1918)
Рабочая Марсельеза
Rabochaya Marsel'yeza
("Worker's Marseillaise")

(1918–1944)
Интернационал
Internatsional
("The Internationale")

(1990–1991)
Патриотическая песня
Patrioticheskaya pesnya
("The Patriotic Song")
The Russian SFSR (red) within the Soviet Union (red and light yellow) between 1956 and 1991
Status1917–1922:
Sovereign state
1922–1991:
Union Republic (with priority of republican legislation from 1990)
CapitalPetrograd
(1917–1918)
Moscow
(1918–1991)[2]
Largest cityMoscow
Official languagesRussianb
Recognised languagessee Languages of Russia
Religion
Secular state (de jure)
State atheism (de facto)
Russian Orthodoxy (majority)
Demonym(s)Russian
Government1918–1989:
Federal Marxist–Leninist one-party socialist soviet republic[3]
1990–1991:
Federal semi-presidential republic[4]
Head of state 
 1917 (first)
Lev Kamenevc
 1990–1991 (last)
Boris Yeltsind
Head of government 
 1917–1924 (first)
Vladimir Lenine
 1990–1991
Ivan Silayevf
 1991 (last)
Boris Yeltsing
Legislature1917–1938:
VTsIK/Congress of Soviets
1938–1990:
Supreme Soviet
1990–1991:
Congress of People's Deputies
History 
 October Revolution, Soviet Republic proclaimed
7 November 1917
30 December 1922
19 February 1954
12 June 1990
 Belavezha Accords ratified
12 December 1991
 Russian SFSR renamed into the Russian Federation
25 December 1991
26 December 1991
25 December 1993
Area
195617,125,200 km2 (6,612,100 sq mi)
Population
 1989
147,386,000
CurrencySoviet ruble (руб) (SUR)
Time zone(UTC +2 to +12)
Calling code+7
ISO 3166 codeRU
Internet TLD.su
Preceded by
Succeeded by
Russian Republic
Russian state
Taganrog
Karelo-Finnish SSR
East Prussia
Kuril Islands
Karafuto Prefecture
Tuvan People's Republic
Far Eastern Republic
Governor-Generalship of the Steppes
1940
Karelo-Finnish SSR
1991
Russian Federation
Chechen Republic of Ichkeria
  1. Remained the national anthem of Russia until 2000.
  2. Official language in the courts from 1937.[5]
  3. As Chairman of the VTsIK (All-Russian Central Executive Committee).
  4. As chairman the Supreme Soviet of the RSFSR from 29 May 1990 to 10 July 1991, then as President of Russia (Russian Federation).
  5. As Chairman of the Council of People's Commissars of the Russian SFSR
  6. As Chairmen of the Council of Ministers – Government of the Russian SFSR
  7. Served as acting head of government while President of Russia
Seven Hero City awards
The Russian Democratic Federative Republic existed briefly on 19 January 1918, but actual sovereignty was still in the hands of the Soviets even after the Russian Constituent Assembly opened its first and last session in 1918.[6]

The economy of Russia became heavily industrialized, accounting for about two-thirds of the electricity produced in the USSR. By 1961, it was the third largest producer of petroleum due to new discoveries in the Volga-Urals region[12] and Siberia, trailing in production to only the United States and Saudi Arabia.[13] In 1974, there were 475 institutes of higher education in the republic providing education in 47 languages to some 23,941,000 students. A network of territorially organized public-health services provided health care.[11] After 1985, the "perestroika" restructuring policies of the Gorbachev administration relatively liberalised the economy, which had become stagnant since the late 1970s under General Secretary Leonid Brezhnev, with the introduction of non-state owned enterprises such as cooperatives.

The Russian Soviet Republic was proclaimed on 7 November 1917 (October Revolution) as a sovereign state and the world's first constitutionally socialist state guided by communist ideology. The first Constitution was adopted in 1918. In 1922, the Russian SFSR signed the Treaty on the Creation of the USSR officially setting up of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics. The 1977 Soviet Constitution stated that "[a] Union Republic is a sovereign [...] state that has united [...] in the Union"[14] and "each Union Republic shall retain the right freely to secede from the USSR".[15] On 12 June 1990, the Congress of People's Deputies adopted the Declaration of State Sovereignty, established separation of powers (unlike in the Soviet form of government), established citizenship of Russia and stated that the RSFSR shall retain the right of free secession from the USSR. On 12 June 1991, Boris Yeltsin (1931–2007), supported by the Democratic Russia pro-reform movement, was elected the first and only President of the RSFSR, a post that would later become the presidency of the Russian Federation.

The August 1991 Soviet coup d'état attempt with the temporary brief internment of President Mikhail Gorbachev destabilised the Soviet Union. On 8 December 1991, the heads of Russia, Ukraine and Belarus signed the Belavezha Accords. The agreement declared dissolution of the USSR by its original founding states (i.e., renunciation of the 1922 Treaty on the Creation of the USSR) and established the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS) as a loose confederation. On 12 December, the agreement was ratified by the Supreme Soviet (the parliament of Russian SFSR); therefore the Russian SFSR had renounced the Treaty on the Creation of the USSR and de facto declared Russia's independence from the USSR itself and the ties with the other Soviet Socialist Republics.

On 25 December 1991, following the resignation of Gorbachev as President of the Soviet Union (and former General Secretary of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union), the Russian SFSR was renamed the Russian Federation.[16] The next day after the lowering of the Soviet red flag from the top of the Kremlin Senate building of the Moscow Kremlin in Moscow, the USSR was self-dissolved by the Soviet of the Republics on 26 December, which by that time was the only functioning parliamentary chamber of the All-Union Supreme Soviet (the other house, Soviet of the Union, had already lost the quorum after recall of its members by the several union republics). After the dissolution, Russia declared that it assumed the rights and obligations of the dissolved central Soviet government, including UN membership and permanent membership on the Security Council, but originally excluding foreign debt and foreign assets of the USSR (also parts of the former Soviet Red Army and nuclear weapons remained under overall CIS command as CIS United Armed Forces [Wikidata]).

The 1978 RSFSR Constitution was amended several times to reflect the transition to democracy, private property and market economy. The new Russian Constitution, coming into effect on 25 December 1993 after a constitutional crisis, completely abolished the Soviet form of government and replaced it with a semi-presidential system.