Russian medium-lift launch vehicle

Soyuz-2 (Russian: Союз-2, lit.'Union-2') (GRAU index 14A14) is a modernised version of the Soviet Soyuz rocket. In its basic form, it is a three-stage launch vehicle for placing payloads into low Earth orbit. Compared to the previous versions of the Soyuz, the first-stage boosters and two core stages feature uprated engines with improved injection systems. Digital flight control and telemetry systems allow the rocket to be launched from a fixed launch platform, whereas the launch platforms for earlier Soyuz rockets had to be rotated as the rocket could not perform a roll to change its heading in flight.

Quick Facts Function, Manufacturer ...

Soyuz-2 is often flown with an upper stage, which allows it to lift payloads into higher orbits, such as Molniya and geosynchronous orbits. The upper stage is equipped with independent flight control and telemetry systems from those used in the rest of the rocket. The NPO Lavochkin manufactured Fregat is the most commonly used upper stage.

Soyuz-2 rockets were first launched from Site 31 at the Baikonur Cosmodrome, and Site 43 at the Plesetsk Cosmodrome, launch facilities shared with earlier R-7 derived rockets including the Soyuz-U and Molniya. Commercial Soyuz-2 flights are contracted by Starsem and have launched from Site 31 at Baikonur Cosmodrome and Ensemble de Lancement Soyouz (ELS), which has been built at the Centre Spatial Guyanais (CSG) on the northern coast of South America. The Soyuz-2 version ST-B can deliver 3,250 kg (7,170 lb) to geostationary transfer orbit (GTO) from this equatorial site.[5] As of 2022 Soyuz-2 launches from CSG have been suspended.[11]

In 2016, the new Vostochny Cosmodrome started operating Soyuz-2 flights as well, from its first launch pad called Vostochny Cosmodrome Site 1S.

The Soyuz-2 has replaced the Molniya-M, Soyuz-U and Soyuz-FG since 2010, 2017 and 2019 respectively.[12][13][14] TsSKB-Progress halted production of Soyuz-U in April 2015; the final flight of a Soyuz-U rocket took place on 22 February 2017, carrying Progress MS-05 to the International Space Station (ISS).


The Soyuz-2 family includes 2.1a, 2.1b, and 2.1v. The first two variants are modifications to the Soyuz-U launcher. The latter is a "light" version without side boosters. When launched from the Centre Spatial Guyanais site, Soyuz-2 is always mated with the ST-type fairing; this version is called Soyuz-ST or Soyuz-STK, where additional "K" indicates special measures taken for preparing and launching the rocket in hot and humid conditions.


The 2.1a version includes conversion from analog to digital flight control system, upgraded engines on the booster and a first stage with improved injection systems. The new digital flight control and telemetry systems allow the rocket to launch from a fixed rather than angled launch platform and adjust its heading in flight. A digital control system also enables the launch of larger commercial satellites with wider and longer payload fairings such as the ST-type fairing. These fairings introduce too much aerodynamic instability for the old analog system to handle. This stage continues to use the RD-0110 engine. The 2.1a/ST version is sometimes called Soyuz ST-A. The first launch, from Guiana, (17 December 2011 for Pléiades-HR 1A, SSOT, ELISA (4 satellites)) was a success.


The 2.1b version adds an upgraded engine (RD-0124) which greatly increases the specific impulse of the upper stage (326 seconds to 359 seconds), and hence improves payload capability from 7 tonnes to 8.2 tonnes. First launch took place from Plesetsk Cosmodrome Site 43 on 26 July 2008 with a classified military payload.[15] The 2.1b/ST version is sometimes called Soyuz ST-B. The first launch, from Centre Spatial Guyanais, was a success (21 October 2011), for the first two Galileo IOV satellites.


The first flight vehicle of the 2.1v version was finished in 2009. It is a "light" version of the Soyuz-2 without the side boosters (blocks B, V, G and D [clarification needed]). The Block A engine was replaced by the more powerful NK-33-1, which as of 2009, was to eventually be replaced with the RD-193.[needs update] The new launcher version was able to deliver up to 2.8 tonnes in low Earth orbit.[16]

Modifications for various launch sites

The Soyuz-2.1a/1b versions launched from the Vostochny Cosmodrome and the Centre Spatial Guyanais have a series of modifications over the stock units. Some of these might later be implemented on all the Soyuz-2, while some are particular requirements to the space port design.

Modifications for the Centre Spatial Guyanais (CSG) version includes:

  • First use of a mobile service tower at the ELS that enabled vertical payload integration.[7]
  • European supplied payload adapters.[7]
  • European supplied KSE (French: Kit de Sauvegarde Européenne, lit.'European Safeguard Kit'), a system to locate and transmit a flight termination signal.[7] It would activate the engine shutdown command and leave the vehicle in a ballistic trajectory.[17]
  • Adaptation of the S-Band telemetry system on all stages from the 5 TM bands available at Baikonur, and Plesetsk to the 3 allowed at the CSG range.[7]
  • Adaptation of the S-Band telemetry coding and frequency to the IRIG standard used at CSG.[7]
  • Adaptation of the oxygen purge system for directing to the outside the mobile gantry.[7]
  • Adaptation to the tropical CSG climate including the adaptation of the air conditioning system to local specifications and protective measures to avoid icing.[7] All holes and cavities were studied and certified to be adequately protected against intrusion of insects and rodents.[17]
  • The four boosters and the core stage were upgraded with pyrotechnic devices to breach the fuel tanks to assure that they would sink in the ocean. The other stages were shown to lose structural integrity on impact and thus proven to sink.[17]
  • At least initially, the boosters and core stage would use the pyrotechnically ignited 14D22 (RD-107A) and 14D23 (RD-108A) rather than the chemically ignited 14D22KhZ and 14D23KhZ used on the rest of the Soyuz-2.[17]

Modifications for the Vostochny Cosmodrome version includes:[18]

  • New and upgraded computer, N.A.Semikhatov NPO Automatika's Malachite-7, with six times more performance, better obsolescence protection, reduced weight.[19][20][21]
  • The new computer enabled a significant reduction on the cable network complexity thanks to multiplexing lines and using common buses.[18][21][22]
  • New nickel-cadmium batteries that eliminate the need for a dedicated battery charging station.[19]
  • The inclusion of on-board video system, that will enable real-time views of the launch.[19]
  • Since the launch pad at Vostochny also has a mobile gantry for vertical payload integration, similar to the ELS at Guiana, it has the necessary piping to direct the oxygen purges outside the gantry.[18]

On 1 October 2015, it was announced that parts of the assembly complex for the Soyuz-2 at Vostochny Cosmodrome were designed for a different modification of the rocket and are too small, so that the planned first launch in December 2015 was under question.[23] The first launch occurred on 28 April 2016 at 02:01:21 UTC.[24]

Notable missions

Suborbital test flight

On 8 November 2004, at 18:30 UTC, the first Soyuz-2 carrier rocket, in the Soyuz-2.1a configuration, was launched from the Plesetsk Cosmodrome in Russia. The rocket followed a sub-orbital trajectory, with the third stage and boilerplate payload re-entering over the Pacific Ocean.

Maiden launch

The first attempt at launching a Soyuz-2 to orbit, with the MetOp-A satellite, occurred on 17 July 2006. It was scrubbed two hours before the launch by an automatic sequence, after the onboard computer failed to check the launch azimuth. Fuelling of the rocket was underway at the time, and all launch complex equipment and on-board preliminary checks had proceeded without incident. The rocket was left fuelled on the launch pad, for the next attempt on 18 July 2006. Launch was eventually conducted on 19 October 2006.

First crewed mission

First crewed launch of Soyuz-2 took place at 9 April 2020, carrying Soyuz MS-16 to the ISS.

Naphthyl fuel

Following successful ground testing, a naphthyl fueled Soyuz-2.1b launch took place on 22 October 2022 at Vostochny. Naphthyl is an environmentally safe hydrocarbon fuel with fewer aromatic compounds than kerosene, that also slightly improves engine performance. There are only minor differences in thermal properties, viscosity, and surface tension, so this did not require significant engine changes.[25]

Launch statistics

Since 2006, Soyuz-2 rockets have accumulated a total of 177 launches, 170 of which were successful, yielding a 96% success rate.

Launch outcomes

  •   Failure
  •   Partial failure
  •   Success
  •   Scheduled

Launch sites


List of launches

More information #, Launch date Time (UTC) ...

Planned launches

More information Launch date Time (UTC), Configuration ...

See also


  1. 200 km (120 mi) circular LEO 51.8° inclination from Baikonur
  2. 820 km (510 mi) SSO with Fregat from Kourou
  3. 1,500 m/s (4,900 ft/s) Delta-V deficit GTO with Fregat from Kourou
  4. with Fregat from Baikonur
  5. with Fregat from Kourou


  1. "АО "Конструкторское Бюро Химавтоматики"".
  2. "The Soyuz-2 rocket series". Russian Space Web. Retrieved 24 May 2020.
  3. "SOYUZ-2 Launch Vehicle/Power Characteristics". Progress State Research and Production Rocket Space Center. Retrieved 20 August 2015.
  4. "SOYUZ-ST Launch Vehicle / Power Characteristics". Progress State Research and Production Rocket Space Center. Retrieved 20 August 2015.
  5. "Soyuz from the Guiana Space Centre – User's manual" (PDF). Arianespace. March 2012. Retrieved 16 December 2015.
  6. Конструкция разгонного блока "Фрегат" (in Russian). NPO Lavochkin. Archived from the original on 26 December 2015. Retrieved 10 March 2016.
  7. "Volga upper stage". Retrieved 10 March 2016.
  8. "Soyuz 2-1 launches maiden mission from Vostochny |". 27 April 2016. Retrieved 1 May 2016.
  9. Berger, Eric (26 February 2022). "Russia pulls out of European spaceport, abandoning a planned launch". Ars Technica. Retrieved 26 February 2022.
  10. Zak, Anatoly (30 September 2010). "Last launch of the Molniya-M on 30 September 2010".
  11. Zak, Anatoly (1 June 2011). "Soyuz-2 to replace its predecessors".
  12. "Alexander Kirilin: "We are working on three rocket"". Volzkhskaya Kommuna. 1 June 2011. Archived from the original on 19 March 2012. Retrieved 13 July 2011.
  13. Stephen Clark (26 July 2008). "Soyuz 2-1b rocket launches classified military payload". Spaceflight Now. Retrieved 27 August 2014.
  14. Zak, Anatoly (23 August 2015). "Soyuz-2 launch vehicle (14A14)". RussianSpaceWeb. Retrieved 24 August 2015.
  15. В РКЦ «Прогресс» завершены испытания ракеты-носителя для первого запуска с «Восточного» [JSC SRC Progress completes testing on the launch vehicle for the first Vostochny launch] (in Russian). Progress State Research and Production Rocket Space Center. 20 August 2015. Retrieved 20 August 2015.
  16. Обновлённые «Союзы» для Восточного [Updated Soyuz for Vostochny] (in Russian). 4 November 2014. Archived from the original on 7 August 2020. Retrieved 20 August 2015.
  17. «Союз-2» приспособят к запуску с «Восточного» [Soyuz-2 to be adapted to Vostochny] (in Russian). 7 January 2014. Retrieved 21 August 2015.
  18. Системы управления ракет-носителей Союз-2, Союз-СТ, Союз-2-1В [Control systems of launch vehicles Soyuz-2, Soyuz-ST, Soyuz 2-1V] (in Russian). N.A.Semikhatov NPO Automatika. Retrieved 21 August 2015.
  19. V. M. Antimirov; A. B. Umansky; L. N. Shalimov (2013). Бортовые цифровые вычислительные системы семейства «Малахит» для работы в экстремальных условиях [Onboard digital computer systems of the "Malachite" family for extreme conditions.]. Vestnik Samara State Aerospace University (in Russian) (4 (42) UDC 629.7.05:004.3): 1. Retrieved 21 August 2015.
  20. Размещение ракеты-носителя «Союз-2» на космодроме „Восточный“ пока остается под вопросом [The placement of Soyuz-2 at Vostochny Cosmodrome remains under question] (in Russian). Radio Ekho Moskvy. 1 October 2015. Retrieved 5 October 2015.
  21. Zak, Anatoly. "Soyuz historic first mission from Vostochny". Russian Space Web. Retrieved 27 April 2016.
  22. Clark, Stephen (22 October 2022). "Soyuz rocket launches with demo satellite for Russian internet constellation". Spaceflight Now. Retrieved 23 October 2022.
  23. Zak, Anatoly. "The Meridian satellite (14F112)". RussianSpaceWeb. Retrieved 3 May 2011.
  24. "Globalstar satellites "flawlessly" orbited by Soyuz". Spaceflight Now. Retrieved 28 December 2011.
  25. "Soyuz VS-04 Pleiades 1B Launch Updates - SPACEFLIGHT101". Archived from the original on 12 February 2013. Retrieved 24 June 2013.
  26. Graham, William (7 June 2013). "Russian spy satellite launched via Soyuz 2-1B". Retrieved 8 June 2013.
  27. Graham, William (25 June 2013). "Soyuz 2-1B successfully launches with Resurs-P". Retrieved 25 June 2013.
  28. "Arianespace launch VS05 > Soyuz ST-B – O3b: Mission accomplished!" (Press release). Arianespace. 25 June 2014. Retrieved 16 December 2015.
  29. Graham, William; Bergin, Chris (3 April 2014). "Arianespace Soyuz ST-A launches Sentinel-1A mission". Retrieved 6 April 2014.
  30. de Selding, Peter (15 January 2015). "Soyuz Glitches Shake EC's Confidence in Vehicle". Retrieved 6 December 2017.
  31. "Progress M-27M". Retrieved 27 June 2021.
  32. "Russian spacecraft Progress M-27M 'out of control'". British Broadcasting Company. 29 April 2015. Retrieved 30 April 2015.
  33. "Russian Soyuz-2.1v launch a partial failure". 7 December 2015. Archived from the original on 13 June 2017. Retrieved 5 January 2016.
  34. Zak, Anatoly (17 December 2015). "Soyuz completes its eighth mission with Galileo satellites". RussianSpaceWeb. Retrieved 17 December 2015.
  35. Clark, Stephen (25 April 2016). "Soyuz blasts off with environmental satellite, general relativity probe". Retrieved 26 April 2016.
  36. Blau, Patrick (25 April 2016). "Sentinel-1 Spacecraft Overview". Retrieved 26 April 2016.
  37. Blau, Patrick (25 April 2016). "MicroSCOPE". Retrieved 26 April 2016.
  38. Blau, Patrick (25 April 2016). "Lomonosov Satellite (MVL-300)". Retrieved 7 May 2016.
  39. Blau, Patrick (25 April 2016). "AIST-2D Satellite". Retrieved 7 May 2016.
  40. Zak, Anatoly (28 May 2016). "Soyuz completes its ninth Galileo mission". Retrieved 30 May 2016.
  41. Bargin, Chris (29 May 2016). "Russia deploys another GLONASS-M spacecraft via Soyuz 2-1B launch". Retrieved 29 May 2016.
  42. Clark, Stephen (28 January 2017). "Soyuz rocket supplies sendoff for multi-national telecom payload". Retrieved 29 January 2017.
  43. "Soyuz-2-1v launches a secret satellite". Retrieved 12 July 2017.
  44. "Astro Digital announces first cubesats launched on Soyuz failed". 13 September 2017. Retrieved 14 September 2017.
  45. "Glavcosmos confirmed launch anomaly". 12 March 2018. Retrieved 13 March 2018.
  46. Pietrobon, Steven (2 January 2020). "Russian Launch Manifest". Retrieved 5 January 2020.
  47. Graham, William (2 December 2017). "Russia launches Lotos mission via Soyuz 2-1B rocket". Retrieved 4 December 2017.
  48. Clark, Stephen (1 February 2018). "Soyuz rocket fires into space with 11 satellites". Spaceflight Now. Retrieved 1 February 2018.
  51. Krebs, Gunter. "Soyuz-2-1a Fregat-M". Gunter's Space Page. Archived from the original on 18 April 2015. Retrieved 1 February 2018.
  52. Chris Gebhardt; William Graham; Chris Bergin (13 February 2018). "Soyuz 2-1A launches at the second attempt with Progress MS-08". Retrieved 13 February 2018.
  53. Graham, William (29 March 2018). "Spectacular Soyuz 2-1v launch deploys Kosmos 2525". Retrieved 30 March 2018.
  54. Gebhardt, Chris (9 July 2018). "Progress MS-09 completes super fast 4-hour rendezvous with Space Station". Retrieved 5 August 2018.
  55. Graham, William (24 October 2018). "Russia returns Soyuz rocket to flight with Lotos-S1 mission". Retrieved 25 October 2018.
  56. Graham, William (3 November 2018). "Soyuz 2-1b launches Uragan-M GLONASS satellite". Retrieved 6 November 2018.
  57. "Arianespace Soyuz ST-A launches with CSO-1". 19 December 2018. Retrieved 20 December 2018.
  58. "EgyptSat-A enters orbit after a close-call Soyuz launch". RussianSpaceWeb. Retrieved 4 March 2019.
  59. Bergin, Chris (27 February 2019). "OneWeb kick starts massive constellation with Soyuz ST-B launch". Retrieved 28 February 2019.
  60. "Источник сообщил, когда состоится запуск спутников OneWeb на ракете "Союз"" [Source gives launch dates of OneWeb satellites on Soyuz rockets] (in Russian). RIA Novosti. 10 October 2018. Retrieved 25 October 2018.
  61. , 5 July 2019
  62. Graham, William (10 July 2019). "Soyuz 2-1v conduts surprise military launch". Archived from the original on 11 July 2019. Retrieved 11 July 2019.
  63. Zak, Anatoly (4 March 2017). "Spooky world of military satellites". RussianSpaceWeb. Archived from the original on 7 August 2012. Retrieved 11 July 2019.
  64. , 30 July 2019
  65. , 31 July 2019
  66. , 22 August 2019
  67. "Soyuz 2-1B launches latest Tundra satellite". 26 September 2019. Retrieved 26 September 2019.
  68. Graham, William; Bergin, Chris (25 November 2019). "Soyuz 2-1v lofts mystery military satellite". Retrieved 25 November 2019.
  69. "Минобороны вывело на орбиту военный спутник-инспектор" [MoD deployed a military satellite inspector] (in Russian). RIA Novosti. 25 November 2019. Retrieved 25 November 2019.
  70. Gebhardt, Chris (24 April 2020). "Soyuz "Victory Rocket" launches Progress MS-14, followed by docking to the ISS". Retrieved 28 April 2020.
  71. "Систему предупреждения о ракетном нападении пополнит четвертый спутник" [Fourth satellite to join early warning missile defense system] (in Russian). RIA Novosti. 24 December 2019. Retrieved 1 January 2020.
  72. Krebs, Gunter (26 September 2019). "Tundra (EKS, 14F142)". Gunter's Space Page. Retrieved 18 May 2020.
  73. "Soyuz launches with 22 satellites". Spaceflight Now. 29 September 2020. Retrieved 1 October 2020.
  74. "Soyuz MS-17 delivers fresh ISS crew". 15 October 2020.
  75. "Soyuz launches 2nd Falcon Eye satellite". Gunter's Space Page. 28 November 2019.
  76. Gray, Tyler (2 February 2021). "Russia launches classified payload to start 2021 campaign". Retrieved 2 February 2021.
  77. Kanayama, Lee; Navin, Joseph (14 February 2021). "Roscosmos launches Progress MS-16 resupply ship on 2 day flight to Station". Retrieved 14 February 2021.
  78. "Russia launches Arctic weather satellite". Spaceflight Now. 28 February 2021. Retrieved 28 February 2021.
  79. "Soyuz launches with 36 satellites for OneWeb's constellation". Spaceflight Now. 24 March 2021. Retrieved 25 March 2021.
  80. "OneWeb Flight 6 launches aboard Soyuz-2.1b from Vostochny". 25 April 2021. Retrieved 26 April 2021.
  81. "Ракета-носитель "Союз-2" вывела на орбиту аппарат нового поколения в интересах Минобороны" [The Soyuz-2 launch vehicle launched a new generation vehicle into orbit in the interests of the Ministry of Defense] (in Russian). TASS. 25 June 2021. Retrieved 25 June 2021.
  82. "Грузовой корабль "Прогресс МС-17" стартовал к МКС" [Progress MS-17 cargo vehicle launched to ISS] (Press release) (in Russian). Roscosmos. 30 June 2021. Retrieved 30 June 2021.
  83. "Arianespace Soyuz rocket launches 34 OneWeb internet satellites into space". 21 August 2021. Retrieved 22 August 2021.
  84. "Ракета "Союз-2.1в" вывела на орбиту аппарат Минобороны" ["Soyuz-2.1v" rocket puts Ministry of Defence apparatus into orbit]. TASS (in Russian). 9 September 2021. Retrieved 9 September 2021.
  85. Beil, Adrian (14 September 2021). "Soyuz mission launches 34 OneWeb satellites to orbit". NASASpaceFlight. Retrieved 14 September 2021.
  86. ""Причал" летит к МКС" ["Prichal" flies to the ISS]. Roscosmos (Press release). 24 November 2021. Retrieved 24 November 2021.
  87. Zak, Anatoly (25 November 2021). "Russia launches a missile-detection satellite". RussianSpaceWeb. Retrieved 25 November 2021.
  88. Zak, Anatoly (4 December 2021). "Soyuz delivers a pair of Galileo satellites". RussianSpaceWeb. Retrieved 5 December 2021.
  89. Neal, Mihir (7 December 2021). "Soyuz MS-20 space tourism flight launches". Retrieved 8 December 2021.
  90. Navin, Joseph (26 December 2021). "Soyuz 2.1b launches with 36 OneWeb Satellites". NASASpaceFlight. Retrieved 27 December 2021.
  91. Zak, Anatoly (5 February 2022). "Soyuz launches a secret cargo". RussianSpaceWeb. Retrieved 5 February 2022.
  92. CLark, Stephen (15 February 2022). "Russian cargo ship launches in pursuit of International Space Station". Spaceflight Now. Retrieved 15 February 2022.
  93. Gebhardt, Chris (18 March 2022). "First all-Roscosmos cosmonaut mission arrives at station". NASASpaceFlight. Retrieved 19 March 2022.
  94. Zak, Anatoly (22 March 2022). "Soyuz launches 10th Meridian satellite". RussianSpaceWeb. Retrieved 22 March 2022.
  95. "Ракета "Союз" с военным спутником стартовала с космодрома Плесецк" [Soyuz rocket with military satellite launched from Plesetsk cosmodrome]. Ria Novosti (in Russian). 7 April 2022. Retrieved 7 April 2022.
  96. Zak, Anatoly (19 May 2022). "Soyuz launches third Bars-M satellite". RussianSpaceWeb. Retrieved 19 May 2022.
  97. Navin, Joseph (3 June 2022). "Progress MS-20 docks to the International Space Station". NASASpaceFlight. Retrieved 3 June 2022.
  98. "Спутник "Глонасс-К" вывели на орбиту" [Glonass-K satellite launched into orbit]. RIA Novosti (in Russian). 7 July 2022. Retrieved 7 July 2022.
  99. Zak, Anatoly (1 August 2022). "Soyuz-2-1v launches military satellite". RussianSpaceWeb. Retrieved 1 August 2022.
  100. Gebhardt, Chris (21 September 2022). "Soyuz MS-22 lofts two Russians and one American to ISS". NASASpaceFlight. Retrieved 21 September 2022.
  101. Zak, Anatoly (10 October 2022). "Fifth GLONASS-K satellite lifts off". RussianSpaceWeb. Retrieved 10 October 2022.
  102. Zak, Anatoly (21 October 2022). "Soyuz-2-1v launches a pair of classified payloads". RussianSpaceWeb. Retrieved 21 October 2022.
  103. Zak, Anatoly (22 October 2022). "Soyuz launches Gonets trio, Skif-D proto-satellite". RussianSpaceWeb. Retrieved 22 October 2022.
  104. Zak, Anatoly (25 October 2022). "Progress MS-21 to re-supply the ISS". RussianSpaceWeb. Retrieved 26 October 2022.
  105. Zak, Anatoly (1 November 2022). "Soyuz launches a missile-detection satellite". RussianSpaceWeb. Retrieved 2 November 2022.
  106. Zak, Anatoly (28 November 2022). "Soyuz-2 rocket launches the final GLONASS-M satellite". RussianSpaceWeb. Retrieved 28 November 2022.
  107. Zak, Anatoly (1 December 2022). "Soyuz launches military payload". RussianSpaceWeb. Retrieved 1 December 2022.
  108. Rosenstein, Sawyer (9 February 2023). "Progress MS-22 resupply ship launches to ISS". NASASpaceFlight. Retrieved 9 February 2023.
  109. Zak, Anatoly (9 February 2023). "Progress MS-22 lifts off". RussianSpaceWeb. Retrieved 9 February 2023.
  110. Zak, Anatoly (29 March 2023). "Soyuz-2-1v rocket launches military payload". RussianSpaceWeb. Retrieved 29 March 2023.
  111. Mooney, Justin (24 May 2023). "Russia launches Progress MS-23 resupply mission to space station". NASASpaceFlight. Retrieved 24 May 2023.
  112. Zak, Anatoly (26 May 2023). "Roskosmos launches radar-observation satellite". RussianSpaceWeb. Retrieved 26 May 2023.
  113. Zak, Anatoly (27 June 2023). "Soyuz launches a Meteor weather satellite and 42 hitchhikers". RussianSpaceWeb. Retrieved 28 June 2023.
  114. Zak, Anatoly (7 August 2023). "Russia launches newly redesigned navigation satellite". RussianSpaceWeb. Retrieved 7 August 2023.
  115. Zak, Anatoly (10 August 2023). "Luna-Glob mission lifts off". RussianSpaceWeb. Retrieved 10 August 2023.
  116. Zak, Anatoly (23 August 2023). "Progress MS-24 to re-supply the ISS". RussianSpaceWeb. Retrieved 23 August 2023.
  117. Zak, Anatoly (15 September 2023). "Soyuz MS-24 carries crew to ISS". RussianSpaceWeb. Retrieved 15 September 2023.
  118. Zak, Anatoly (27 October 2023). "Soyuz launches military payload". RussianSpaceWeb. Retrieved 27 October 2023.
  119. Zak, Anatoly (1 December 2023). "Progress MS-25 launches to the ISS". RussianSpaceWeb. Retrieved 1 December 2023.
  120. Zak, Anatoly (16 December 2023). "Second Arktika satellite lifts off". RussianSpaceWeb. Retrieved 16 December 2023.
  121. Zak, Anatoly (21 December 2023). "Soyuz launches military payload". RussianSpaceWeb. Retrieved 21 December 2023.
  122. Zak, Anatoly (31 December 2023). "Soyuz-2-1v launches classified payload". RussianSpaceWeb. Retrieved 3 January 2024.
  123. Zak, Anatoly (9 February 2024). "Soyuz-2-1v launches classified payload". RussianSpaceWeb. Retrieved 9 February 2024.
  124. Zak, Anatoly (15 February 2024). "Progress MS-26 to resupply the ISS". RussianSpaceWeb. Retrieved 15 February 2024.
  125. Zak, Anatoly (29 February 2024). "Soyuz launches a weather satellite and 18 hitchhikers". RussianSpaceWeb. Retrieved 29 February 2024.
  126. Zak, Anatoly (23 March 2024). "Soyuz MS-25 lifts off". RussianSpaceWeb. Retrieved 23 March 2024.
  127. Zak, Anatoly (31 March 2024). "Soyuz launches Resurs-P4 imaging satellite". RussianSpaceWeb. Retrieved 31 March 2024.
  128. Zak, Anatoly (17 May 2024). "Soyuz-2 launches a classified satellite, secondary payloads". RussianSpaceWeb. Retrieved 17 May 2024.
  129. Zak, Anatoly (30 May 2024). "Progress MS-27 to re-supply the ISS". RussianSpaceWeb. Retrieved 30 May 2024.
  130. ""Роскосмос" в 2023 г. планирует запустить 9 спутников дистанционного зондирования Земли" [Roscosmos plans to launch 9 Earth remote sensing satellites in 2023]. Interfax (in Russian). 14 November 2022. Retrieved 15 December 2022.
  131. Zak, Anatoly. "Russian space program in 2024". RussianSpaceWeb. Retrieved 24 January 2024.
  132. "Космодром Байконур" [Baikonur Cosmodrome]. Retrieved 7 January 2024.
  133. ""Бион-М" №2 планируют запустить 1 сентября" ["Bion-M" No. 2 is planned to be launched on September 1]. TASS (in Russian). 8 April 2024. Retrieved 18 April 2024.
  134. "ЭКСКУРСИЯ НА КОСМОДРОМ ВОСТОЧНЫЙ" [EXCURSION TO THE VOSTOCHNY COSMODROME]. Tayga-Tour (in Russian). Retrieved 11 February 2024.
  135. "Спектрометр спутника "Метеор-МП" будет давать в два раза больше данных" [Meteor-MP satellite spectrometer will provide twice as much data]. RIA Novosti (in Russian). 19 July 2022. Retrieved 1 August 2022.
  136. Hendrickx, Bart (19 December 2022). "The secret payloads of Russia's Glonass navigation satellites". The Space Review. Retrieved 20 December 2022. The long-delayed flight of the first Glonass-K2 (serial number 13L) is now set for the first quarter of next year, with a second satellite (nr. 14L) expected to follow later in 2023.
  137. "Еще один спутник связи "Меридиан-М" запустят до конца года" [Another communication satellite "Meridian-M" will be launched before the end of the year]. TASS (in Russian). 19 April 2022. Retrieved 20 April 2022.
  138. "Спутник "Ресурс-П" №4 запустят летом 2023 года" [Satellite "Resurs-P" No. 4 will be launched in the summer of 2023]. TASS (in Russian). 30 January 2023. Retrieved 31 January 2023.
  139. "В НПО машиностроения сообщили о продолжении разработки спутника "Кондор-ФКА-М"" [NPO Mashinostroeniya announced the continuation of the development of the "Kondor-FKA-M" satellite]. TASS (in Russian). 27 January 2023. Retrieved 30 January 2023.
  140. Krebs, Gunter (14 January 2023). "Kondor-FKA-M 1". Gunter's Space Page. Retrieved 30 January 2023.
  141. "Ученый сообщил об активном ходе работ по импортозамещению комплектующих "Луны-27"" [The scientist reported on the active progress of work on import substitution of Luna-27 components]. TASS (in Russian). 19 July 2023. Retrieved 27 July 2023.

Share this article:

This article uses material from the Wikipedia article Soyuz-2_(rocket), and is written by contributors. Text is available under a CC BY-SA 4.0 International License; additional terms may apply. Images, videos and audio are available under their respective licenses.