Spoke–hub distribution paradigm

The spoke–hub distribution paradigm is a form of transport topology optimization in which traffic planners organize routes as a series of "spokes" that connect outlying points to a central "hub". Simple forms of this distribution/connection model compare with point-to-point transit systems, in which each point has a direct route to every other point, and which modeled the principal method of transporting passengers and freight until the 1970s. Delta Air Lines pioneered the spoke–hub distribution model in 1955,[1] and the concept revolutionized the transportation logistics industry after Federal Express demonstrated its value in the early 1970s.[citation needed] In the late 1970s the telecommunications and information technology sector subsequently adopted this distribution topology, dubbing it the star network network topology.

Hub-and-spoke airline route-structures: Los Angeles and Denver serve as hubs.

"Hubbing" involves "the arrangement of a transportation network as a hub-and-spoke model".[2]


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