Springfield, Massachusetts

Springfield is a city in the state of Massachusetts, United States, and the seat of Hampden County.[15] Springfield sits on the eastern bank of the Connecticut River near its confluence with three rivers: the western Westfield River, the eastern Chicopee River, and the eastern Mill River. As of the 2020 Census, the city's population was 155,929, making it the third-largest city in Massachusetts, the fourth-most populous city in New England after Boston, Worcester, and Providence, and the 12th-most populous in the Northeastern United States.[10] Metropolitan Springfield, as one of two metropolitan areas[lower-alpha 2] in Massachusetts (the other being Greater Boston), had a population of 699,162 as of 2020.[11]

Springfield, Massachusetts
City
City of Springfield
Nickname(s): 
The City of Firsts; The City of Progress;[1][2][3] The City of Homes; A City in the Forest;[4] Hoop City;[5][6]
The Western Gateway to New England[7][8]
Location in Hampden County in Massachusetts
Springfield, Massachusetts
Location in the United States
Coordinates: 42°06′05″N 72°35′25″W
Country United States
State Massachusetts
County Hampden
RegionNew England
Historic countriesKingdom of England
Kingdom of Great Britain
Historic coloniesConnecticut Colony
(1636–1641)
Massachusetts Bay Colony (1641–1686, 1689–1691)
Dominion of New England (1686–1689)
Province of Massachusetts Bay
(1691–1780)
Settled (town)May 14, 1636
Incorporated (city)May 25, 1852
Founded byWilliam Pynchon
Named forSpringfield, Essex
Government
  TypeMayor-council city
  MayorDomenic Sarno (D)
Area
  City33.08 sq mi (85.68 km2)
  Land31.87 sq mi (82.54 km2)
  Water1.21 sq mi (3.14 km2)
Elevation
70 ft (21 m)
Population
  City153,060
  Estimate 
(2020)[10]
155,929
  Rank168th, U.S. as of 2020 incorporated places estimate
  Density4,819.92/sq mi (1,860.98/km2)
  Metro699,162
Demonym(s)Springfieldian[lower-alpha 1]
Springfielder[13]
Time zoneUTC−5 (Eastern)
  Summer (DST)UTC−4 (Eastern)
ZIP Codes
01101, 01103–01105, 01107–01109, 01118–01119, 01128–01129, 01151
Area code413
FIPS code25-67000
GNIS feature ID0609092
GDP$30 billion USD[14]
Primary AirportBradley International Airport
Interstates
Commuter Rail
Transit
Websitewww.springfield-ma.gov

Founded in 1636 as the first Springfield in the New World, during the American Revolution, George Washington designated it as the site of the Springfield Armory for its central location, subsequently the site of Shays' Rebellion. The city would also play a pivotal role in the Civil War, as a stop on the Underground Railroad and home of abolitionist John Brown, widely known for his raid on Harpers Ferry,[16] and for the Armory's manufacture of the famed "Springfield rifles" used ubiquitously by Union troops. Closing during the Johnson administration, today the national park site features the largest collection of historic American firearms in the world.[17] Today the city is the largest in western New England, and the urban, economic, and media capital of Massachusetts' section of the Connecticut River Valley, colloquially known as the Pioneer Valley. Springfield has several nicknames—"The City of Firsts", due to the many innovations developed there, such as the first American dictionary, the first American gas-powered automobile, and the first machining lathe for interchangeable parts; "The City of Homes", due to its Victorian residential architecture; and "Hoop City", as basketball—one of the world's most popular sports[18]—was invented in Springfield in 1891 by James Naismith.

Hartford, the capital of Connecticut, lies 24 miles (39 km) south of Springfield, on the western bank of the Connecticut River. The Hartford–Springfield region is known as the Knowledge Corridor because it hosts over 160,000 university students and over 32 universities and liberal arts colleges—the second-highest concentration of higher-learning institutions in the United States.[19] The city of Springfield itself is home to Springfield College, Western New England University, American International College, and Springfield Technical Community College, among other higher educational institutions.