Sputnik (rocket)

The Sputnik rocket was an uncrewed orbital carrier rocket designed by Sergei Korolev in the Soviet Union, derived from the R-7 Semyorka ICBM. On 4 October 1957, it was used to perform the world's first satellite launch, placing Sputnik 1 into a low Earth orbit.

Sputnik 727
Sputnik rocket
Has useEarly (first) carrier rocket
ManufacturerOKB-1
Country of originUSSR
Size
Height8K71PS: 30.0 m (98.4 ft)
8A91: 31.1 m (102 ft)
Diameter2.99 m (9.8 ft)
Mass267,000 kg (589,000 lb)
8A91: 269,300 kg (593,700 lb)
Stages2
Capacity
Payload to LEO (8K71PS)
Mass8K71PS: 500 kg (1,100 lb)
8A91: 1,327 kg (2,926 lb)
Associated rockets
FamilyR-7
ComparableVanguard
Juno I
Launch history
StatusRetired
Launch sitesLC-1/5, Baikonur
Total launches4 (2 8K71PS, 2 8A91)
Success(es)3
Failure(s)1 (8A91)
First flight8K71PS: 4 October 1957
8A91: 27 April 1958
Last flight8K71PS: 3 November 1957
8A91: 15 May 1958
People or cargo transportedSputnik 1
Sputnik 2
Sputnik 3
Boosters (Block B, V, G, D)
No. boosters4
Powered by1 RD-107
Maximum thrust970 kN (220,000 lbf)
Specific impulse306 s
Burn time120 s
PropellantLOX/Kerosene
First stage (Block A)
Powered by1 RD-108
Maximum thrust912 kN (205,000 lbf)
Specific impulse308 s
Burn time330 s
PropellantLOX/Kerosene

Two versions of the Sputnik were built, the Sputnik-PS (GRAU index 8K71PS), which was used to launch Sputnik 1 and later Sputnik 2, and the Sputnik (8A91), which failed to launch a satellite in April 1958, and subsequently launched Sputnik 3 on 15 May 1958.[1]

A later member of the R-7 family, the Polyot, used the same configuration as the Sputnik rocket, but was constructed from Voskhod components. Because of the similarity, the Polyot was sometimes known as the Sputnik 11A59.


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