Srivijaya (Malay: Sri Vijaya; Indonesian: Sriwijaya; Malay pronunciation: [srividʒaja]; Indonesian pronunciation: [sriwidʒaja]): 131 was a Malay Buddhist thalassocratic empire based on the island of Sumatra (in modern-day Indonesia), which influenced much of Southeast Asia. Srivijaya was an important centre for the expansion of Buddhism from the 7th to the 12th century AD. Srivijaya was the first unified kingdom to dominate much of the Malay Archipelago. The rise of the Srivijayan Empire was parallel to the end of the Malay sea-faring period. Due to its location, this once-powerful state developed complex technology utilizing maritime resources. In addition, its economy became progressively reliant on the booming trade in the region, thus transforming it into a prestige goods-based economy.
|Common languages||Old Malay and Sanskrit|
|Religion||Mahayana Buddhism, Vajrayana Buddhism, Hinduism and Animism|
• Circa 683n,,m
|Dapunta Hyang Sri Jayanasa|
• Circa 775
• Circa 792
• Circa 835
• Circa 988
|Sri Cudamani Warmadewa|
• Dapunta Hyang's expedition and expansion (Kedukan Bukit inscription)
|Currency||Native gold and silver coins|
|History of Indonesia|
|History of Malaysia|
The earliest reference to it dates from the 7th century. A Tang dynasty Chinese monk, Yijing, wrote that he visited Srivijaya in year 671 for six months. The earliest known inscription in which the name Srivijaya appears also dates from the 7th century in the Kedukan Bukit inscription found near Palembang, Sumatra, dated 16 June 682. Between the late 7th and early 11th century, Srivijaya rose to become a hegemon in Southeast Asia. It was involved in close interactions, often rivalries, with the neighbouring Java, Khmer and Champa. Srivijaya's main foreign interest was nurturing lucrative trade agreements with China which lasted from the Tang to the Song dynasty. Srivijaya had religious, cultural and trade links with the Buddhist Pala of Bengal, as well as with the Islamic Caliphate in the Middle East.
The kingdom ceased to exist in the 13th century due to various factors, including the expansion of the competitor Javanese Singhasari and Majapahit empires. After Srivijaya fell, it was largely forgotten. It was not until 1918 that French historian George Cœdès, of École française d'Extrême-Orient, formally postulated its existence.