Srivijaya (Malay: Sri Vijaya; Indonesian: Sriwijaya; Malay pronunciation: [srividʒaja]; Indonesian pronunciation: [sriwidʒaja])[3]:131 was a Malay Buddhist thalassocratic empire based on the island of Sumatra (in modern-day Indonesia), which influenced much of Southeast Asia.[4] Srivijaya was an important centre for the expansion of Buddhism from the 7th to the 12th century AD. Srivijaya was the first unified kingdom to dominate much of the Malay Archipelago.[5] The rise of the Srivijayan Empire was parallel to the end of the Malay sea-faring period. Due to its location, this once-powerful state developed complex technology utilizing maritime resources. In addition, its economy became progressively reliant on the booming trade in the region, thus transforming it into a prestige goods-based economy.[6]

Kadatuan Sriwijaya
c. 650–1377
The maximum extent of Srivijaya around the 8th century with a series of Srivijayan expeditions and conquest
Common languagesOld Malay and Sanskrit
Mahayana Buddhism, Vajrayana Buddhism, Hinduism and Animism
 Circa 683n,,m
Dapunta Hyang Sri Jayanasa
 Circa 775
 Circa 792
 Circa 835
 Circa 988
Sri Cudamani Warmadewa
 Dapunta Hyang's expedition and expansion (Kedukan Bukit inscription)
c. 650
 Singhasari conquest in 1288, Majapahit put an end to the Srivijayan rebellion in 1377
CurrencyNative gold and silver coins
Preceded by
Succeeded by
Melayu Kingdom
Kingdom of Singapura
Samudera Pasai Sultanate

The earliest reference to it dates from the 7th century. A Tang dynasty Chinese monk, Yijing, wrote that he visited Srivijaya in year 671 for six months.[7][8] The earliest known inscription in which the name Srivijaya appears also dates from the 7th century in the Kedukan Bukit inscription found near Palembang, Sumatra, dated 16 June 682.[9] Between the late 7th and early 11th century, Srivijaya rose to become a hegemon in Southeast Asia. It was involved in close interactions, often rivalries, with the neighbouring Java, Khmer and Champa. Srivijaya's main foreign interest was nurturing lucrative trade agreements with China which lasted from the Tang to the Song dynasty. Srivijaya had religious, cultural and trade links with the Buddhist Pala of Bengal, as well as with the Islamic Caliphate in the Middle East.

The kingdom ceased to exist in the 13th century due to various factors, including the expansion of the competitor Javanese Singhasari and Majapahit empires.[4] After Srivijaya fell, it was largely forgotten. It was not until 1918 that French historian George Cœdès, of École française d'Extrême-Orient, formally postulated its existence.[10]