St Andrews

St Andrews (Latin: S. Andrea(s);[3] Scots: Saunt Aundraes;[4] Scottish Gaelic: Cill Rìmhinn)[5] is a town on the east coast of Fife in Scotland, 10 miles (16 kilometres) southeast of Dundee and 30 miles (50 kilometres) northeast of Edinburgh. St Andrews had a recorded population of 16,800 as of 2011, making it Fife's fourth largest settlement and 45th most populous settlement in Scotland.

St Andrews

St Andrews, seen from the top of St Rule's Tower
St Andrews
Location within Fife
Population17,580 (mid-2016 est.)[1]
OS grid referenceNO507168
 Edinburgh30 mi (48 km)
 London351 mi (565 km)
Community council
  • Royal Burgh of St Andrews[2]
Council area
Lieutenancy area
Sovereign stateUnited Kingdom
Post townST. ANDREWS
Postcode districtKY16
Dialling code01334
UK Parliament
Scottish Parliament
List of places
56.3404°N 2.7955°W / 56.3404; -2.7955

The town is home to the University of St Andrews, the third oldest university in the English-speaking world and the oldest in Scotland.[6] According to some rankings, it is ranked as the second best university in the United Kingdom, behind the University of Cambridge.[7][8]

The town is named after Saint Andrew the Apostle. The settlement grew to the west of St Andrews Cathedral, with the southern side of the Scores to the north and the Kinness Burn to the south. The burgh soon became the ecclesiastical capital of Scotland, a position which was held until the Scottish Reformation. The famous cathedral, the largest in Scotland, now lies in ruins. St Andrews Cathedral was once the largest building in Europe.

St Andrews is also known globally as the "home of golf". This is in part because of The Royal and Ancient Golf Club of St Andrews, founded in 1754, which until 2004 exercised legislative authority over the game worldwide (except in the United States and Mexico). It is also because the famous Old Course of St Andrews Links (acquired by the town in 1894) is the most frequent venue for The Open Championship, the oldest of golf's four major championships. Visitors travel to St Andrews in great numbers for several courses ranked amongst the finest in the world, as well as for the sandy beaches.

The Martyrs Memorial, erected to the honour of Patrick Hamilton, George Wishart, and other martyrs of the Reformation epoch, stands at the west end of the Scores on a cliff overlooking the sea. The civil parish has a population of 18,421 (in 2011).[9]

The town also contains numerous museums, a botanic garden and an aquarium.