St. Louis

St. Louis (/snt ˈlɪs, sənt ˈlɪs/)[9] is the second-largest city in Missouri, United States. It sits near the confluence of the Mississippi and the Missouri Rivers, on the western bank of the latter. As of 2020, the city proper had a population of around 301,500,[8] while the bi-state metropolitan area, which extends into Illinois, had an estimated population of over 2.8 million, making it the largest metropolitan area in Missouri, the second-largest in Illinois, the seventh-largest in the Great Lakes Megalopolis, and the 20th-largest in the United States.

St. Louis
City of St. Louis
From top to bottom, left to right: The Jewel Box, train at St. Louis Lambert International Airport, the Apotheosis of St. Louis, Gateway Arch and the Downtown St. Louis skyline, Busch Stadium, and the Saint Louis Zoo
Nickname(s): 
"Gateway to the West",[1] The Gateway City,[1] Mound City,[2] The Lou,[3] Rome of the West,[4] River City, The STL, Saint Lou
Interactive map of St. Louis
Coordinates: 38°37′38″N 90°11′52″W
Country United States
State Missouri
CSASt. Louis–St. Charles–Farmington, MO–IL
MetroSt. Louis, MO-IL
FoundedFebruary 14, 1764
Incorporated1822
Named forLouis IX of France
Government
  TypeMayor–council
  BodyBoard of Aldermen
  MayorTishaura Jones (D)
  President, Board of AldermenLewis E. Reed (D)
  TreasurerAdam Layne
  ComptrollerDarlene Green (D)
  Congressional representativeCori Bush (D)
Area
  Independent city65.99 sq mi (170.92 km2)
  Land61.74 sq mi (159.92 km2)
  Water4.25 sq mi (11.00 km2)
  Urban
923.6 sq mi (2,392 km2)
  Metro
8,458 sq mi (21,910 km2)
Elevation466 ft (142 m)
Highest elevation614 ft (187 m)
Population
  Independent city301,578
  RankUS: 65th
Midwest: 11th
Missouri: 2nd
  Density4,885.0/sq mi (1,887.19/km2)
  Urban
2,150,706 (US: 20th)
  Metro
2,807,338 (US: 20th)
  CSA
2,911,945 (US: 19th)
Demonym(s)St. Louisan
Time zoneUTC−6 (CST)
  Summer (DST)UTC−5 (CDT)
ZIP Codes
List
Area code314
FIPS code29-65000
Interstates
Light rail
Primary airportSt. Louis Lambert International Airport
WaterwaysMississippi River
Missouri River
GDP$160 billion (2017)
Websitestlouis-mo.gov

Before European settlement, the area was a regional center of Native American Mississippian culture. St. Louis was founded on February 14, 1764, by French fur traders Gilbert Antoine de St. Maxent,[10] Pierre Laclède and Auguste Chouteau, who named it for Louis IX of France. In 1764, following France's defeat in the Seven Years' War, the area was ceded to Spain. In 1800, it was retroceded to France, which sold it three years later to the United States as part of the Louisiana Purchase;[11] the city was then the point of embarkation for the Corps of Discovery on the Lewis and Clark Expedition. In the 19th century, St. Louis became a major port on the Mississippi River; from 1870 until the 1920 census, it was the fourth-largest city in the country. It separated from St. Louis County in 1877, becoming an independent city and limiting its own political boundaries. St. Louis had a brief run as a world-class city in the early 20th century.[12] In 1904, it hosted the Louisiana Purchase Exposition and the Summer Olympics.

A "Gamma" global city with a metropolitan GDP of more than $160 billion in 2017,[13] metropolitan St. Louis has a diverse economy with strengths in the service, manufacturing, trade, transportation, and tourism industries. It is home to nine of the ten Fortune 500 companies based in Missouri. Major companies headquartered or with significant operations in the city include Ameren Corporation, Peabody Energy, Nestlé Purina PetCare, Anheuser-Busch, Wells Fargo Advisors, Stifel Financial, Spire, Inc., MilliporeSigma, FleishmanHillard, Square, Inc., U.S. Bank, Anthem BlueCross and Blue Shield, Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis, U.S. Department of Agriculture, National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency, Centene Corporation, and Express Scripts.

Major research universities include Saint Louis University and Washington University in St. Louis. The Washington University Medical Center in the Central West End neighborhood hosts an agglomeration of medical and pharmaceutical institutions, including Barnes-Jewish Hospital.

St. Louis has three professional sports teams: the St. Louis Cardinals of Major League Baseball, the St. Louis Blues of the National Hockey League, and the St. Louis BattleHawks of the newly formed XFL. In 2019, the city was awarded a Major League Soccer franchise, St. Louis City SC, which is expected to begin play upon the completion of a 22,500-seat stadium in the city's Downtown West neighborhood in 2023. Among the city's notable sights is the 630-foot (192 m) Gateway Arch in the downtown area. St. Louis is also home to the St. Louis Zoo and the Missouri Botanical Garden, which has the second-largest herbarium in North America.[14][15]