St. Peter's Basilica

The Papal Basilica of Saint Peter in the Vatican (Italian: Basilica Papale di San Pietro in Vaticano), or simply Saint Peter's Basilica (Latin: Basilica Sancti Petri), is a church built in the Renaissance style located in Vatican City, the papal enclave that is within the city of Rome.

Saint Peter's Basilica
Papal Basilica of Saint Peter in the Vatican
  • Basilica Papale di San Pietro in Vaticano  (Italian)
  • Basilica Sancti Petri  (Latin)
Main façade and dome of St. Peter's Basilica seen from St. Peter's Square
41°54′08″N 12°27′12″E
LocationVatican City
CountryVatican City
TraditionRoman Rite
WebsiteSt. Peter's Basilica
StatusPapal major basilica
DedicationSaint Peter
Consecrated18 November 1626
StyleRenaissance and Baroque
Groundbreaking18 April 1506
Completed18 November 1626 (1626-11-18)
Length220 metres (720 ft)
Width150 metres (490 ft)
Height136.6 metres (448 ft)[1]
Nave height46.2 metres (152 ft)
Dome diameter (outer)42 metres (138 ft)
Dome diameter (inner)41.5 metres (136 ft)
ArchpriestMauro Gambetti
Official nameVatican City
Criteriai, ii, iv, vi
Designated1984 (8th session)
Reference no.286
State PartyHoly See
RegionEurope and North America

Designed principally by Donato Bramante, Michelangelo, Carlo Maderno and Gian Lorenzo Bernini, St. Peter's is the most renowned work of Renaissance architecture[2] and the largest church in the world by interior measure.[note 1] While it is neither the mother church of the Catholic Church nor the cathedral of the Diocese of Rome (these equivalent titles being held by the Archbasilica of Saint John Lateran in Rome), St. Peter's is regarded as one of the holiest Catholic shrines. It has been described as "holding a unique position in the Christian world"[3] and as "the greatest of all churches of Christendom".[2][4]

Catholic tradition holds that the basilica is the burial site of Saint Peter, chief among Jesus's apostles and also the first Bishop of Rome (Pope). Saint Peter's tomb is supposedly directly below the high altar of the basilica or "Altar of the Confession".[5] For this reason, many popes have been interred at St. Peter's since the Early Christian period. A church has stood on this site since the time of the Roman emperor Constantine the Great. Old St. Peter's Basilica dates from the 4th century AD. Construction of the present basilica began on 18 April 1506 and was completed on 18 November 1626.[6]

St. Peter's is famous as a place of pilgrimage and for its liturgical functions. The pope presides at a number of liturgies throughout the year both within the basilica or the adjoining St. Peter's Square; these liturgies draw audiences numbering from 15,000 to over 80,000 people.[7] St. Peter's has many historical associations, with the Early Christian Church, the Papacy, the Protestant Reformation and Catholic Counter-reformation and numerous artists, especially Michelangelo. As a work of architecture, it is regarded as the greatest building of its age.[8] St. Peter's is one of the four churches in the world that hold the rank of major basilica, all four of which are in Rome. Contrary to popular misconception, it is not a cathedral because it is not the seat of a bishop; the cathedra of the pope as Bishop of Rome is at Saint John Lateran.[9]