Stainless steel

Stainless steel[1][2][3]:276 is a group of ferrous alloys that contain a minimum of approximately 11% chromium,[4]:3[5] a composition that prevents the iron from rusting and also provides heat-resistant properties.[4]:3[5][6][7][8] Different types of stainless steel include the elements carbon (from 0.03% to greater than 1.00%), nitrogen, aluminium, silicon, sulfur, titanium, nickel, copper, selenium, niobium, and molybdenum.[4]:3 Specific types of stainless steel are often designated by their AISI three-digit number, e.g., 304 stainless.[9] The ISO 15510 standard lists the chemical compositions of stainless steels of the specifications in existing ISO, ASTM, EN, JIS, and GB (Chinese) standards in a useful interchange table.[10]

Stainless steel is used for industrial equipment when it is important that the equipment lasts and can be kept clean

Stainless steel's resistance to rusting results from the presence of chromium in the alloy, which forms a passive film that protects the underlying material from corrosion attack, and can self-heal in the presence of oxygen.[4]:3 Corrosion resistance can be increased further by the following means:

  • increase chromium content to more than 11%[5]
  • add nickel to at least 8%[5]
  • add molybdenum (which also improves resistance to pitting corrosion)[5]

The addition of nitrogen also improves resistance to pitting corrosion and increases mechanical strength.[5] Thus, there are numerous grades of stainless steel with varying chromium and molybdenum contents to suit the environment the alloy must endure.[11]

Resistance to corrosion and staining, low maintenance, and familiar luster make stainless steel an ideal material for many applications where both the strength of steel and corrosion resistance are required. Moreover, stainless steel can be rolled into sheets, plates, bars, wire, and tubing. These can be used in cookware, cutlery, surgical instruments, major appliances, vehicles, construction material in large buildings, industrial equipment (e.g., in paper mills, chemical plants, water treatment), and storage tanks and tankers for chemicals and food products. The material's corrosion resistance, the ease with which it can be steam-cleaned and sterilized, and the absence of the need for surface coatings have prompted the use of stainless steel in kitchens and food processing plants.[citation needed]