Standard time (manufacturing)
In industrial engineering, the standard time
Standard time =normal time +allowance Where; normal time =avg time *rating factor. (take rating factor between 1.1 and 1.1)
Usage of the standard time
Time times for all operations are known.
- Staffing (or workforce planning): the number of workers required cannot accurately be determined unless the time required to process the existing work is known.
- Line balancing (or production leveling): the correct number of workstations for optimum work flow depends on the processing time, or standard, at each workstation.
- Materials requirement planning (MRP): MRP systems cannot operate properly without accurate work standards.
- System simulation: simulation models cannot accurately simulate operation unless times for all operations are known.
- Wage payment: comparing expected performance with actual performance requires the use of work standards.
- Cost accounting: work standards are necessary for determining not only the labor component of costs, but also the correct allocation of production costs to specific products.
- Employee evaluation: in order to assess whether individual employees are performing as well as they should, a performance standard is necessary against which to measure the level of performance.
Techniques to establish a standard time
Method of calculation
The Standard Time is the product of three factors:
- Observed time: The time measured to complete the task.
- Performance rating factor: The pace the person is working at. 90% is working slower than normal, 110% is working faster than normal, 100% is normal. This factor is calculated by an experienced worker who is trained to observe and determine the rating.
- Personal, fatigue, and delay (PFD) allowance.
- Groover 2007
- Groover 2007
- Groover, M. P. (2007). Work systems: the methods, measurement and management of work, Prentice Hall, ISBN 978-0-13-140650-6
- Salvendy, G. (Ed.) (2001). Handbook of Industrial Engineering: Technology and Operations Management, third edition, John Wiley & Sons, Hoboken, NJ.
- Zandin, K. (Ed.) (2001). Maynard's Industrial Engineering Handbook, fifth edition, McGraw-Hill, New York, NY.
- Standard Performance