A stanitsa (Russian: станица, IPA: [stɐˈnʲitsə]; Ukrainian: станиця, romanized: stanytsia) is a village inside a Cossack host (Ukrainian: військо, romanized: viysko; Russian: казачье войско, romanized: kazachye voysko, sometimes translated as "Cossack Army"). Stanitsas (Russian: станицы, romanized: stanitsy) — Cossack military settlements — were the primary unit of Cossack hosts.

While the word stanitsa survives in modern usage, the stanitsa as a social system in its historic context was effectively destroyed in the aftermath of the 1917 Russian revolution, when the Russian Civil War (1917–1922) and subsequent collectivisation (1928–1940) of the land by the state in the Stalinist period and the Holodomor (1932–1933) destroyed the culture and the economic foundations of stanitsas.

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