Star Academy


Star Academy, called Operación Triunfo ("Operation Triumph") in Spanish-speaking countries, is a highly successful television pop music talent contest with viewer voting and reality show elements.

Star Academy
Created byGestmusic [es]
Original workOperación Triunfo (Spain)
Owned byEndemol
Films and television
Television seriesStar Academy (independent international versions, see below)
Miscellaneous
First aired22 October 2001 (2001-10-22)
Official website
Production website

Format


There are many versions of the Star Academy or Operación Triunfo show, each country having its own slight variations, but the basic concept remains the same: contestants live in a boarding-school called "The Academy", managed by a director, and various teachers coach them in several artistic disciplines. The participants are filmed with cameras throughout the day and night (an idea borrowed from another of Endemol's major reality shows Big Brother). Once a week, the contestants have to face a prime time show, where they sing the song they've prepared during the week before, as well as recapping their trials and tribulations at The Academy from the past week. The live show will often feature special guest stars, with whom some of the contestants have the opportunity to sing. Based on the judges' verdicts and viewer voting, the weakest contestant is dropped. The eventual winner is awarded a record deal and usually some amount of money.

History


Location of different versions of Star Academy
  Own version
  Joint version

The public entity RTVE participated with Gestmusic, a Spanish branch of Endemol, in the development of a music program in 2001. The objective was to promote three musical careers and to find the new representative of Spain in the Eurovision Song Contest. After carrying out a series of auditions for thousands of people throughout Spain, on October 22, 2001, the first Operación Triunfo season began airing on Spanish television channel, La 1. A total of 16 contestants were candidates for the prize. Although production company Gestmusic created the format, Star Academy first premiered in France on October 20, 2001, two days before Operación Triunfo began airing in Spain.[1]

Star Academy has reached markets as different as India, the Arab World and the United States, becoming the first Spanish format ever acquired by these countries. This show is similar to the Idols franchise, but different in that it also shows the contestants' lives together in the "Academy" where they are trained; American Idol shows nothing of the contestants' personalities or relationships with each other. Star Academy is in essence a singing competition, where the lowest vote-receiver each week must leave the show, ending finally when only one person remains.

In 2011, most Star Academy series outside of Africa and the Middle East were phased out in favor of another musical competition format from Endemol, The Voice. In 2017, the series was revived in Spain after six years of absence.

Star Academy around the world


There were more than 30 franchises of Star Academy all around the world, with 103 winners. As of 2020, only the Spanish version is still in production. The French-Canadian adaptation (based on the French version) is expected to return in winter 2021.[2]

  Currently airing franchise
  Franchise awaiting confirmation
  Franchise with an unknown status
  Franchise with an upcoming season
  Franchise no longer in production
RegionLocal nameChannelWinnerMain Presenters
African
Countries
[3]
Project Fame
Website
M-Net
DStv (Live)
The Africa Channel (Broadcast in 2008)

Season 1, 2004: Lindiwe Alam

James Alexander
Vusi Twala
Arab Maghreb[4] Star Academy Maghreb
Website
Nessma TV

Season 1, 2007: Hajar Adnane

Nabila El Kilani
Arab world[5] Star Academy Arabia
Website
LBCI
CBC (starting season 9)

Season 1, 2003–2004: Mohamed Attia
Season 2, 2004–2005: Hisham Abdulrahman
Season 3, 2005–2006: Joseph Attieh
Season 4, 2006–2007: Shatha Hassoun
Season 5, 2008: Nader Guirat
Season 6, 2009: Abdulaziz Abdulrahman
Season 7, 2010: Nassif Zeytoun
Season 8, 2011: Nessma Alaa Mahgoub
Season 9, 2013–2014: Mahmoud Mohey
Season 10, 2014: Mohamed Chahine
Season 11, 2015–2016: Marwan Youssef

Hilda Khalife
 Argentina Operación Triunfo
Website
Telefe
Canal 4
DirecTV (Live) (Season 4)

Season 1, 2003: Claudio Basso
Season 2, 2004–2005: José García
Season 3, 2005–2006: Benjamín Rosales
Season 4, 2009: Cristian Manuel Soloa
Season 5, 2012–2013: F.A.N.S.[6]

Alejandro Wiebe, "Marley" (Season 1–4)
Germán Paoloski (Season 5)
 Belgium Star Academy
(Dutch)
Website
Kanaal Twee

Season 1, 2005: Katerine Avgoustakis

Walter Grootaers
Star Academy
(French)
Website
RTL-TVI

Season 1, 2002: Mélanie Martin's

Plastic Bertrand
 Bolivia La Fábrica de Estrellas - Star Academy Red Unitel

Season 1, 2016: David Soliz
Season 2, 2016: Vania Taborga

Anabel Angus
Angélica Mérida
 Brazil Fama
Website
Rede Globo
SKY (Live)

Season 1, 2002: Vanessa Jackson
Season 2, 2003: Marcus Vinícius
Season 3, 2004: Tiago Silva
Season 4, 2005: Fabio Souza

Angélica Ksyvickis (Season 1–4)
Toni Garrido (Season 1-2)

 Bulgaria Star Academy
Website
Nova Television
Nova+ (Live)
CableTel (Live)
Season 1, 2005: Marin Yonchev Maria Ilieva
 Canada
 Quebec
Star Académie
Website
TVA

Season 1, 2003: Wilfred Le Bouthillier
Season 2, 2004: Stéphanie Lapointe
Season 3, 2005: Marc-André Fortin
Season 4, 2009: Maxime Landry
Season 5, 2012: Jean-Marc Couture
Season 6, 2021: Current season[2]

Julie Snyder (Season 1–5)

Patrice Michaud (Season 6–)[7]

 Chile Operación Triunfo
Website
Mega

Season 1, 2003: Mónica Rodríguez[8]

Álvaro Escobar

East Africa[9] Tusker Project Fame
Website
M-Net (Africa) (Season 1)
NTV (Season 1)
Citizen TV (Season 2–5)
RTNB (Season 5)
Channel 10 (Season 1)
StarTV (Season 2–3, 5)

TBC (Season 4)
UBC (Season 1, 4)
WBS (Season 2–3)
NTV (Season 5)
Rwanda TV (Season 3–5)
SSTV (Season 4)
Channel 146 (Season 5)

Season 1, 2006: Valerie Kimani
Season 2, 2008: Esther Nabaasa Mugizi
Season 3, 2009: Alpha Rwirangira
Season 4, 2010: Davis Hillary Ntare
Season 5, 2012: Ruth Matete

Gaetano Kagwa (Season 1)
Fumnilayo Raimi (Season 2)
Mich Egwang (Season 3–5)
Sheila Mwanyigah (Season 3–5)
Tusker All-Stars
(All-Stars Format)

Season 1, 2011: Davis Ntare, Peter Msechu & Alpha Rwirangira

Gaetano Kagwa
Eve D'Souza
 France Star Academy
Website
TF1 (Season 1–8)
NRJ 12 (Season 9)

Season 1, 2001–2002: Jenifer Bartoli
Season 2, 2002: Nolwenn Leroy
Season 3, 2003: Élodie Frégé
Season 4, 2004: Grégory Lemarchal
Season 5, 2005: Magalie Vaé
Season 6, 2006: Cyril Cinélu
Season 7, 2007–2008: Quentin Mosimann
Season 8, 2008: Mickels Réa
Season 9, 2012–2013: Laurène Bourvon

Níkos Aliágas (Season 1–8)
Mathieu Delormeau (Season 9)
Tonya Kinzinger (Season 9)
 Georgia ვარსკვლავების აკადემია
Varskvlavebis Akademia
Website
Rustavi 2

Season 1, 2008: Dito Lagvilava
Season 2, 2009: Cancelled[10]

Sopho Khalvashi
Giorgi Qorqia
 Germany Fame Academy
Website
RTL II
Tele 5
MTV2 Pop

Season 1, 2003–2004: Become One[11]

Nova Meierhenrich
 Greece Fame Story ANT1
Open TV
  • Season 6, 2021: Upcoming season
  • TBA (6–)
Star Academy - Super Star Academy
Website
Epsilon TV
Plus Channel Cyprus
  • Menios Fourthiotis
    (5)
 Hungary Star Academy Magyaroszag
Website
TV2

Season 1, 2016: Renáta Szőcs

Majka
Nóra Ördög
 India Fame Gurukul
Website
SET India

Season 1, 2005: Qazi Touqeer & Ruprekha Banerjee

Mandira Bedi (Season 1-Celebrity)
Manav Gohil (Season 1-Celebrity)
Sophie Choudry (Season 2)

Shilpa Sakhlani (Season 2)

Celebrity Fame Gurukul
(Celebrity Format)
Website

Season 1, 2005: Amit Sareen

Fame X Chal Udiye

Website

SAB TV Season 2, 2006–2007: Rehan Khan
 Italy Operazione Trionfo
Website
Italia 1

Season 1, 2002: Bruno Cuomo

Miguel Bosé
Star Academy
Website
Rai 2

Season 1, 2011: Cancelled[12]

Francesco Facchinetti
 Kazakhstan Жұлдыздар фабрикасы
Juldizdar Fabrikasi

Website
TV7

Season 1, 2011: Alisher Egemberdiev

 Mexico Operación Triunfo
Website
Televisa
(Live)

Season 1, 2002: Darina Márquez

Jaime Camil

 Mongolia Оддын академи
Oddin akademi
Edutainment TV Season 1, 2017: The Wasabies[6]
 Netherlands Star Maker
Website
Yorin

Season 1, 2001: K-otic[13]

Gijs Staverman
Star Academy

Season 2, 2002: Cancelled[14]

Danny Rook
 Peru Operación Triunfo
Website
América Televisión

Season 1, 2012: Mayra Alejandra Goñi

Gisela Valcárcel
 Philippines Pinoy Dream Academy
Website
ABS-CBN
Studio 23

Season 1, 2006: Yeng Constantino
Season 2, 2008: Laarni Lozada

Nikki Gil (Season 1–2)
Toni Gonzaga (Season 1–2)
Bianca Gonzalez (Season 1)
Sam Milby (Season 1)
Roxanne Barcelo (Season 1)
Billy Crawford (Season 2)

Pinoy Dream Academy: Little Dreamers
(Kids Format)

Season 1, 2008: Philip Nolasco

 Poland Fabryka Gwiazd
Website
Polsat

Season 1, 2008: Martyna Melosik

Maciej Rock
 Portugal[15] Academia de Estrelas
Website
TVI

Season 1, 2002–03: Mané Crestejo

Teresa Guilherme
Academia de Famosos
(Celebrity Format)
Website

Season 1, 2003: Romana

Paulo Pires
Fernanda Serrano
Operação Triunfo
Website
RTP

Season 1, 2003: Sofia Barbosa
Season 2, 2003–04: Sofia Vitória
Season 3, 2007–08: Vânia Fernandes
Season 4, 2010–11: Jorge Roque

Catarina Furtado (Seasons 1–2)
Sílvia Alberto (Seasons 3–4)
 Romania Star Factory
Website
Prima TV

Season 1, 2003–2004: Alex Velea

Laura Iordache
Virgil Ianțu
Fabrica de Staruri
Website
Website
Prime TV
2 Plus
TVR1

Season 1, 2008–2009: Alexandru Manciu
Season 2, 2010: Alexandru Belenki
Season 3, 2012: Alexandru Mataev

Andreea Raicu (Season 1)
Dan Negru (Season 2)
Marius Vizante (Season 3)
 Russia Фабрика звёзд
Fabrika zvyozd

Website
Channel One

Season 1, 2002: Pasha Artemyev[16]
Season 2, 2003: Polina Gagarina
Season 3, 2003: Nikita Malinin
Season 4, 2004: Irina Dubtsova
Season 5, 2004: Victoria Dayneko
Season 6, 2006: Dmitry Koldun
Season 7, 2007: Anastasiya Prikhodko

Yana Churikova
Фабрика звёзд. Возвращение
Fabrika Zvyozd. Vozvrachtcheniè

(All-Stars Format)
Website

Season 1, 2011: Victoria Dayneko

Yana Churikova
Фабрика звёзд. Россия-Украина
Fabrika Zvyozd. Rossiya-Ukrayina

(All-Stars Format)
Website
Channel One
Novyi Kanal

Season 1, 2012: Russia

Yana Churikova
Dmitry Shepelyov
Новая Фабрика звёзд
Novaya Fabrika zvyozd

Website
Muz-TV

Season 1, 2017: Guzel Hasanova

Ksenia Sobchak
 Spain
Operación Triunfo
Website
TVE (Seasons 1–3, 9–11)
Telecinco (Seasons 4–8)
TBC (Season 12)

Season 1, 2001–2002: Rosa López
Season 2, 2002–2003: Ainhoa Cantalapiedra
Season 3, 2003–2004: Vicente Seguí
Season 4, 2005: Sergio Rivero
Season 5, 2006–2007: Lorena Gómez
Season 6, 2008: Virginia Maestro
Season 7, 2009: Mario Álvarez
Season 8, 2011: Nahuel Sachak
Season 9, 2017–2018: Amaia Romero
Season 10, 2018: Famous Oberogo
Season 11, 2020: Nía Correia
Season 12, 2021: Upcoming season[17]

 Turkey Akademi Türkiye
Website
ATV

Season 1, 2004: Barış Akarsu

Öykü Serter
Star Akademi Türkiye
Website
Kanal 1

Season 2, 2008: Bahadır Sağlam

Star Akademi
Website
Star TV

Season 3, 2011: Giray Songül

 Ukraine Фабрика зірок
Fabrika Zirok

Website
Novyi Kanal

Season 1, 2007–2008: Olga Tsibulska & Alexander Bodyansky
Season 2, 2008: Vladimir Dantes & Vadim Oleynik
Season 3, 2009: Stas Shurins
Season 4, 2011: Yulia Rudneva

Andriy Domansky (Season 1, 3)
Dmitry Shepelev (Season 2)
Vasilisa Frolova (Season 1)
Masha Efrosinina (Season 3)
Oleksandr Pedan (Season 4)
Erika (Season 4)
Фабрика Суперфiнал
Fabrika Superfinal

(All-Stars Format)

Season 1, 2010: Oleksiy Matias

Masha Efrosinina

 United Kingdom Fame Academy
Website
BBC One
BBC Three

Season 1, 2002: David Sneddon
Season 2, 2003: Alex Parks

Cat Deeley
Patrick Kielty

Comic Relief Does Fame Academy
(Celebrity Format)

Season 1, 2003: Will Mellor
Season 2, 2005: Edith Bowman
Season 3, 2007: Tara Palmer-Tomkinson

Cat Deeley (Seasons 1–2)
Patrick Kielty (Seasons 1–3)
Claudia Winkleman (Season 3)

Fame Academy Bursary

Season 1, 2003: Vishal Gopal
Season 2, 2003: Shona Kipling
Season 3, 2003: Daniel Allinson
Season 4, 2003: Daniel Powell
Season 5, 2003: David Rimbault

N/A
 United States The One: Making a Music Star
Website
ABC
CBC

Season 1, 2006: Cancelled[18]

George Stroumboulopoulos
 Vietnam Star Academy: Ngôi nhà âm nhạc
Website
HTV

Season 1, 2012: Phạm Quốc Huy

Yến Trang
Tuấn Tú
Star Academy Vietnam: Học viện ngôi sao
Website
VTV

Season 1, 2014: Hoà Nguyễn (Hoà Minzy)
Season 2, 2015: Nguyễn Ngọc Thảo Nhi

Dustin Nguyễn
Tú Linh
West Africa[19] Project Fame West Africa
Website
TV3 (Season 1–3)
Metro TV (Season 4–present)
Clare TV (Season 1–3, 5–present)
SKY TV (Season 4)
AIT (Season 1–5)
GET TV (Season 5–present)
MiTV
NTA
Nigerzie
ONTV
Silverbird
SoundCity
ABC TV (Season 1–3)
SLBC (Season 4–5)

Season 1, 2008: Iyanya Mbuk
Season 2, 2009: Mike Anyasodo
Season 3, 2010: Chidinma Ekile
Season 4, 2011: Monica Ogah
Season 5, 2012: Ayobami Ayoola
Season 6, 2013: Olawale Ayodele
Season 7, 2014: Geoffrey Oji
Season 8, 2015: Jeffery Akor
Season 9, 2016: Okiemute Ighorodje

Dare Art Alade (Season 1)
Funlola Raimi (Season 1)
Joseph Benjamin (Season 2-present)
Adaora Oleh (Season 2–6)
Bolanle Olukanni (Season 7-9)

Western Balkans[20]
Операција триумф
Operacija Trijumf

Website
B92
Nova TV
TV In
FTV/RTRS
A1 TV

Season 1, 2008–2009: Adnan Babajić

Ana Mihajlovski
Nikolina Pišek
Milan Kalinić
Maca Marinković

Star Academy hymns, official themes


RegionLocal nameHymn
African
Countries
[3]
Project Fame
Website
Arab Maghreb[4] Star Academy Maghreb
Website
Lili Twil (Long nights)
Arab world[5] Star Academy Arabia
Website
 Argentina Operación Triunfo
Website
Season 1-3: Canta (Sing)
 Belgium Star Academy Flanders
(Dutch)
Website
Fame
Star Academy Wallonia
(French)
Website
Star
 Bolivia La Fábrica de Estrellas - Star Academy
 Brazil FAMA
Website
Season 1: Dom Verdadeiro (True Gift)
 Bulgaria Star Academy
Website
Fame
 Canada
 Quebec
Star Académie
Website

Season 1: Et c'est pas fini (And it's not over)

 Chile Operación Triunfo
Website
El cielo puedes alcanzar (You can reach the heaven)
East Africa[9] Tusker Project Fame
Website
 France Star Academy
Website
Season 1: La Musique (The music)
Season 2: Paris Latino
Season 3: La bamba
Season 4: Laissez Moi Danser (Let me dance)
 Georgia ვარსკვლავების აკადემია
Varskvlavebis Akademia
Website
 Germany Fame Academy
Website
Fame
 Greece Fame Story Season 1: You can be a star
Star Academy - Super Star Academy
Website
 Hungary Star Academy Magyaroszag
Website
 India Fame Gurukul
Website
Fame X Chal Udiye

Website

 Italy Operazione Trionfo
Website
Star Academy
Website
 Kazakhstan Жұлдыздар фабрикасы
Juldizdar Fabrikasi

Website
 Mexico Operación Triunfo
Website
Déjame Volar (Let me fly)
Mi música es tu voz (My music is your voice)
 Mongolia Оддын академи
Oddin akademi
 Netherlands Star Maker
Website

Miracles by Jessica Folker

Star Academy "A Day Without You" [Main Mix] by Kristine Blond
 Peru Operación Triunfo
Website
Que cante tu corazón (Let your heart sing)
 Philippines Pinoy Dream Academy
Website
Pinoy Dream Academy (Theme)
 Poland Fabryka Gwiazd
Website
 Portugal[15] Academia de Estrelas
Website
Alma na voz (Soul in voice)
Operação Triunfo
Website
Season 1: Acreditar (To Believe)
Season 2: Sou quem eu quiser (I'm whoever I want)
 Romania Star Factory
Website
Fabrica de Staruri
Website
Website
 Russia Фабрика звёзд
Fabrika zvyozd

Website
Season 1-7: Круто ты попал на тв (Cool you got on tv)
Новая Фабрика звёзд
Novaya Fabrika zvyozd

Website
 Spain
Operación Triunfo
Website
Season 1: Mi música es tu voz (My music is your voice)
Season 2: La fuerza de la vida (The force of life); Un segundo en el camino (A second on the road)
Season 5: Adelante (Go ahead)
Season 6: Agua (Water)
Season 7: Te doy todo (I give you everything); Música (Music)
Season 9: Camina (Walk)
Season 10: Somos (We are)
 Turkey Akademi Türkiye
Website
Star Akademi Türkiye
Website
Star Akademi
Website
 Ukraine Фабрика зірок
Fabrika Zirok

Website
Season 1-4: Гимн Фабрики зірок (Hymn of Фабрики зірок)
 United Kingdom Fame Academy
Website
 United States The One: Making a Music Star
Website
 Vietnam Star Academy: Ngôi nhà âm nhạc
Website
Star Academy Vietnam: Học viện ngôi sao
Website
West Africa[19] Project Fame West Africa
Website

Western Balkans[20]
Операција триумф
Operacija Trijumf

Website
Himna Akademije (Academy Hymn)

Parodies of Star Academy


  • Mexico: Aperración al Triunfo
  • France: StarLoose Academy, Vedette de Star
  • Greece: Super Star Academy

Special concerts of Star Academy


Country Concert Winner
 Spain "Gala de los ganadores" (The Winners Gala) No winners
 France EUROBEST Chenoa (from Spain)
 France WORLDBEST Elodie (from France)

EUROBEST

Country Contestant Song
 Spain Chenoa (finalist of Operación Triunfo 1) "It's Raining Men"
 Belgium Mélanie Martin's "Like a Prayer"
 United Kingdom Lemar (finalist of Fame Academy 1) "With or Without You"
 Portugal Mané Crestejo and Lília Matos "Sussudio"
 Greece Notis Christodoulou "1,2,3… Maria"
 France Nolwenn Leroy "I Will Always Love You"
 Netherlands Sita Vermeulen "All I Wanna Do"
 Russia Korni "We Will Rock You"
 Italy Bruno Cuomo "Sorry Seems to Be the Hardest Word"

"Gala de los ganadores" (The winners gala)

Country Contestant Song
 Spain Ainhoa Cantalapiedra "Sobreviviré"
 Mexico Darina Márquez "Mujer contra mujer"
 Brazil Vanessa Jackson "De volta pra mim"
 Italy Bruno Cuomo "L'atmosfera"

WORLDBEST

Country Contestant Song
 Spain Miguel and Davinia (Operación Triunfo 3's finalists) "As"
 Argentina Emanuel (finalist of Operación Triunfo 1) "Feel"
 United Kingdom Alistair (Fame Academy 2's finalist) "Everything I do"
 Brazil Nalanda (finalist of FAMA 1) "Whenever"
 Chile Mónica Rodríguez "Lady marmalade"
 France Elodie Frégé "S'il suffisait d'aimer"
 Lebanon Bruno (Star Academy 1) "The cup of life"
 Russia Yulia Savicheva(finalist of Fabrika Zvezd 2) "Thorn"
 Mexico Darina Márquez "Hero"
 Canada Wilfred Le Bouthillier and Marie-Elaine "Turn around"
 Germany Become One "Fame"

See also


Notes and references


Notes:

  1. "Second season of Star Academy TV show starts". VTV. August 18, 2015.
  2. "Star Académie de retour à l'hiver 2021 sur les ondes de TVA". TVA Nouvelles. Retrieved August 23, 2019.
  3. Pan regional version with 11 African countries involved: Botswana, Ghana, Kenya, Malawi, Namibia, Nigeria, South Africa, Tanzania, Uganda, Zambia and Zimbabwe.
  4. Adaptation for the Maghreb area. Countries taking part: Tunisia, Algeria, Libya and Morocco.
  5. Arab world version, with 19 contestants chosen from the Arab world countries taking part in it (watching, voting and/or with a contestant): Algeria, Bahrain, Egypt, Iraq, Jordan, Kuwait, Lebanon, Libya, Morocco, Oman, Palestine, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, Sudan, Syria, Tunisia, UAE and Yemen.
  6. The exclusive edition for women had the mission of forming a group with the contestants.
  7. Roy, Marie-Josée R., Patrice Michaud animera les galas de "Star Académie", retrieved September 22, 2020
  8. Mónica Rodríguez was chosen as the winner by the jury, however César Ávila was the most voted by the public.
  9. Joint version with contestants from Burundi, Kenya, Rwanda, Sudan, Tanzania and Uganda.
  10. The five-storey building housing Georgia's "Star Academy" collapsed on April 26, 2009, during production of the show's second season. Two people on the production staff were killed, and the series was cancelled out of respect to those that were affected by the collapse. There were eight contestants that were remaining in the competition at the time of the show's cancellation.
  11. (resulting six-member band).
  12. Rai 2 cancelled the show in October 2011 due to poor ratings. Therefore, the season finale never aired, and no results were announced.
  13. Resulting a seven-member band.
  14. Yorin cancelled the series in March 2002, citing low viewing figures. No results were announced at the time of the show's cancellation.
  15. Endemol produced two versions for each channel.
  16. Pasha Artemyev decided to share the award with the other finalists and to create the band Korni.
  17. "¿Cuánto habrá que pagar para ver OT? Los secretos de la próxima edición". merca2.es (in Spanish). June 15, 2020. Retrieved June 15, 2020.
  18. ABC cancelled the series after four episodes due to low ratings, and no results were announced. There were ten contestants remaining in the competition at the time of the show's cancellation.
  19. Joint version with contestants from Ghana, Liberia, Nigeria and Sierra Leone.
  20. Joint version with contestants from Serbia, Croatia, Montenegro, Bosnia and Herzegovina and Macedonia.