State Peace and Development Council

The State Peace and Development Council (Burmese: နိုင်ငံတော် အေးချမ်းသာယာရေး နှင့် ဖွံ့ဖြိုးရေး ကောင်စီ [nàɪɰ̃ŋàɰ̃dɔ̀ ʔédʑáɰ̃θàjajé n̥ḭɰ̃ pʰʊ̰ɰ̃bjó jé kaʊ̀ɰ̃sì]; abbreviated SPDC or နအဖ, [na̰ʔa̰pʰa̰]) was the official name of the military government of Burma, which seized power under the rule of Saw Maung in 1988. On 30 March 2011, Senior General and Council Chairman Than Shwe signed a decree that officially dissolved the Council.[1]

Union of Burma
ပြည်ထောင်စုမြန်မာနိုင်ငံ
Pyidaunzu Myăma Nainngandaw
(1988–1989)
Union of Myanmar
ပြည်ထောင်စုမြန်မာနိုင်ငံ
Pyidaunzu Myăma Nainngandaw
(1989–2008)
Republic of the Union of Myanmar
ပြည်ထောင်စု သမ္မတ မြန်မာနိုင်ငံတော်‌
Pyidaunzu Thanmăda Myăma Nainngandaw
(2008–2011)
1988–2011
Anthem: Kaba Ma Kyei
Till the End of the World
CapitalRangoon (Yangon)
(1988–2006)
Naypyidaw
(2006–2011)
Largest cityYangon
Official languagesBurmese
Religion
Buddhism
GovernmentUnitary parliamentary republic under military junta (de jure)
Unitary parliamentary republic under military dictatorship (de facto)
Chairman 
 1988–1992
Saw Maung
 1992–2011
Than Shwe
Vice-Chairman 
 1988–1992
Than Shwe
 1992–2011
Maung Aye
Prime Minister 
 1988–1992 (first)
Saw Maung
 1992–2003
Than Shwe
 2003–2004
Khin Nyunt
 2004–2007
Soe Win
 2007–2011 (last)
Thein Sein
LegislatureNone (probably outlawed)
Historical eraCold War
18 September 1988
20 July 1989
23 July 1997
15 August 2007
10 May 2008
 Elections
7 November 2010
 Aung San Suu Kyi released
13 November 2010
 SPDC dissolved
30 March 2011
Area
1988676,578 km2 (261,228 sq mi)
HDI (2011)0.526
low
CurrencyKyat
Calling code95
ISO 3166 codeMM
Preceded by
Succeeded by
Socialist Republic of the Union of Burma
Myanmar
Today part ofMyanmar

From 1988 to 1997, the SPDC was known as the State Law and Order Restoration Council (Burmese: နိုင်ငံတော် ငြိမ်ဝပ်ပိပြားမှု တည်ဆောက်ရေးအဖွဲ့; abbreviated SLORC or နဝတ), which had replaced the Burma Socialist Programme Party.[2] In 1997, SLORC was abolished and reconstituted as the State Peace and Development Council (SPDC). The powerful regional military commanders, who were members of SLORC, were promoted to new positions and transferred to the capital of Rangoon (now Yangon). The new regional military commanders were not included in the membership of the SPDC.

The SPDC consisted of eleven senior military officers. The members of the junta[3] wielded a great deal more power than the cabinet ministers, who were either more-junior military officers or civilians. The exception was the Defence Ministry portfolio, which was in the hands of junta leader Than Shwe himself. On 15 September 1993, it established the Union Solidarity and Development Association which was replaced by Union Solidarity and Development Party in 29 March 2010 in time for the elections.

Although the regime retreated from the totalitarian Burmese Way to Socialism of BSPP when it took power in 1988, the regime was widely accused of human rights abuses. It rejected the 1990 election results and kept Aung San Suu Kyi under house arrest until her release on 13 November 2010.[4] The council was officially dissolved on 30 March 2011, with the inauguration of the newly elected government, led by its former member and Prime Minister, President Thein Sein.[5]