Greater Sudbury

Sudbury, officially Greater Sudbury (French: Grand Sudbury), is a city in Ontario, Canada. It is the largest city in Northern Ontario by population, with a population of 161,531 at the 2016 Canadian Census.[5] By land area, it is the largest in Ontario and the fifth largest in Canada. It is administratively a unitary authority and thus is not part of any district, county, or regional municipality. The City of Greater Sudbury is separate from but entirely surrounded by Sudbury District.

Greater Sudbury
Grand-Sudbury  (French)
City of Greater Sudbury
Ville de Grand-Sudbury (French)
Downtown Sudbury
(Latin for "Come, let us build together")
Greater Sudbury
Location of Greater Sudbury in Canada
Coordinates: 46°34′40″N 81°04′10″W[3]
Incorporated (Town)1893 (as Sudbury)
Re-Incorporated (City)1930 (as Sudbury)
 2001 (as Greater Sudbury)
  MayorBrian Bigger
  Governing BodyGreater Sudbury City Council
  MPsPaul Lefebvre (Liberal)
Marc Serré (Liberal)
  MPPsFrance Gélinas (NDP)
Jamie West (NDP)
  City (single-tier)3,228.35 km2 (1,246.47 sq mi)
75.93 km2 (29.32 sq mi)
3,924.48 km2 (1,515.25 sq mi)
347.5 m (1,140.1 ft)
  City (single-tier)161,531 (29th)
  Density49.7/km2 (129/sq mi)
  Urban density1,159.7/km2 (3,004/sq mi)
164,689 (24th)
  Metro density49.5/km2 (128/sq mi)
Time zoneUTC−05:00 (EST)
  Summer (DST)UTC−04:00 (EDT)
Forward sortation area
Area code(s)705/249
Telephone exchanges705–207, 222, 280, 396, 397, 479, 507, 521, 522, 523, 524, 525, 546, 547, 550, 551, 552, 553, 554, 556, 560, 561, 562, 564, 566, 585, 596, 618, 626, 662, 664, 665, 669, 670, 671, 673, 674, 675, 677, 682, 688, 690, 691, 692, 693, 694, 695, 698, 699, 805, 822, 853, 855, 858, 866, 867, 897, 898, 899, 919, 920, 929, 966, 967, 969, 983 249-810, 878
Highways Highway 17 / TCH
Highway 400 / TCH
Highway 144
GDP (Greater Sudbury CMA)CA$9.0 billion (2016)[7]
GDP per capita (Greater Sudbury CMA)CA$54,491 (2016)

The Sudbury region was inhabited by the Ojibwe people of the Algonquin group for thousands of years prior to the founding of Sudbury after the discovery of nickel ore in 1883 during the construction of the transcontinental railway.[8] Greater Sudbury was formed in 2001 by merging the cities and towns of the former Regional Municipality of Sudbury with several previously unincorporated townships. Being located inland, the local climate is extremely seasonal, with average January lows of around −18 °C (0 °F) and average July highs of 25 °C (77 °F).[9]

The population resides in an urban core and many smaller communities scattered around 330 lakes and among hills of rock blackened by historical smelting activity. Sudbury was once a major lumber centre and a world leader in nickel mining. Mining and related industries dominated the economy for much of the 20th century. The two major mining companies which shaped the history of Sudbury were Inco, now Vale Limited, which employed more than 25% of the population by the 1970s, and Falconbridge, now Glencore. Sudbury has since expanded from its resource-based economy to emerge as the major retail, economic, health, and educational centre for Northeastern Ontario. Sudbury is also home to a large Franco-Ontarian population, which influences its arts and culture.