Summer solstice

The summer solstice, also called the estival solstice[7] or midsummer, occurs when one of Earth's poles has its maximum tilt toward the Sun. It happens twice yearly, once in each hemisphere (Northern and Southern). For that hemisphere, the summer solstice is the day with the longest period of daylight and shortest night of the year, when the Sun is at its highest position in the sky. Within the Arctic circle (for the Northern hemisphere) or Antarctic circle (for the Southern), there is continuous daylight around the summer solstice. The opposite event is the winter solstice.

UT date and time of
equinoxes and solstices on Earth[1][2]
event equinox solstice equinox solstice
month March[3] June[4] September[5] December[6]
year daytime daytime daytime daytime
2018 2016:152110:072301:542122:22
2019 2021:582115:542307:502204:19
2020 2003:502021:432213:312110:03
2021 2009:372103:322219:212115:59
2022 2015:332109:142301:042121:48
2023 2021:252114:582306:502203:28
2024 2003:072020:512212:442109:20
2025 2009:022102:422218:202115:03
2026 2014:462108:252300:062120:50
2027 2020:252114:112306:022202:43
2028 2002:172020:022211:452108:20
Earth during the summer solstice in June 2017

The summer solstice occurs during summer.[8] This is the June solstice (usually 20 or 21 June) in the Northern hemisphere[9][10] and the December solstice (usually 21 or 22 December) in the Southern.[11] On the summer solstice, Earth's maximum axial tilt toward the Sun is 23.44°.[12] Likewise, the Sun's declination from the celestial equator is 23.44°.

Since prehistory, the summer solstice has been seen as a significant time of year in many cultures, and has been marked by festivals and rituals. Traditionally, in many temperate regions (especially Europe), the summer solstice is seen as the middle of summer and referred to as "midsummer"; although today in some countries and calendars it is seen as the beginning of summer.

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