Talysh language

The Talysh language, also referred to as Talyshi (Talysh: tolışi, толыши[3][4]), is a Northwestern Iranian language spoken in the northern regions of the Iranian provinces of Gilan and Ardabil and the southern regions of the Republic of Azerbaijan by around 200,000 people. Talysh language is closely related to the Tati language. It includes many dialects usually divided into three main clusters: Northern (in Azerbaijan and Iran), Central (Iran) and Southern (Iran). Talysh is partially, but not fully, intelligible with Persian. Talysh is classified as "vulnerable" by UNESCO's Atlas of the World's Languages in Danger.[5]

tolışi zıvon
толышә зывон
زبان تالشی
Native toIran
RegionWestern and Southwestern Caspian Sea coastal strip
Native speakers
218,100 (2011–2014)[1]
Arabic script (Persian alphabet) in Iran
Latin script in Azerbaijan
Cyrillic script in Russia
Official status
Regulated byAcademy of Persian Language and Literature[citation needed]
Language codes
ISO 639-3tly
This article contains IPA phonetic symbols. Without proper rendering support, you may see question marks, boxes, or other symbols instead of Unicode characters. For an introductory guide on IPA symbols, see Help:IPA.


The origin of the name Talysh is not clear but is likely to be quite old. The name of the people appears in early Arabic sources as Al-Taylasân and in Persian as Tâlišân and Tavâliš, which are plural forms of Tâliš. Northern Talysh (in the Republic of Azerbaijan) was historically known as Tâlish-i Guštâsbi. Talysh has always been mentioned with Gilan or Muqan. Writing in the 1330s AP, Hamdallah Mostowfi calls the language of Gushtaspi (covering the Caspian border region between Gilan to Shirvan) a Pahlavi language connected to the language of Gilan.[6] Although there are no confirmed records, the language called in Iranian linguistics as Azari can be the antecedent of both Talysh and Tati. Miller’s (1953) hypothesis that the Âzari of Ardabil, as appears in the quatrains of Shaikh Safi, was a form of Talysh was confirmed by Henning (1954).[7][8] In western literature the people and the language are sometimes referred to as Talishi, Taleshi or Tolashi. Generally speaking, written documents about Taleshi are rare.


In the north of Iran, there are six cities where Talysh is spoken: Masal, Rezvanshar, Talesh, Fuman, Shaft, and Masuleh (in these cities some people speak Gilaki and Turkish as well). The only towns where Talysh is spoken exclusively are the townships of Masal and Masuleh. In other cities, in addition to Talysh, people speak Gilaki and Azerbaijani. In Azerbaijan there are eight cities were Talysh is spoken[citation needed]: Astara (98%), Lerik (90%), Lenkoran (90%), Masalli (36%).[citation needed][clarification needed]

Talysh has been under the influence of Gilaki, Azeri Turkic, and Persian. In the south (Taleshdula, Masal, Shanderman, and Fumanat) the Talysh and Gilaks live side by side; however, there are less evidence that a Talysh family replaces Gilaki with its own language. In this region the relation is more of a contribution to each other's language. In the north of Gilan, on the other hand, Azeri Turkic has replaced Talysh in cities like Astara after the migration of Turkic speakers to the region decades ago. However, the people around Lavandvil and its mountainous regions has retained Talysh. Behzad Behzadi, the author of "Azerbaijani Persian Dictionary" remarks that: "The inhabitants of Astara are Talyshis and in fifty years ago (about 1953) that I remember the elders of our family spoke in that language and the great majority of dwellers also conversed in Talyshi. In the surrounding villages, a few were familiar with Turkic".[9] From around Lisar up to Hashtpar, Azeri and Talysh live side by side, with the latter mostly spoken in small villages. To the south of Asalem, the influence of Azeri is negligible and the tendency is towards Persian along with Talysh in cities. In the Azerbaijan republic, Talysh is less under the influence of Azeri and Russian than Talysh in Iran is affected by Persian.[10] Central Talysh has been considered the purest of all Talysh dialects.[8]

Classification and related languages

Talysh belongs to the Northwestern Iranian branch of Indo-European languages. The living language most closely related to Talysh is Tati. The Tati group of dialects is spoken across the Talysh range in the southwest[clarification needed] (Kajal and Shahrud) and south (Tarom).[8] This Tatic family should not be confused with another Tat family which is more related to Persian. Talysh also shares many features and structures with Zazaki, now spoken in Turkey, and the Caspian languages and Semnani of Iran.


The division of Talysh into three clusters is based on lexical, phonological and grammatical factors.[11] Northern Talysh distinguishes itself from Central and Southern Talysh not only geographically but culturally and linguistically as well. Speakers of Northern Talysh are found almost exclusively in the Republic of Azerbaijan but can also be found in the neighboring regions of Iran, in the Province of Gilan. The varieties of Talysh spoken in the Republic of Azerbaijan are best described as speech varieties rather than dialects. Four speech varieties are generally identified on the basis of phonetic and lexical differences. These are labeled according to the four major political districts in the Talysh region: Astara, Lankaran, Lerik, and Masalli. The differences between the varieties are minimal at the phonetic [12] and lexical level.[3] Mamedov (1971) suggests a more useful dialectal distinction is one between the varieties spoken in the mountains and those spoken in the plains. The morphosyntax of Northern Talysh is characterized by a complicated split system which is based on the Northwest Iranian type of accusativity/ergativity dichotomy: it shows accusative features with present-stem-based transitive constructions, whereas past-stem-based constructions tend towards an ergative behavior.[13] In distant regions like Lavandevil and Masuleh, the dialects differ to such a degree that conversations begin to be difficult.[10] In Iran, the northern dialect is in danger of extinction.

The major dialects of Talysh
Northern (in Azerbaijan Republic and in Iran (Ardabil and Gilan provinces) from Anbaran to Lavandevil) including: Central (in Iran (Gilan province) from Haviq to Taleshdula/Rezvanshahr district) Including: Southern (in Iran from Khushabar to Fumanat) including:
Astara, Lankaran, Lerik, Masalli, Karaganrud/Khotbesara, Lavandevil Taleshdula, Asalem, Tularud Khushabar, Shanderman, Masuleh, Masal, Siahmazgar

Some Northern dialects' differences

The northern dialect has some salient differences from the central and southern dialects, e.g.:[10]

Taleshdulaei Example Lankarani Example Meaning
xxetēhhto sleep

Alignment variation

The durative marker "ba" in Taleshdulaei changes to "da" in Lankarani and shifts in between the stem and person suffixes:
ba-žē-mun → žē-da-mun

Such a diversification exists in each dialect too, as in the case of Masali[14]


The following is the Northern Talysh dialect:


Bilabial Labio-
Alveolar Post-
Velar Glottal
Plosive voiceless p t k
voiced b d ɡ
Affricate voiceless
Fricative voiceless f s ʃ x h
voiced v z ʒ ɣ
Nasal m n
Trill r
Approximant l j


Front Central Back
High i ~ ɪ (ɨ) u
Mid e ə o ~ ɔ
Low a ~ æ ɑ
  • [ʏ] only occurs in free variation with /u/, whereas /a/ is often palatalized as [æ].
  • [ɪ, ɨ, ɔ] are heard as allophones of /i, ə, o/.
  • Vowel sounds followed by a nasal consonant, /_nC/, often tend to be nasalized.[15]


The vowel system in Talysh is more extended than in standard Persian. The prominent differences are the front vowel ü in central and northern dialects and the central vowel ə.[8] In 1929, a Latin-based alphabet was created for Talysh in the Soviet Union. However, in 1938 it was changed to Cyrillic-based, but it did not gain extensive usage for a variety of reasons, including political Stalinist consolidation of socialist nations. An orthography based on Azeri Latin is used in Azerbaijan,[4] and also in Iranian sources, for example on the IRIB's ParsToday website.[16] The Perso-Arabic script is also used in Iran, although publications in the language are rare and are mostly volumes of poetry.[17] The following tables contain the vowels and consonants used in Talysh. The sounds of the letters on every row, pronounced in each language, may not correspond fully.


IPA 1929–1938 ISO 9 Perso-Arabic script KNAB (199x(2.0)) Cyrillic Other Romanization Example(s)
ɑːaaآ, اaаââv
a ~ æaَ, اَǝәa, äasta
əә- ِ, اِ or َ, اَəəe, aesa
ee ِ, اِeеenemek
o ~ ɔooا, ُ, وoоošalvo
uuuاو, وuуuudmi
ʏu-او, وüуüsalü, kü, düri, Imrü
ɪ ~ iъyای, یıыibila
iiای, یiиi, ịneči, xist
Notes: ISO 9 standardization is dated 1995. 2.0 KNAB romanization is based on the Azeri Latin.[18]


IPA Perso-Arabic script Romanization Example(s)
ɑːɪآی, ایâi, âybâyl, dây
æɪاَیai, ayayvona, ayr
ouاُوow, aukow
اِیey, ei, ay, aikeybânu
æːəاَahzuah, soahvona, buah, yuahnd, kuah, kuahj
eːəاِehâdueh, sueh, danue'eh
ɔʏاُیoydoym, doymlavar


IPA 1929–1938 ISO 9 Perso-Arabic script KNAB (199x(2.0)) Cyrillic Other Romanization Example(s)
tttت, طtтttiž
c, çčچçчch, č, cčâki
jĉجcҹj, ĵjâr
sssس, ص, ثsсssavz
zzzز, ذ, ض, ظzзzzeng
hhه, حhһhhaka
------xâlâ, avâla, dalâ, domlavar, dalaza
jyjیyјy, jyânza
Notes: ISO 9 standardization is dated 1995. 2.0 KNAB romanization is based on the Azeri Latin.[18]

Differences from Persian

The general phonological differences of some Talysh dialects with respect to standard Persian are as follows:[10]

Talysh sound Talysh example word Corresponding Persian sound Persian example word Translation
iinsâninitial eensânhuman being
etarâzeuterâzubalance (the apparatus)
a in compound wordsmâng-a-tâvmah-tâbmoonlight
mēramedial hmohrebead
kufinal hkuhmountain


Talysh has a subject–object–verb word order. In some situations the case marker, 'i' or 'e' attaches to the accusative noun phrase. There is no definite article, and the indefinite one is "i". The plural is marked by the suffixes "un", "ēn" and also "yēn" for nouns ending with vowels. In contrast to Persian, modifiers are preceded by nouns, for example: "maryami kitav" (Mary's book) and "kava daryâ" (livid sea). Like the most other Iranian dialects there are two categories of inflection, subject and object cases. The "present stem" is used for the imperfect and the "past stem" for the present in the verbal system. That differentiates Talysh from most other Western Iranian dialects. In the present tense, verbal affixes cause a rearranging of the elements of conjugation in some dialects like Tâlešdulâbi, e.g. for expressing the negation of b-a-dašt-im (I sew), "ni" is used in the following form: ni-m-a-dašt (I don't sew)."m" is first person singular marker, "a" denotes duration and "dašt" is the past stem.


Talysh is a null-subject language, so nominal pronouns (e.g. I, he, she) are optional. For first person singular, both "az" and "men" are used. Person suffixes are not added to stems for "men".[10] Examples:

  • men xanda. (I read.), az bexun-em (Should I read ...)
  • men daxun! (Call me!), az-daxun-em (Should I call ...)

There are three prefixes in Talysh and Tati added to normal forms making possessive pronouns. They are: "če / ča" and "eš / še".


  • preverbs: â/o, da, vi/i/ē/â, pē/pi
  • Negative Markers: ne, nē, ni
  • Subjunctive/Imperative prefix: be
  • Durative markers: a, ba, da

The following Person Suffixes are used in different dialetcs and for different verbs.[10]

Person Suffixes
Person Singular Plural
1st-em, -ema, -emē, -ima, -um, -m-am, -emun(a), -emun(ē), -imuna, -imun
2nd-i, -er(a), -eyē, -išaو -š-a, -erun(a), -eyunē, -iruna, -iyun
3rd-e, -eš(a), -eš(ē), -a, -ē, -u-en, -ešun(a), -ešun(ē), -ina, -un

The past stem is inflected by removing the infinitive marker (ē), however the present stem and jussive mood are not so simple in many cases and are irregular. For some verbs, present and past stems are identical. The "be" imperative marker is not added situationally.[19] The following tables show the conjugations for first-person singular of "sew" in some dialects of the three dialectical categories:[10]

Stems and imperative mood
Stems and Imperative mood
Northern (Lavandavili) Central (Taleshdulaei) Southern (Khushabari) Tati (Kelori)
Past stemdutdaštdēštdut
Present stemdutdērzdērzduj
Active voice
Active Voice
Form Tense Northern (Lavandavili) Central (Taleshdulaei) Southern (Khushabari) Tati (Kelori)
Past imperfectivedute-aymēadērz-imadērz-imaduj-isēym
Past perfectdut-am bēdašt-am-badēšt-am-badut-am-bē
Futurepima dut-ēpima dašt-ēpima dēšt-ēxâm dut-an
Present progressivedute da-mkâr-im dašt-ēkâra dērz-emkerâ duj-em
Past progressivedut dab-imkârb-im dašt-ēkârb-im dēšt-ēkerâ duj-isēym
ConditionalPastdut-am banba-dērz-imbe-dērz-imbe-duj-im
Passive voice
Passive Voice
Form Tense Northern (Lavandavili) Central (Taleshdulaei) Southern (Khushabari) Tati (Kelori)
IndicativePresentduta bē damdašta babimdēšta bumduta bum
Preteriteduta bēmdašta bimadēšta bimabedujisim
Imperfective preteriteduta be-am bedašta abimadēšta bistēmduta bisim
Perfectduta beamdašta baimadērzistaimadujisim
Pluperfectduta beam bēdērzista bimdērzista bimdujisa bim
Present progressiveduta bē damkâra dašta babimakšra dēšta bumkerâ duta bum
Preterite progressiveduta bēdabimkâra dašta abimakâra dēšta bistēymunkerâ duta bisim
SubjunctivePresentduta bebumdašta bebumdēšta bebumduta bebum
Preteriteduta beabumdašta babâmdēšta babâmdujisa biya-bâm

Nouns and adpositions

There are four "cases" in Talysh, the nominative (unmarked), the genitive, the (definite) accusative and ergative.

The nominative case (characterized by null morpheme on nouns) encodes the subject; the predicate; the indefinite direct object in a nominative clause; definite direct object in an ergative clause; the vowel-final main noun in a noun phrase with another noun modifying it; and, finally, the nominal element in an adpositional phrases with certain adpositions. The examples below are from Pirejko 1976[3]

REFL:reflexive pronoun PRST:present stem LOC:locative BEN:benefactive









Nənə ıştə zoə pe-də

mother REFL son love.VN-LOC

'The mother loves her son'





Əv rəis-e

3SG boss-PRED

'S/he is a boss'











Az vıl bı-çın-ım bo tını

1SG flower FUT-pick.PRST-FUT for 2SG.ERG

'I will pick a flower for you'









Əy çımı dəftər dıry-əşe

3SG.ERG 1SG.POSS notebook tear.apart.PP-3SG.PFV.TR

'S/he teared apart my notebook'





hovə şol

sister scarf

'sister's scarf'




bə şəhr

to city

'to the city'

The ergative case, on the other hand, has the following functions: indicating the subject of an ergative phrase; definite direct object (in this function, ergative case takes the form of -ni after vowel-final stems); nominal modifier in a noun phrase; the nominal element in an adpositional phrases with most adpositions.









Ağıl-i sef şo do-şe

child-ERG apple ? throw.PP-3SG.PFV.ERG

'the child threw the apple'










Im kəpot-i se-də-m bə həvə-yo

DEM dress-ERG buy.VN-LOC-1SG for sister-BEN

'I'm buying this dress for (my) sister'










Iştə zoə-ni voğan-də bə məktəb

REFL son-ERG send.VN-LOC to school

'S/he is sending his/her son to the school'





jen-i dəs

woman-ERG hand

'a hand's woman'







muallimi-i ton-i-ku omə-m

teacher-ERG side-ERG-ABL come.1SG.PP-PFV.NOM

'I approached the teacher'

The accusative form is often used to express the simple indirect object in addition to the direct object. These "cases" are in origin actually just particles, similar to Persian prepositions like "râ".

Case markers and prepositions
Case Marker Example(s) Persian English
Nominative-sepa ve davaxa.Sag xeyli hâfhâf kard.The dog barked much.
Accusative-igerd-i âda ba menHame bede be man.Give them all to me!
-eâv-e-m bardaÂb bordam.I took the water.
Ablative-kâ, -ku (from)ba-i-kâ-r če bapiAz u ce mixâhi?What do you want from him?
-ka, -anda (in)âstâra-ka tâleši gaf bažēnDar Âstârâ Tâleši gab (harf) mizanand.They talk Talyshi in Astara.
-na (with)âtaši-na mezâ maka âtaš bâzi nakon.Don't play with fire!
-râ, -ru (for)me-râ kâr baka te-râ yâd bigēBarâye man kâr bekon Barâye xodat yâd begir.Work for me, learn for yourself.
-ken (of)ha-ken hēsta ča (čečiya)Az ân, ce bejâ mânde? (Hamân ke hast, cist?)What is of which is left?
ba (to)ba em denyâ del mabēndBe in donyâ del maband.Don't take the world dear to your heart!
Ergative-ia palang-i do lorzon-i (Aorist)Ân palang deraxt râ larzând.That leopard shook the tree.


English Zazaki Kurmanji Kurdish Central (Taleshdulaei) Southern (Khushabari / Shandermani) Tati (Kelori / Geluzani) Talysh Persian
biggırd, pil girs, mezin ?yâlyâlpillabozorg, gat, (yal, pil)
boy, sonlaj / laz / lac law (boy), kur (son)zoa, zuazôa, zuezu'a, zoaPesar
brideveyve bûkvayüvayugēša, veybvayu, vēiarus
catpısing, xone (tomcat) pisîk, kitikkete, pišik, pišpečupeču, pešu, pišipešugorbe, piši
cry (v)bermayen girînbamēberamestēberamēberamesangeristan
daughter, girl (little)kêna/keyna, çêna [20] keç (girl), dot (daughter)kina, kelakilu, kelakina, kel(l)akille, kilikdoxtar
dayroc, roz, roj rojrüž, rujruzruz, rozruzruz
eat (v)werden xwarinhardēhardēhardēhardanxordan
egghak hêkuva, muqna, uyaâglamerqonaxâ, merqownatoxme morq
eyeçım çavčâščaš, čamčēmčašmčašm
fatherpi, pêr, bawk, babî [21] bavdada, piya, biyadada ?pedar
fear (v)tersayen tirsînpurnē, târsētârsinē, tarsestētarsētarsesantarsidan
flagala [22] alafilakparčam ? ?parčam, derafš
foodnan, werd xwarinxerâkxerâkxerâkxurukxorâk
go (v)şiyen çûnšēšēšēšiyanraftan (šodan)
housekeye, çeye [23][24] xanîkakakakaxâne
language; tonguezıwan, zon zimanzivonzunzavonzuânzabân
moonaşme heyv / hîvmâng, uvešimmângmangmung, mengmâh
mothermaye, mare, dayîke, dadî [25] mak, dayikmua, mu, nananana ?mâ, dēdē, nanamâdar, nane
mouthfek devqav, gavga, gav, ga(f)qargardahân, kak
nightşew şevšavşawšavšavšab
northzime, vakur [26] bakurkubasušimâl ? ?šemâl
highberz bilind, berz [27]berzberzberjberenjboland
say (v)vatene gotinvotēvâtēvâtēvâtangoftan
sisterwaye xwîşk, xwanghuva, hova, hoxâlâ, xoloxâv, xâxâhar
smallqıj, wırd biçûkruk, gadarukrukvelle, xškučak
sunsetrocawan, rojawan [28] rojavašângamaqrib ? ?maqreb
sunshinetije,[29] zerq tîroj, tav/hetavşefhašiâftâv ? ?âftâb
wateraw, awk avuv, ôvâvâvâvâb
woman, wifecıni jinžēnžēn, ženyen, ženzanle, zanzan
yesterdayvızêr duh/dihozinazir, izerzir, zerzirdiruz, di


  1. "Talysh". Ethnologue. Retrieved 2018-08-03.
  2. شباهت ها و تفاوت هاي تالشي گيلكي و مازندراني , Jahad Daneshgahi. (in Persian)
  3. Pirejko, L. A., 1976. Talyšsko-russkij slovar (Talyshi-Russian Dictionary), Moscow.
  4. Məmmədov, Novruzəli; Ağayev, Şahrza (1996). Əlifba — Tolışi əlifba. Baku: Maarif.
  5. "Talysh". UNESCO Atlas of the World's Languages in danger. UNESCO. Retrieved 2018-08-03.
  6. مستوفی، حمدالله: «نزهةالقلوب، به كوشش محمد دبیرسیاقی، انتشارات طهوری، ۱۳۳۶. Mostawafi, Hamdallah, 1336 AP / 1957 AD. Nozhat al-Qolub. Edit by Muhammad Dabir Sayyaqi. Tahuri publishers. (in Persian)
  7. Henning, W. B. 1954. The Ancient Language of Azerbaijan. Transactions of the Philological Society, London. p 157-177.
  8. Asatrian, G. and H. Borjian, 2005. Talish: people and language: The state of research. Iran and the Caucasus 9/1, p 43-72
  9. Behzadi, B, 1382 AP / 2003 AD. Farhange Azarbâyjani-Fârsi (Torki), p. 10. Publication: Farhange Moâser. ISBN 964-5545-82-X
    In Persian: حقیقت تاریخی این است که آذربایجانی، ایرانی است و به زبان ترکی تکلم می‌کند. اینکه چگونه این زبان در بین مردم رایج شد، بحثی است که فرصت دیگر می‌خواهد. شاهد مثال زیر می‌تواند برای همه‌‌‌‌‌ این گفتگوها پاسخ شایسته باشد. اهالی آستارا طالش هستند و تا پنجاه سال پیش که نگارنده به خاطر دارد پیران خانواده ما به این زبان تکلم می‌کردند و اکثریت عظیم اهالی نیز به زبان طالشی صحبت میکردند. در دهات اطراف شاید تعداد انگشت‌شماری ترکی بلد بودند.
  10. Abdoli, A. 1380 AP / 2001 AD. Farhange Tatbiqiye Tâleši-Tâti-Âzari (Comparative dictionary of Talyshi-Tati-Azari), p 31-35, Publication:Tehran, "šerkate Sahâmiye Entešâr" (in Persian).
  11. Stilo, D. 1981. The Tati Group in the Sociolinguistic Context of Northwestern Iran. Iranian Studies XIV
  12. Mamedov, N., 1971. Šuvinskij govor talyšskogo yazyka (Talyshi dialect of Shuvi), PhD dissertation, Baku. (in Russian)
  13. Schulze, W., 2000. Northern Talysh. Publisher: Lincom Europa. ISBN 3-89586-681-4
  14. De Caro, G. Alignment variation in Southern Tāleši (Māsāl area). School of Oriental and African Studies / Hans Rausing Endangered Languages Project.
  15. Schulze, Wolfgang (2000). Northern Talysh. Languages of the World/Materials, 380: München: Lincom. p. 9.CS1 maint: location (link)
  16. "Əsasə səyfə". Parstoday (in Talysh). Retrieved 2020-07-25.
  17. Paul, Daniel (2011). A Comparative Dialectal Description of Iranian Taleshi. University of Manchester. p. 324.
  18. Pedersen, T. T.. Transliteration of Non-Roman Scripts, Talyshi transliteration
  19. Masali, K. 1386 AP / 2007 AD. Sâxte fe'l dar zabâne Tâleši (Guyeše Mâsâl) (Conjugations in Talyshi language (Masali dialect)). "Archived copy" (PDF) (in Persian). Archived from the original (PDF) on 2009-03-06. Retrieved 2008-11-04.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  20. http://turkcekurtcesozluk.com/legerin.php?legerin=k%C4%B1z&z=
  21. http://turkcekurtcesozluk.com/legerin.php?legerin=baba&z=
  22. http://turkcekurtcesozluk.com/legerin.php?legerin=bayrak&z=
  23. http://turkcekurtcesozluk.com/peyv.php?peyv_id=keye
  24. http://turkcekurtcesozluk.com/peyv.php?peyv_id=ceye
  25. http://turkcekurtcesozluk.com/legerin.php?legerin=anne&z=
  26. http://turkcekurtcesozluk.com/legerin.php?legerin=vakur&z=zztr
  27. http://turkcekurtcesozluk.com/legerin.php?legerin=y%C3%BCksek&z=trkrm
  28. http://turkcekurtcesozluk.com/legerin.php?legerin=rojawan&z=
  29. http://turkcekurtcesozluk.com/peyv.php?peyv_id=tije_44594

Further reading

  • Abdoli, A., 1380 AP / 2001 AD. Tat and Talysh literature (Iran and Azerbaijan republic). Entešâr Publication, Tehran, ISBN 964-325-100-4. (in Persian)
  • Asatrian, G., and Habib Borjian, 2005. Talish: people and language: The state of research. Iran and the Caucasus 9/1, pp. 43–72 (published by Brill).
  • Bazin, M., 1974. Le Tâlech et les tâlechi: Ethnic et region dans le nord-ouest de l’Iran, Bulletin de l’Association de Geographes Français, no. 417-418, 161-170. (in French)
  • Bazin, M., 1979. Recherche des papports entre diversité dialectale et geographie humaine: l’example du Tâleš, G. Schweizer, (ed.), Interdisciplinäre Iran-Forschung: Beiträge aus Kulturgeographie, Ethnologie, Soziologie und Neuerer Geschichte, Wiesbaden, 1-15. (in French)
  • Bazin, M., 1981. Quelque échantillons des variations dialectales du tâleši, Studia Iranica 10, 111-124, 269-277. (in French)
  • Paul, D., 2011. A comparative dialectal description of Iranian Taleshi. PhD Dissertation: University of Manchester. https://www.escholar.manchester.ac.uk/uk-ac-man-scw:119653
  • Yarshater, E., 1996. The Taleshi of Asalem. Studia Iranica, 25, New York.
  • Yarshater, E., "Tâlish". Encyclopaedia of Islam, 2nd ed., vol. 10.