Tanukhids

The Tanûkhids (Arabic: التنوخيون) or Tanukh (Arabic: تنوخ) were a confederation of Arab tribes, sometimes characterized as Saracens. They first rose to prominence in northern Arabia and south of Syria in the 3rd century BC. Both Lakhmid and Tanukhid inscriptions have been found at Umm el-Jimal in Jordan and Namara in Syria. The ancient Tanukhi tribal confederation was largely taken over by several branches of the large Azd and Quda'a tribe. Their main base during the time of their most famous ruler, Queen Mavia, was in Aleppo.[1]

Tanukh
تنوخ
196 AD–c. 1100 AD
CapitalQinnasrin (main base)
Common languagesArabic
Religion
Arab Paganism, Christianity, Islam
Demonym(s)Tanukhi
GovernmentChiefdom
Chief/King 
 196–231 AD
Malik ibn Fahm
 233–268 AD
Jadhima ibn Malik
 Until 375 AD
al-Hawari
 375–425 AD
Queen Mavia
Historical eraClassical Age to the Early Middle Ages
 Established
196 AD
 Conversion to Christianity
3rd or 4th century
 Revolt of Queen Mavia
378 AD
 Conversion to Islam
8th century
1096–1099 AD
 Disestablished
c. 1100 AD
Preceded by
Succeeded by
Arabia Petraea
Roman Syria
Salihids
Lakhmids