The Tatars (/ˈtɑːtərz/; Tatar: татарлар, tatarlar, تاتارلر, Crimean Tatar: tatarlar; Old Turkic: 𐱃𐱃𐰺, romanized: Tatar) is an umbrella term for different Turkic ethnic groups bearing the name "Tatar".[28] Initially, the ethnonym Tatar possibly referred to the Tatar confederation. That confederation was eventually incorporated into the Mongol Empire when Genghis Khan unified the various steppe tribes.[29] Historically, the term Tatars (or Tartars) was applied to anyone originating from the vast Northern and Central Asian landmass then known as Tartary. More recently, however, the term has come to refer more narrowly to highly or lowly related ethnic groups who refer to themselves as Tatars or who speak languages that are commonly referred to as Tatar, namely Tatar by Volga Tatars (Tatars proper), Crimean Tatar by Crimean Tatars and Siberian Tatar by Siberian Tatars.

татарлар, tatarlar
Total population
  • Volga Tatars: c. 6.4 – 6.6 million[1][2]
  • Crimean Tatars: c. 500 thousand – 6.5 million[3][4][5]
  • Siberian Tatars: c.100,000 – 200,000
  • Lipka Tatars: c. 10,000 – 15,000
Regions with significant populations
 Russia5,319,877 (excl. Crimea)[6]
 Ukraine (mostly includes Crimean Tatars)319,377 (incl. Crimea)[7]
 UzbekistanCrimean Tatars: ~239,965[8]
 Afghanistan100,000 (Estimate)[11]
 Romania (only includes Crimean Tatars)~20,000[15]
 United States10,000[16]
 Belarus7,300[citation needed]
 France7,000[citation needed]
 Lithuania (mostly includes Lipka Tatars of both, Crimean and Idel-Ural, origin)2,800-3,200[17][18][19]
(Includes those of mixed ancestry)
 Poland1,916[citation needed]
 Bulgaria (mostly includes Crimean Tatars)5,003[22]
 Czech Republic300+[26]
Kipchak languages
Predominantly Sunni Islam
with Eastern Orthodox minority
Related ethnic groups
Other Turkic peoples

The largest group amongst the Tatars by far are the Volga Tatars, native to the Volga-Ural region (Tatarstan and Bashkortostan), who for this reason are often also known as "Tatars" in Russian. They compose 53% of the population in Tatarstan. Their language is known as the Tatar language. As of 2002, there were an estimated 5 million ethnic Tatars in Russia.

Many noble families in the Tsardom of Russia and Russian Empire had Tatar origins.[30][31]