Template:Reflist

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    This citation template provides formatting and organizational features for footnotes. It encapsulates the <references /> tag used by the Cite MediaWiki extension to show the list of references as defined by <ref> tags. It adds support for sizing the column width, groups and List-defined references.

    Parameters

    There are no required parameters; if none are supplied, a single-column list will be generated if there are fewer than 10 references in the list. If you have more than 10 references, it will use columns of 30em wide if your device allows this.

    Optional parameters are:

    • Unnamed parameter (must be the first one if used): the minimum width for each column of references, typically in ems. Syntax (for example) |30em with no space (i.e. not |30 em). Note that this replaces colwidth—see § Obsolete parameters.
    • refs: used with List-defined references.
    • group: identifies by name the subset of references to be rendered; the value should correspond to that used inline, e.g., {{Reflist|group=groupname}} renders all references with groupname as the group name (<ref group="groupname">). There are five pre-defined group names that style the list differently. See § Grouped references below.
    • liststyle: specifies the style used when the reference list is rendered. The default is a numbered list. When set, it will override the style set by the |group= parameter, without affecting group functionality. See § List styles below.

    Usage

    Using only footnote-style references
    MarkupRenders as
    Lorem ipsum.<ref>Source name, access date, etc.</ref>
    
    Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet.<ref>Source name, access date, etc.</ref>
    
    ==References==
    {{Reflist}}

    Lorem ipsum.[1] Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet.[2]

    References
    1. Source name, access date, etc.
    2. Source name, access date, etc.
    Using only bibliographical style references (no direct references from the text)
    MarkupRenders as
    Lorem ipsum. Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet.
    
    ==References==
    {{Refbegin}}
    * reference 1
    * reference 2
    {{Refend}}

    Lorem ipsum. Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet.

    References
    • reference 1
    • reference 2
    Using both footnote-style and bibliography-style references
    MarkupRenders as
    Lorem ipsum.<ref>Source name, access date, etc.</ref>
    
    Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet.<ref>Source name, access date, etc.</ref>
    
    ==References==
    {{Reflist}}
    
    {{Refbegin}}
    * reference 1
    * reference 2
    {{Refend}}

    Lorem ipsum.[1] Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet.[2]

    References
    1. Source name, access date, etc.
    2. Source name, access date, etc.
    • reference 1
    • reference 2

    Columns

    {{Reflist|30em}} (for example) instructs the browser to create as many columns as possible (of width at least 30 em, in this example) given the width of the display window. (Units supported are em, ex, in, cm, mm, pt, pc, px, but em is almost always used.) There must not be a space between the number and the unit. Percent is not supported.

    Choose a width appropriate to the typical width of the references:

    Example

    15em wide columns (vary width of display window to see change in number of columns)
    MarkupRenders as
    Lorem ipsum.<ref>Source name, access date, etc.</ref>
    Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet.<ref>Source name, access date, etc.</ref>
    Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet.<ref>Source name, access date, etc.</ref>
    Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet.<ref>Source name, access date, etc.</ref>
    Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet.<ref>Source name, access date, etc.</ref>
    
    ==References==
    {{Reflist|15em}}

    Lorem ipsum.[1] Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet.[2] Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet.[3] Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet.[4] Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet.[5]

    References
    1. Source name, access date, etc.
    2. Source name, access date, etc.
    3. Source name, access date, etc.
    4. Source name, access date, etc.
    5. Source name, access date, etc.
    • Note 1: The syntax {{Reflist|2}} (for example), which specifies two columns of equal width regardless of the available display width, is deprecated (and is disabled for mobile view). When you use 1 the template gives you a single column while 2 will pretend you specified 30em. When using higher column counts, it will pretend you specified 25em.
    • Note 2: Browser support: Internet Explorer 10+, Microsoft Edge, Firefox 2+, Chrome 4+, Safari 3.1+, Opera 11.1+

    List-defined references

    A list of references may be defined within {{Reflist}} using the |refs= parameter, just like including named <ref name="...">...</ref> elements inside the <references>...</references> container.

    Example

    MarkupRenders as
    This is reference 1.<ref name="refname1" />
    This is reference 2.<ref name="refname2" />
    
    ==References==
    {{Reflist|refs=
    <ref name="refname1">content1</ref>
    <ref name="refname2">content2</ref>
    }}

    This is reference 1.[decimal 1] This is reference 2.[decimal 2]

    References
    1. content1
    2. content2

    Grouped references

    References can be grouped into separate sections (for explanatory notes, table references, and the like) via group=:

    <ref group="groupname">

    where groupname is (for example) notes or sources. The group name need not be enclosed in quotes; this differs from the footnote marker where quotes are required if the group name includes a space.

    Each group used in the article must have a matching reference list:

    {{Reflist|group=groupname}}

    Predefined groups

    There are predefined group names that automatically set the labels in the footnote markers and the reference list to other styles. Thus, setting {{Reflist|group=lower-alpha}} will set the group to lower-alpha and will style the reference list with lower alpha characters. The matching footnote marker can be formed by <ref group="lower-alpha">...</ref>. This is made easier by a series of templates to set the group/label styles for the footnote marker and the reference list:

    Group typeFootnote marker template
    or markup
    Reference list
    template
    Sample labels
    none by default, but optionally any<ref>...</ref> {{reflist}} 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
    {{r}} (for nested references)
    {{refn}} (for nested references)
    lower-alpha{{efn}}
    {{efn-la}}
    {{notelist}}
    {{notelist-la}}
    a b c d e f g h i j
    upper-alpha{{efn-ua}}{{notelist-ua}}A B C D E F G H I J
    lower-roman{{efn-lr}}{{notelist-lr}}i ii iii iv v vi vii viii ix x
    upper-roman{{efn-ur}}{{notelist-ur}}I II III IV V VI VII VIII IX X
    lower-greek{{efn-lg}}{{notelist-lg}}α β γ δ ε ζ η θ ι κ
    note{{NoteTag}}{{NoteFoot}}note 1 note 2 note 3

    List styles

    As noted in § Predefined groups, there are predefined groups that automatically add list styling. Using the listed templates is more convenient than using |liststyle=.

    Reference lists are by default numbered lists. By using the |liststyle= parameter, you can control how the list is rendered. For example, using |liststyle=upper-roman will result in references being labeled with Roman numerals instead of decimal numbers. The parameter accepts any valid CSS value defined for list-style-type as shown below.

    CSS list-style-type values
    CSS 2.1 list-style-type values[1]
    none
    1. text
    2. text
    3. text
    4. text
    Internet Explorer Firefox Safari Chrome Opera
    6 7 8 9 10 3 4 5 4 5 9 10 11 12 10 11 12
    Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
    disc
    1. text
    2. text
    3. text
    4. text
    Internet Explorer Firefox Safari Chrome Opera
    6 7 8 9 10 3 4 5 4 5 9 10 11 12 10 11 12
    Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
    circle
    1. text
    2. text
    3. text
    4. text
    Internet Explorer Firefox Safari Chrome Opera
    6 7 8 9 10 3 4 5 4 5 9 10 11 12 10 11 12
    Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
    square
    1. text
    2. text
    3. text
    4. text
    Internet Explorer Firefox Safari Chrome Opera
    6 7 8 9 10 3 4 5 4 5 9 10 11 12 10 11 12
    Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
    decimal
    1. text
    2. text
    3. text
    4. text
    Internet Explorer Firefox Safari Chrome Opera
    6 7 8 9 10 3 4 5 4 5 9 10 11 12 10 11 12
    Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
    decimal-leading-zero
    1. text
    2. text
    3. text
    4. text
    Internet Explorer Firefox Safari Chrome Opera
    6 7 8 9 10 3 4 5 4 5 9 10 11 12 10 11 12
    No No Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
    lower-roman
    1. text
    2. text
    3. text
    4. text
    Internet Explorer Firefox Safari Chrome Opera
    6 7 8 9 10 3 4 5 4 5 9 10 11 12 10 11 12
    Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
    upper-roman
    1. text
    2. text
    3. text
    4. text
    Internet Explorer Firefox Safari Chrome Opera
    6 7 8 9 10 3 4 5 4 5 9 10 11 12 10 11 12
    Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
    lower-alpha
    1. text
    2. text
    3. text
    4. text
    Internet Explorer Firefox Safari Chrome Opera
    6 7 8 9 10 3 4 5 4 5 9 10 11 12 10 11 12
    Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
    upper-alpha
    1. text
    2. text
    3. text
    4. text
    Internet Explorer Firefox Safari Chrome Opera
    6 7 8 9 10 3 4 5 4 5 9 10 11 12 10 11 12
    Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
    lower-greek
    1. text
    2. text
    3. text
    4. text
    Internet Explorer Firefox Safari Chrome Opera
    6 7 8 9 10 3 4 5 4 5 9 10 11 12 10 11 12
    No No Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
    armenian
    1. text
    2. text
    3. text
    4. text
    Internet Explorer Firefox Safari Chrome Opera
    6 7 8 9 10 3 4 5 4 5 9 10 11 12 10 11 12
    No No Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
    georgian
    1. text
    2. text
    3. text
    4. text
    Internet Explorer Firefox Safari Chrome Opera
    6 7 8 9 10 3 4 5 4 5 9 10 11 12 10 11 12
    No No Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
    CSS2 list-style-type values deprecated in CSS 2.1[2]

    ...but still supported by some browsers.

    hebrew
    1. text
    2. text
    3. text
    4. text
    Internet Explorer Firefox Safari Chrome Opera
    6 7 8 9 10 3 4 5 4 5 9 10 11 12 10 11 12
    No No No No No Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes No No No
    cjk-ideographic
    1. text
    2. text
    3. text
    4. text
    Internet Explorer Firefox Safari Chrome Opera
    6 7 8 9 10 3 4 5 4 5 9 10 11 12 10 11 12
    No No No No No Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes No No No
    hiragana
    1. text
    2. text
    3. text
    4. text
    Internet Explorer Firefox Safari Chrome Opera
    6 7 8 9 10 3 4 5 4 5 9 10 11 12 10 11 12
    No No No No No Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes No No No
    katakana
    1. text
    2. text
    3. text
    4. text
    Internet Explorer Firefox Safari Chrome Opera
    6 7 8 9 10 3 4 5 4 5 9 10 11 12 10 11 12
    No No No No No Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes No No No
    hiragana-iroha
    1. text
    2. text
    3. text
    4. text
    Internet Explorer Firefox Safari Chrome Opera
    6 7 8 9 10 3 4 5 4 5 9 10 11 12 10 11 12
    No No No No No Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes No No No
    katakana-iroha
    1. text
    2. text
    3. text
    4. text
    Internet Explorer Firefox Safari Chrome Opera
    6 7 8 9 10 3 4 5 4 5 9 10 11 12 10 11 12
    No No No No No Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes No No No

    It is possible to use |liststyle= so that the labels for the footnote marker and the reference list marker differ. This should be used with care as it can be confusing to readers. For example:

    MarkupRenders as
    <ref group="note">Reference</ref>
    
    {{Reflist|group=note|liststyle=lower-alpha}}
    

    [note 1]

    1. Reference

    Interaction with images

    In the unusual case of an image being placed to the left of a reference list, layout problems may occur on some browsers. This can be prevented by using the columns feature.

    Technical details

    Font size

    The font size should reduce to 90% for most browsers, but may appear to show at 100% for Internet Explorer and possibly other browsers.[general 1] As of December 21, 2010, the standard <references /> tag has the same font styling. The smaller font may be disabled through Preferences Gadgets → Disable smaller font sizes of elements such as Infoboxes, Navboxes and References lists.

    Browser support for columns

    CSS3 multiple-column layout browser support
    PropertyInternet
    Explorer
    FirefoxSafariChromeOpera
    column-width
    column-count
    ≥ 10
    (2012)
    ≥ 1.5
    (2005)
    ≥ 3
    (2007)
    ≥ 1
    (2008)
    ≥ 11.1
    (2011)
    columns ≥ 10
    (2012)
    ≥ 9
    (2011)
    ≥ 3
    (2007)
    ≥ 1
    (2008)
    ≥ 11.1
    (2011)
    break-before
    break-after
    break-inside
    ≥ 10
    (2012)
    ≥ 65
    (2019)
    ≥ 10
    (2016)
    ≥ 65
    (2016)
    ≥ 15
    (2013)

    Multiple columns are generated by using CSS3, which is still in development; thus only browsers that properly support the multi-column property will show multiple columns with {{Reflist}}.[general 2][general 3]

    These browsers support CSS3 columns:

    These browsers do not support CSS3 columns:

    • Microsoft Trident-based browsers including Internet Explorer up to version 9[general 4]
    • Opera through to version 11

    Widows and orphans

    The use of columns can result in widows and orphans, where a citation at the bottom of a column may be split to the top of the next column. MediaWiki:Common.css includes CSS rules to prevent list items from breaking between columns. Widows may still show in extreme circumstances, such as a reference list formatted in columns where only a single reference is defined.

    MarkupRenders as
    Lorem ipsum.<ref>Source name, access date, etc.</ref>
    Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet.
    
    ==References==
    {{Reflist|10em}}

    Lorem ipsum.[1] Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet.

    References
    1. Source name, access date, etc.

    Supporting CSS

    {{Reflist}} uses a CSS rule in MediaWiki:Common.css to set the font size:

    • div.reflist { font-size: 90%; }

    The following class is assigned by the template when column width is set:

    • .references-column-width

    The following CSS properties are utilized using the {{column-width}} templates:

    • column-width CSS3 standard

    Customizing the view

    By editing your CSS, the personal appearance of the reference list can be customized. From Preferences, select the Appearance tab, then on the selected skin select Custom CSS. After editing and saving, follow the instructions at the top of the page to purge. See Wikipedia:Skin#Customisation (advanced users) for more help.

    Font size

    The font size for all reference lists defaults to 90% of the standard size. To change it, add:

    ol.references,
    .mw-parser-output div.reflist,
    .mw-parser-output div.refbegin {
      font-size: 90%;
    }
    

    Change 90% to the desired size.

    Columns

    To disable columns, add:

    .references-column-width {
      column-width: auto !important;
    }
    

    Column dividers

    To add dividers (rules) between columns, add:

    .references-column-width {
      column-rule: 1px solid #aaa;
    }
    

    You can alter the appearance of the dividers by changing the values.

    Perennial suggestions

    Collapsing and scrolling

    There have been a number of requests to add functionality for a collapsible or scrolling reference list. These requests have not been fulfilled due to issues with readability, accessibility, and printing. The applicable guidelines are at MOS:SCROLL. Links between the inline cite and the reference list do not work when the reference list is enclosed in a collapsed box.

    To display the reference list in a scrollbox or collapsed per user, see Help:Reference display customization.

    For discussion on previous attempts to do this with a template, see the discussions for Scrollref and Refbox.

    Including the section title

    There have been suggestions to include section header markup such as ==References==. This is inadvisable because:

    Obsolete parameters

    These parameters are no longer in use:

    • colwidth: Same as specifying a column-width for the first unnamed parameter. Replaced by width as unnamed first parameter.
    • close: Until 2014, the parameter |close=1 was used to work around a bug involving multiple uses of {{Reflist}} on the same page. When the bug was fixed, this was removed. (For multiple uses on talk pages and other non-article pages structured in sections, see {{Reflist-talk}}.)

    Articles using unsupported parameters are tracked in Category:Pages using reflist with unknown parameters (0).

    Template data

    This is the TemplateData for this template used by TemplateWizard, VisualEditor and other tools. Click here to see a monthly parameter usage report for this template based on this TemplateData.

    TemplateData for Reflist

    This template displays the list of footnotes at the end of an article and provides additional formatting and organizing options. After hitting "Apply changes" and turning back to VE read mode, you will not see the references list. After hitting "Publish page" and turning back to normal read mode the reference list will reappear with the changes applied, see T53146.

    Template parameters

    ParameterDescriptionTypeStatus
    Columns / Column width1 colwidth

    Two modes supported. First mode (deprecated): integer number of fixed columns into which the reference list is to be rendered. Second mode: typographic unit of measurement such as 'em', specifying the width for the reference list columns, e.g. '33em'; spaced '33&nbsp;em' will not be recognized

    Default
    1 if < 11 references; otherwise 30em
    Stringoptional
    Liststyleliststyle

    Specifies the style used when the reference list is enumerated; accepts any valid CSS value defined for list-style-type

    Default
    decimal
    Stringoptional
    Groupgroup

    Group is an identifier which restricts the references that are shown. Without this parameter, this template only shows references with no group identifier. With a group identifier specified, only references with a matching group identifier are handled. The rest are left alone.

    Stringoptional
    List of referencesrefs

    Provides a space to define named references for use in the article. References defined in this space are not shown unless used somewhere in the article.

    Stringoptional

    Limitations

    Do not use {{reflist}} or other templates or modules that use {{#tag:references}} in numbered or unnumbered lists if the list is inside an HTML div tag. See the talk page (permalink) for examples and details.

     No — :{{reflist}}
     No — *{{reflist}}
     No — #{{reflist}}
     Yes — {{reflist}}

    See also

    Variants

    References

    1. See User:Edokter/fonttest for a comparison of font sizes for various browsers; see previous discussions on changing the font size to resolve the IE issue.
    2. "CSS3 Multi-Column Thriller". December 30, 2005. Retrieved November 24, 2006.
    3. "CSS3 module: Multi-column layout". W3C. December 15, 2005. Retrieved November 24, 2006.
    4. "CSS Compatibility and Internet Explorer: Multi-column Layout". Microsoft Docs. Microsoft Developer Network. Retrieved 2021-03-19.