The Gambia

The Gambia[6] (/ˈɡæmbiə/ ), officially the Republic of The Gambia, is a country in West Africa. It is the smallest country within mainland Africa[7] and is surrounded by Senegal, except for its western coast on the Atlantic Ocean. The Gambia is situated on both sides of the lower reaches of the Gambia River, the nation's namesake, which flows through the centre of the Gambia and empties into the Atlantic Ocean. It has an area of 10,689 square kilometres (4,127 sq mi) with a population of 1,857,181 as of the April 2013 census. Banjul is the Gambian capital and the country's largest metropolitan area.[8] The largest cities are Serekunda and Brikama.[9]

Republic of The Gambia
Motto: "Progress, Peace, and Prosperity"
Anthem: "For the Gambia, Our Homeland"
Location of the Gambia (dark green) in western Africa
Capital
and Metropolitan area
Banjul
13°28′N 16°36′W
Official languagesEnglish
National languages
Ethnic groups
(2013 Census)
Demonym(s)Gambian
GovernmentUnitary presidential republic
 President
Adama Barrow
Isatou Touray
LegislatureNational Assembly
Independence
 from the United Kingdom
18 February 1965
 dissolution of the Senegambia Confederation
30 September 1989
Area
 Total
10,689 km2 (4,127 sq mi) (159th)
 Water (%)
11.5
Population
 2020 estimate
2,173,999[2] (144th)
 2013 census
1,857,181[1]
 Density
176.1/km2 (456.1/sq mi) (74th)
GDP (PPP)2020 estimate
 Total
$5.420 billion[3]
 Per capita
$2,240[3]
GDP (nominal)2020 estimate
 Total
$1.810 billion[3]
 Per capita
$746[3]
Gini (2015) 35.9[4]
medium
HDI (2019) 0.496[5]
low · 172nd
CurrencyDalasi (GMD)
Time zoneUTC (GMT)
Daylight saving time is not observed
Driving sideright
Calling code+220
ISO 3166 codeGM
Internet TLD.gm
Preceded by
1970:
The Gambia (1965–1970)
1989:
Senegambia Confederation

The Gambia shares historical roots with many other West African nations in the slave trade, which was the key factor in the placing and keeping of a colony on the Gambia River, first by the Portuguese, during which era it was known as A Gâmbia. Later, on 25 May 1765,[10] the Gambia was made a part of the British Empire when the government formally assumed control, establishing the Gambia Colony and Protectorate. In 1965, the Gambia gained independence under the leadership of Dawda Jawara, who ruled until Yahya Jammeh seized power in a bloodless 1994 coup. Adama Barrow became the Gambia's third president in January 2017, after defeating Jammeh in the December 2016 elections.[11] Jammeh initially accepted the results, then refused to accept them, which triggered a constitutional crisis and military intervention by the Economic Community of West African States, resulting in his exile.[12][13][14]

The Gambia's economy is dominated by farming, fishing, and especially, tourism. In 2015, 48.6% of the population lived in poverty.[15] In rural areas, poverty is even more widespread, at almost 70%.[15]