Third Hellenic Republic


The Third Hellenic Republic (Greek: Γ΄ Ελληνική Δημοκρατία, romanized: Triti Elliniki Dimokratia) is the period in modern Greek history that stretches from 1974, with the fall of Greek military junta and the final abolition of the Greek monarchy, to the present day.

Hellenic Republic

Ελληνική Δημοκρατία
Ellinikí Dimokratía  (Greek)
Motto: "Eleftheria i thanatos"
Ελευθερία ή θάνατος
"Freedom or Death"
Anthem: «Ύμνος εις την Ελευθερίαν»
Ýmnos eis tin Eleftherían
"Hymn to Liberty"
Location of Third Hellenic Republic (dark green)

 in Europe (green & dark grey)
 in the European Union (green)   [Legend]

Capital
and largest city
Athens
37°58′N 23°43′E
Official language
and national language
Greek
Religion
Eastern Orthodoxy
Demonym(s)Greek
GovernmentUnitary parliamentary republic
 President
Katerina Sakellaropoulou
Kyriakos Mitsotakis
Konstantinos Tasoulas
LegislatureHellenic Parliament
Establishment history
25 March 1821 (traditional starting date of the Greek War of Independence), 15 January 1822 (official declaration)
3 February 1830
11 June 1975
Area
 Total
131,957 km2 (50,949 sq mi)[1] (95th)
 Water (%)
0.8669
Population
 2017 estimate
10,768,477
 2011 census
10,816,286[2] (80th)
 Density
82[3]/km2 (212.4/sq mi) (125th)
GDP (PPP)2019 estimate
 Total
$326.700 billion[4] (57th)
 Per capita
$30,522[4] (47th)
GDP (nominal)2019 estimate
 Total
$224.033 billion[4] (52nd)
 Per capita
$20,930[4] (38th)
Gini (2018) 32.3[5]
medium · 60th
HDI (2017) 0.870[6]
very high · 31st
CurrencyEuro () (EUR)
Time zoneUTC+02:00 (Eastern European Time)
 Summer (DST)
UTC+03:00 (Eastern European Summer Time)
Date formatdd/mm/yyyy (AD)
Driving sideright
Calling code+30
ISO 3166 codeGR
Internet TLD.gra
.ελ
  1. The .eu domain is also used, as in other European Union member states.

It is considered the third period of republican rule in Greece, following the First Republic during the Greek War of Independence (1821–1832) and the Second Republic during the temporary abolition of the monarchy in 1924–1935.

The term "Metapolitefsi" (Μεταπολίτευση, 'polity change') is commonly used for the entire period, but this term is properly restricted to the early part of the period, beginning with the fall of the junta and culminating in the democratic transformation of the country. While the First and Second Hellenic Republics are not in common use except in a historiographic context, the term Third Hellenic Republic is used frequently.[7][8]

The Third Hellenic Republic has been characterised by the development of social freedoms, the European orientation of Greece and the political dominance of the parties ND and PASOK. On the negative side the period has included high corruption, deterioration of certain economic indexes such as the public debt, and nepotism, mostly in the political scene and the state offices.[9][10][11]

Events


This period has been marked by many significant changes in the country. In 1981 Greece joined the EU. Simultaneously, the centre-left party PASOK won the election and changed the Greek political scenery. The decade of the 1990s saw the standard of living among Greeks steadily increase, a trend which reached its zenith around the time of the Olympic Games of 2004. On 1 January 2001, Greece voted to adopt the Euro, and the currency was introduced in the country one year later on 1 January 2002. In the last months of 2009, the Greek debt crisis broke out, an event that brought about great changes on both a social and political level.

Presidents of the Third Hellenic Republic


Political parties in Third Hellenic Republic


1974–1989

This period began with the centrists and centre-right being dominant, though the former lost support in the late 1970s with the rise of PASOK. Also the Communist Party of Greece was allowed to take part in elections for first time after the end of the Greek Civil War. The table below shows the results of elections during this period.

Political position/
Ideology
Political Party 1974
Legislative
Elections
1977
Legislative
Elections
1981
Legislative
Elections
1981
European
Elections
1984
European
Elections
1985
Legislative
Elections
1989
European
Elections
1989 June
Legislative
Elections
1989 Nov
Legislative
Elections
% % % % % % % % %
Far-left KKE9.3610.9312.8411.649.89
KKE interior1.375.303.421.84
Left-wing United Left9.47
SPADE2.72
SYN14.3113.1310.97
Centre-left PASOK13.5825.3448.0640.1241.5845.8235.9639.1340.97
Ecologists Alternative Ecologists1.110.58
Centre Centre Union20.42
EDIK11.950.401.120.280.28
KODISO0.724.260.80
Liberal Party0.371.040.350.170.400.100.08
Christian Democracy0.151.120.450.410.20
Liberals New Liberals1.08
Centre-right New Democracy54.3741.8435.8831.3438.0540.8540.4144.2846.19
DIANA1.36 1.01
Right-wing EDE1.08
National Alignment6.82
Progressive Party1.691.96
Far-right EPEN2.290.601.160.30

1990–2007

This period began with the fall of communist regimes in eastern Europe. It is characterized by the reinforcement of bipartisanship with the two main parties (New Democracy and PASOK) regularly polling over 80% of the vote between them, even reaching 86%.

Political position/
Ideology
Political Party 1990
Legislative
Elections
1993
Legislative
Elections
1994
European
Elections
1996
Legislative
Elections
1999
European
Elections
2000
Legislative
Elections
2004
Legislative
Elections
2004
European
Elections
2007
Legislative
Elections
% % % % % % % % %
Far-left KKE4.546.295.618.675.525.909.488.15
Left-wing SYN/SYRIZA10.282.946.255.125.163.203.264.165.04
Centre-left PASOK38.6146.8837.6441.4932.9143.7940.5534.0338.10
DIKKI4.436.852.691.79
Ecologists Alternative Ecologists0.77
Ecologist Greens0.671.05
Centre Union of Centrists0.231.190.700.820.340.260.560.29
Liberals The Liberals1.62
Centre-right New Democracy46.8939.3032.6638.1236.0042.7445.3643.0241.84
DIANA0.672.79
Right-wing Political Spring4.888.652.942.28
Far-right EPEN0.140.780.24
Golden Dawn0.110.07
LAOS2.194.123.80

2009–2019

This period corresponds to Greek government-debt crisis, that changed dramatically the political stage. Early in the period, PASOK were able to capitalise on a loss of support for ND. However, by the early 2010s, PASOK were also attracting blame for their handling of the crisis, and the radical party SYRIZA became the largest party on the left. The position of the far-right was also strengthened in this period.

SYRIZA has since overtaken PASOK as the main party of the centre-left. [12]Alexis Tsipras led SYRIZA to victory in the general election held on 25 January 2015, falling short of an outright majority in Parliament by just two seats.[13] The following morning, Tsipras reached an agreement with Independent Greeks party to form a coalition, and he was sworn in as Prime Minister of Greece.[14]Tsipras called snap elections in August 2015, resigning from his post, which led to a month-long caretaker administration headed by judge Vassiliki Thanou-Christophilou, Greece's first female prime minister.[15] In the September 2015 general election, Alexis Tsipras led SYRIZA to another victory, winning 145 out of 300 seats [16] and re-forming the coalition with the Independent Greeks.[17] However, he was defeated in the July 2019 general election by Kyriakos Mitsotakis who leads New Democracy.[18] On 7 July 2019, Kyriakos Mitsotakis was sworn in as the new Prime Minister of Greece. He formed a centre-right government after the landslide victory of his New Democracy party.[19]

Political position/
Ideology
Political Party 2009
European
Elections
2009
Legislative
Elections
2012 May
Legislative
Elections
2012 June
Legislative
Elections
2014
European
Elections
2015 Jan.
Legislative
Elections
2015 Sept.
Legislative
Elections
2019
European
Elections
2019
Legislative
Elections
% % % % % % % % %
Far-left KKE8.357.548.484.506.115.475.555.335.30
ANTARSYA0.430.361.190.330.720.640.850.640.41
Left WingSYRIZA4.704.6016.7926.8926.5736.3435.4623.7831.53
Popular Unity2.860.560.23
MeRA252.993.44
Course of Freedom1.611.46
Centre-LeftPASOK / (MC, OT, DC)36.6443.9213.1812.288.024.686.287.728.10
Democratic Left6.116.251.200.49
Social Agreement0.96
The River6.606.054.091.51
KIDISO2.46
EcologistEcologist Greens3.492.532.930.880.900.87
CentreUnion of Centrists0.380.270.610.280.651.793.431.451.24
Teleia1.77
LiberalDrassi0.761.80
Recreate Greece2.150.530.690.74
Democratic Alliance2.55
Drassi/Recreate Greece1.590.91
Greek European Citizens1.40
Centre-RightNew Democracy32.2933.4818.8529.6622.7227.8128.1033.1339.85
Right Wing PAMME1.27
Independent Greeks10.627.513.464.753.690.80
UFP1.04
Far RightLAOS7.145.632.891.582.691.031.23
Golden Dawn0.460.296.976.929.396.286.994.882.93
Greek Solution4.183.70

2020s

In March 2020, Greece’s parliament elected a non-partisan candidate, Ekaterini Sakellaropoulou, as the first female President of Greece.[20]

See also


References


  1. "Country Comparison: Area". The World Factbook. Central Intelligence Agency. Retrieved 7 January 2013.
  2. Απογραφή Πληθυσμού – Κατοικιών 2011. ΜΟΝΙΜΟΣ Πληθυσμός [Results of Population-Housing Census 2011 concerning the permanent population of the country] (PDF) (in Greek). 20 March 2014. Retrieved 25 October 2016.
  3. "Announcement of the results of the 2011 Population Census for the Resident Population" (PDF). Hellenic Statistical Authority. 28 December 2012. Archived from the original (PDF) on 13 November 2013. Retrieved 24 August 2013.
  4. "Report for Selected Countries and Subjects". IMF. 20 October 2018.
  5. "INCOME INEQUALITY 2018 Survey on Income and Living Conditions (Income reference period 2017)". Piraeus: Hellenic Statistical Authority. 21 June 2019. Retrieved 4 September 2019.
  6. "Table 2. Human Development Index Trends, 1990-2017". Human Development Reports. New York: United Nations Development Programme. 14 September 2018. Retrieved 20 September 2018.
  7. Ιορδάνογλου, Χρυσάφης Ι. (2002). Γερνώντας μαζί με την τρίτη ελληνική δημοκρατία. Εκδόσεις Παρατηρητής. ISBN 960-374-232-5.
  8. Μαυρογένης, Γιώργος (2008). Πολιτική Επικοινωνία & ΜΜΕ (Κεφάλαιο 17: Πολιτική Επικοινωνία στην Τρίτη Ελληνική Δημοκρατία). Εκδόσεις Σταμούλη. ISBN 9789603517566.
  9. "H ποιότητα στην Γ΄ Ελληνική Δημοκρατία". kathimerini.gr. Retrieved 29 January 2015.
  10. "Η Μεταπολίτευση, μία σύντομη αποτίμηση". kathimerini.gr. Retrieved 29 January 2015.
  11. "Τρίτη Ελληνική Δημοκρατία. Του Γ. Ρωμαίου". tvxs.gr. Retrieved 29 January 2015.
  12. Katsourides, Yiannos (22 September 2016). Radical Left Parties in Government: The Cases of SYRIZA and AKEL. ISBN 9781137588418.
  13. https://www.bbc.com/news/world-europe-30975437
  14. https://www.theguardian.com/world/live/2015/jan/26/greece-election-syriza-victory-alexis-tsipras-coalition-talks-live-updates
  15. https://www.economywatch.gr/vassiliki-thanou-christophilou-became-greeces-first-female-prime-minister/
  16. https://www.bbc.com/news/world-europe-34307795
  17. https://www.dw.com/en/greek-finance-minister-tsakalotos-takes-key-role-in-tsipras-new-cabinet/a-18731437
  18. https://www.theguardian.com/world/2019/jul/07/greeks-choose-between-beach-and-ballot-in-first-post-debt-bailout-poll
  19. https://www.aljazeera.com/news/2019/7/8/kyriakos-mitsotakis-sworn-in-as-greeces-new-prime-minister
  20. https://www.aljazeera.com/news/2020/3/13/greeces-first-female-president-sworn-in