Third Sacred War

The Third Sacred War (356346 BC) was fought between the forces of the Delphic Amphictyonic League, principally represented by Thebes, and latterly by Philip II of Macedon, and the Phocians. The war was caused by a large fine imposed in 357 BC on the Phocians by the Amphictyonic League (dominated at that moment by Thebes), for the offense of cultivating sacred land; refusing to pay, the Phocians instead seized the Temple of Apollo in Delphi, and used the accumulated treasures to fund large mercenary armies. Thus, although the Phocians suffered several major defeats, they were able to continue the war for many years, until eventually all parties were nearing exhaustion. Philip II used the distraction of the other states to increase his power in northern Greece, in the process becoming ruler of Thessaly. In the end, Philip's growing power, and the exhaustion of the other states, allowed him to impose a peaceful settlement of the war, marking a major step in the rise of Macedon to pre-eminence in Ancient Greece.[1][2]

Third Sacred War

The ruins of ancient Delphi
Date356346 BC
Location
Result Amphictyonic League victory
Belligerents
Amphictyonic League,
Thebes,
Boeotian League,
Thessaly,
Locris,
Doris,
Macedon
Phocis,
Pherae,
Athens,
Sparta
Commanders and leaders
Pammenes,
Philip II of Macedon
Philomelos,
Onomarchos,
Phayllos,
Phalaikos