Thunder Bay

Thunder Bay is a city in and the seat of Thunder Bay District, Ontario, Canada. It is the most populous municipality in Northwestern Ontario and the second most populous (after Greater Sudbury) municipality in Northern Ontario; its population is 107,909 according to the 2016 Canada Census, Located on Lake Superior, the census metropolitan area of Thunder Bay has a population of 121,621 and consists of the city of Thunder Bay, the municipalities of Oliver Paipoonge and Neebing, the townships of Shuniah, Conmee, O'Connor, and Gillies, and the Fort William First Nation.

Thunder Bay
City of Thunder Bay
From top left: View from Mount McKay, Lakehead University, Magnus Theatre, City Hall, Tourist Pagoda
"Canada’s Gateway to the West", "T-Bay", "Lakehead" or "The Lakehead"[1]
Superior by Nature / The Gateway to the West
Thunder Bay
Location of Thunder Bay
Coordinates: 48°22′56″N 89°14′46″W
DistrictThunder Bay District
CMAThunder Bay
Settled1683 as Fort Caministigoyan
Amalgamation1 January 1970
Electoral Districts     

Thunder Bay—Superior North/Thunder Bay—Rainy River
ProvincialThunder Bay—Superior North/Thunder Bay—Atikokan
  TypeMunicipal Government
  MayorBill Mauro
  City managerNorm Gale[4]
  Governing BodyThunder Bay City Council
  MPsPatty Hajdu (Liberal)
Marcus Powlowski (Liberal)
  MPPsMichael Gravelle (OLP)
Judith Monteith-Farrell (ONDP)
  City (single-tier)447.5 km2 (172.8 sq mi)
  Land328.24 km2 (126.73 sq mi)
  Water119.0 km2 (45.9 sq mi)  26.6%
179.38 km2 (69.26 sq mi)
2,556.37 km2 (987.02 sq mi)
Elevation199 m (653 ft)
  City (single-tier)107,909 (50th)
  Density330.1/km2 (855/sq mi)
93,952 (33rd)
  Urban density569.9/km2 (1,476/sq mi)
121,621 (33rd)
  Metro density47.6/km2 (123/sq mi)
Demonym(s)Thunder Bayer
Time zoneUTC−5 (EST)
  Summer (DST)UTC−4 (EDT)
Forward sortation area
Area code(s)807
NTS Map52A6 Thunder Bay
GDP (Thunder Bay CMA)CA$6.0 billion (2016)[9]
GDP per capita (Thunder Bay CMA)CA$49,177 (2016)

European settlement in the region began in the late 17th century with a French fur trading outpost on the banks of the Kaministiquia River.[10] It grew into an important transportation hub with its port forming an important link in the shipping of grain and other products from western Canada, through the Great Lakes and the Saint Lawrence Seaway, to the east coast. Forestry and manufacturing played important roles in the city's economy. They have declined in recent years, but have been replaced by a "knowledge economy" based on medical research and education. Thunder Bay is the site of the Thunder Bay Regional Health Research Institute.

The city takes its name from the immense Thunder Bay at the head of Lake Superior, known on 18th-century French maps as Baie du Tonnerre (Bay of Thunder).[10] The city is often referred to as the "Lakehead", or "Canadian Lakehead", because of its location at the end of Great Lakes navigation on the Canadian side of the border.[11]