Timeline of Argentine history

This is a timeline of Argentine history, comprising important legal and territorial changes and political events in Argentina and its predecessor states. To read about the background to these events, see History of Argentina. See also the list of Presidents of Argentina.

Millennia: 1st BC · 1st–2nd · 3rd
Centuries: 5th BC · 4th BC · 3rd BC · 2nd BC · 1st BC

5th century BC

500 BCIrrigation permitted development of sedentary agriculture of staple crops in western and northwestern Andean region

1st century BC

Centuries: 1st · 2nd · 3rd · 4th · 5th · 6th · 7th · 8th9th10th11th12th13th14th15th16th17th18th19th20th

1st century

1Several corn-based civilizations developed in the western and northwestern Andean region (Ansilta, Condorhuasi, Cienaga, Aguada, Santa Maria, Huarpes, Diaguitas, Sanavirones, among others)

6th century

600Development of metallurgical technologies, permitting elaborate bronzeworks

9th century

850Emergence of fortified urban settlements

15th century

1480The Inca Empire, under the rule of emperor Pachacutec, launched an offensive and conquered present-day northwestern Argentina, integrating it into a region called Collasuyu

16th century

1516Spanish navigator Juan Díaz de Solís first European explorer to visit Río de la Plata, on territory which is now Argentina; Díaz de Solís killed and supposedly cannibalised by native Charrúa, Querandí or Guaraní
1526Sebastian Cabot sailed up Paraná River and built short-lived fort near modern Rosario
1536Santa María del Buen Ayre founded by Pedro de Mendoza on site of modern Buenos Aires
1541Santa María del Buen Ayre settlement abandoned after indigenous attacks
1553Santiago del Estero founded by Francisco de Aguirre (some claim 1550)
1561Mendoza founded
1562San Juan founded
1573Córdoba and Santa Fe founded
1580Permanent colony re-established by Spain on the site of Buenos Aires as part of the Viceroyalty of Peru; initial settlement was primarily overland from Peru
1582Salta founded
1591La Rioja founded
1593San Salvador de Jujuy founded

17th century

1609First Jesuit missions to the Guaraní founded in the Upper Paraná area
1613University of Córdoba founded by Jesuits
1657Diaguita rebellion led by Spanish rebel, Pedro Bohórquez
1661San Ignacio school in Córdoba founded by Jesuits
1680The Portuguese established a trading post across the Rio de la Plata from Buenos Aires
1685City of Tucumán moved to present location

18th century

1767Jesuits expelled from Spanish territories
1776Establishment of the Viceroyalty of the Río de la Plata (Spanish: Virreinato del Río de la Plata) comprising today's Argentina, Uruguay, and Paraguay, as well as much of present-day Bolivia, declared with Buenos Aires as its capital
1794Establishment of the Commerce Consulate of Buenos Aires

19th century

1806British invasions of the Río de la Plata unsuccessfully attempt to establish control over Spain's southern colonies as part of the Napoleonic Wars. Spanish troops offer no defence but British repelled by local civilians and militias (to 1807)
1810Secret meetings in May 1810 organised a petition for an open meeting – Cabildo Abierto
The petition was refused by viceroy Baltasar Hidalgo de Cisneros but popular protest forced his hand on 22 May.
The Cabildo opened its session on 22 May with 251 of the city's most prominent citizens, and discussed the future government of the provinces
On 23 May the assembly voted for the removal of the viceroy and the creation of the Primera Junta of locals to govern Buenos Aires, proclaiming loyalty to Ferdinand VII. This was properly agreed and the Junta sworn in on 25 May
Unsuccessful military campaigns in Paraguay and Alto Perú failed to gather support for joint action by the entire viceroyalty against Spanish forces (to 1811)
MayNews of Napoleon's invasion of Spain caused a power vacuum in Buenos Aires leading to a series of events known as the May Revolution:
DecemberJunta Grande, with delegates from other provinces of the United Provinces of the River Plate, replaced Primera Junta
1811First Triumvirate of Feliciano Chiclana, Juan José Paso and Manuel de Sarratea replaced Junta Grande in September 1811
1812The Jujuy Exodus of August 1812 was led by Manuel Belgrano, with several thousand soldiers and civilians retreating from Jujuy and Salta, to avoid military defeat and defections
Second Triumvirate of Nicolás Rodriguez Peña, Antonio Álvarez Jonte and Juan José Paso replaced First Triumvirate
1813The Battle of San Lorenzo in February, first battle of José de San Martín in the Argentine War of Independence
The Asamblea del año XIII called in February to plan further military campaigns and organise defence of Buenos Aires
1814Action of 14 May 1814 saw United Provinces' fleet defeat Spanish navy securing coast
Second Triumvirate replaced by position of Supreme Director, first occupied by Gervasio Antonio de Posadas
1815Defeats in battles in late 1815 led to final loss of modern Bolivia
1816In March an assembly of provincial delegates met as the Congress of Tucumán to discuss future military and political developments
On 9 July 1816, the Congress declared the independence of Argentina
1820The Battle of Cepeda took place between Unitarians who supported a strong centralised state, and Federals, largely provincial caudillo warlords who wanted decentralised authority. The Federals won and the February 1820 Treaty of Pilar declared Argentina as a federal country, although Unitarian ideals continued
1825The United Kingdom recognises Argentine independence.
Deputies from the eastern bank of the Río de la Plata declare independence from Brazil, leading to the Cisplatine War. The 1827 Battle of Ituzaingó saw tactical success for Argentina. The war ended in 1828 with a treaty giving independence to Uruguay
1828Luis Vernet establishes settlement on the Falkland Islands
1829Juan Manuel de Rosas became governor of Buenos Aires Province
1830Yaghan aboriginal Jemmy Button (Orundellico) taken from Tierra del Fuego to England by Robert FitzRoy on HMS Beagle
1831Pacto Federal signed between provinces to protect federal nature of country
The Voyage of the Beagle with Charles Darwin and Robert FitzRoy visited the Río de la Plata, Patagonia and Tierra del Fuego (to 1834)
Argentine Governor of the Falkland Islands Luis Vernet is expelled by USS Lexington following his seizure of United States interests. New governor murdered in 1832 mutiny
1833Juan Manuel de Rosas begins the First Conquest of the Desert
British forces re-occupy the Falkland Islands
1839Rosas made Supreme Chief of the Argentine Confederation
1852Rosas overthrown by Justo José de Urquiza following Battle of Caseros
1853Constitution of Argentina agreed by assembly in Santa Fe, creating modern system of government
1854Urquiza became first President of Argentina in modern sense but opposed by Buenos Aires, still opposed to federal project
1859Defeat of Unitarian forces led by Bartolomé Mitre by Urquiza and federals at Battle of Cepeda; Buenos Aires re-enters confederation
1861Mendoza earthquake kills 8,000 to 10,000 citizens of Mendoza
1864Start of War of the Triple Alliance between Paraguay and the Triple Alliance of Argentina, Brazil and Uruguay, leading to utter defeat of Paraguay by 1870
1878Commencement of the Conquest of the Desert against indigenous inhabitants of the south led by Julio Argentino Roca; final surrender by 1884
1880Roca became president, finally defeated federals and moved capital to Buenos Aires from Rosario
1884Gold is discovered near Cape Virgenes sparking the Tierra del Fuego gold rush
1890Founding of the Radical Civic Union (UCR) or Radical Party
The Panic of 1890 brought the Baring Brothers bank in London close to collapse after disastrous investments in Argentina
1895Mandatory military service (Conscription) established

20th century

1902The Drago Doctrine is announced by the Argentine Minister of Foreign Affairs Luis María Drago.[1]
1912Sáenz Peña Law introduces universal, secret and compulsory male suffrage, end of the Generation of '80
1916Start of presidency of Hipólito Yrigoyen, UCR democratic reformist
1918Students strikes and demonstrations enforce the university reform of shared powers between teachers, graduates and students
1927Fabrica Militar de Aviones aircraft factory founded in Cordoba
1930Military coup deposed Yrigoyen, starting the 'Infamous Decade'
1931General Agustín Justo declared winner of Presidency following 'patriotic fraud' in election
1943'National Revolution' led by nationalist military officers including Colonel Juan Perón; ensured continued non-intervention in World War II
1944San Juan earthquake destroys provincial capital, kills 10,000
1945Argentina enters World War II on the side of the Allies and admitted as founding member of United Nations
Perón arrested then freed after major popular protest by those known as the Descamisados
1946Perón elected president; re-elected to presidency in 1951
Indigenous people march in Malón de la Paz to Buenos Aires to demand land rights
1947Women's suffrage is approved
1950First flight of the FMA IAe 33 Pulqui II, the first jet fighter to be entirely developed and built in Latin America.
The National Atomic Energy Commission (Comisión Nacional de Energía Atómica, CNEA) is founded
1952Death of Eva Perón
1955Perón ousted in 'Liberating Revolution' military coup
1956INTA, the National Agricultural Technology Institute, is created
1957INTI, the National Industrial Technology Institute, is created
1958ARA Independencia, the first aircraft carrier of the Argentine Navy, enters service
1962Military coup ended presidency of civilian Arturo Frondizi
1966General Juan Carlos Onganía assumed power and represses political parties
1967Death of Ernesto 'Che' Guevara
1969In the Cordobazo popular protests of May 1969, thousands of citizens routed the army and police and took control of Córdoba for two days
A counter-insurgency aircraft, the FMA IA 58 Pucará, flies for the first time
Aircraft carrier ARA Veinticinco de Mayo replaces ARA Independencia
1970General Alejandro Lanusse emerged as president after Onganía toppled
Civil conflict and terrorist attacks, principally by left-wing Montoneros and Ejército Revolucionario del Pueblo opposed by paramilitary Argentine Anticommunist Alliance (to 1976)
1973The Ezeiza massacre takes place upon Perón's return from exile, when members of the Triple A open fire on the crowd awaiting him.
Democratic elections brought Peronist Héctor Cámpora to power; Perón elected president in fresh elections later that year
1974Atucha I Nuclear Power Plant, the first nuclear power plant in Latin America, began operation
Death of Juan Perón, leaving widow Isabel Martínez de Perón as president
1976Military coup in March deposed Martínez de Perón
The high-technology company INVAP is created
The Proceso de Reorganización Nacional military government led by Jorge Videla repressed political and armed opposition through use of torture, forced disappearance and extrajudicial killing up of to 30,000 people (to 1983)
1978Argentina hosted and won the 1978 Football World Cup
Argentina refused the binding Beagle Channel Arbitration and started the Operation Soberania in order to invade Chile
1982Leader General Leopoldo Galtieri sent troops to the Falkland Islands triggering Falklands War; British task force retook islands by mid-June
1983Military government collapsed; election of Radical Raúl Alfonsín as president
1984The Treaty of Peace and Friendship of 1984 between Chile and Argentina ends border dispute over Picton, Nueva and Lennox islands
Embalse nuclear power plant began operations
The trainer aircraft FMA IA 63 Pampa flight for the first time.
1985La Historia Oficial film won the Academy Award for Best Foreign Language Film
1986Argentina wins 1986 Football World Cup, captained by Diego Maradona
1987First uprising by Carapintadas, commanded by Colonel Aldo Rico, two arrested. Alfonsín declares La casa está en orden (The house is in order)
1988Second Carapintada revolt, again under Rico's command in January, 300 arrested
Third and last Carapintada uprising, led by Mohamed Alí Seineldín, two arrested
1989Dissident military group attacks La Tablada regiment, but are finally seized
Hyper-inflation and political turmoil brings Peronist Carlos Menem to power in election
1990Neo-liberal economic policies and privatisations brought general strikes, hunger strikes and political party realignments
1991Peso pegged to US Dollar
Argentina is the only Latin American country to participate in the first Gulf War under mandate of the United Nations
Mercosur customs union founded by the Treaty of Asunción
Argentina, Brazil and Chile signed the Mendoza Declaration prohibiting Chemical Weapons
1992Israeli Embassy attack in Buenos Aires killed 29 in terrorist attack
1993Argentina joins UNFICYP mission at Cyprus. As of 2006, ground troops and helicopters are serving there and since 1999 have other Latin American countries troops embedded.
1994Following the Pacto de Olivos, the constitution reform is agreed, allowing Presidents to serve second consecutive term
Bombing of AMIA Jewish Community Centre in Buenos Aires, killing 85
The murder of Conscript Omar Carrasco led to the abolition of Conscription
1995Menem won second term
Argentina acceded to the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty
FMA privatized into Lockheed Martin Aircraft Argentina
1996Radical Fernando de la Rúa elected first Mayor of Buenos Aires
1997Radicals, left-wing FrePaSo and others joined forces as Alianza electoral alliance to oppose Menem and Peronists
The A-4AR Fightinghawk enter service in the Argentine Air Force
1998U.S. President Bill Clinton designated Argentina as a major non-NATO ally
1999De la Rúa won Presidency as head of the Alianza, but was confronted by growing economic crisis
In one of the worst accidents in the history of Argentinian aviation, LAPA flight 3142 crash at Aeroparque Jorge Newbery airport resulted in 65 fatalities.
2000Hitech company INVAP is chosen by Australia to design and construct the OPAL nuclear reactor
Vice-President Carlos Álvarez resigned in protest political bribes scandal, precipitating crisis in ruling alliance

21st century

2001In March, the remaining FrePaSo ministers resigned from government in protest at economic and labour reforms
In November, the government responded to a run on banks by limiting access to bank deposits in the corralito
In December, events that have become known as the Argentinazo took place:
  • middle classes, exasperated with constraints of corralito, took to streets in protest in the Cacerolazo
  • Trade unions and piqueteros began protests, and shops and businesses were ransacked
  • Violent protests and mass demonstrations in the Plaza de Mayo; 26 die in protests nationwide
  • Finance minister Domingo Cavallo and President de la Rúa resigned in quick succession on 19 and 20 December
  • Provincial governor Adolfo Rodríguez Saá appointed president by Argentine Congress on 22 December
  • Rodríguez Saá declared a short-lived debt moratorium. After a few days, Argentina officially defaulted on $93 billion of its debt to the International Monetary Fund and creditors
  • Rodríguez Saá resigned after a week following lack of support from colleagues
  • Eduardo Duhalde, losing candidate in the 1999 presidential elections, appointed president with broad cross-party support
2002Duhalde imposes further financial measures, including converting dollar accounts to pesos, scrapping 1:1 parity with the dollar, and social measures to bring economy under control
2003Former President Carlos Menem wins first round of presidential election but pulls out facing certain defeat, handing victory to fellow Peronist Néstor Kirchner
2004In April more than 100,000 people demonstrated in Buenos Aires in support of Juan Carlos Blumberg, father of murdered student Axel Blumberg, demanding harsher criminal laws
Kirchner pursued Argentine debt restructuring
Natural gas supply shortage produced tension with Chile
Antarctic Treaty Secretariat established in Buenos Aires
A fire in the República Cromagnon nightclub in Buenos Aires kills 194 people and injures 714
2005Relations between Catholic Church and government broke down in February row between military chaplain and minister over abortion
Supreme Court overruled 'Laws of Pardon' that were used to pardon military figures of the Dirty War
First disputes of the Cellulose plant conflict between Argentina and Uruguay
Mid-term elections in October saw a massive split in the Justicialist Party between Kirchner's centre-left Front for Victory faction and the rump of his former patron Duhalde and other provincial leaders; Front for Victory wins by large margin
Massive demonstrations against U.S. President George W. Bush at the Fourth Summit of the Americas in Mar del Plata
In December, Kirchner announced cancellation of IMF debt with single, final payment
2006Buenos Aires mayor Aníbal Ibarra removed from office following accusations of negligence regarding the República Cromagnon nightclub fire of 2004
2007Catholic priest Christian Von Wernich is found guilty of involvement in seven murders and 42 cases of kidnapping and torture related to the state-sponsored Dirty War. Von Wernich is sentenced to life imprisonment.
Cristina Kirchner assumes as new president of Argentina.

See also