Timeline of Cardiff history
The word Caerdyf has its origins in post-Roman Brythonic words meaning "the fort of the Taff". The fort probably refers to that established by the Romans. Caer is Welsh for fort and -dyf is in effect a form of Taf (Taff), the river which flows by Cardiff Castle.
The Roman settlement
The Viking settlement
850: The Vikings attacked the Welsh coast. They used Cardiff as a base and then as a port. Street names such as Dumballs Road and Womanby Street come from the Vikings.
The Norman town
1081: William the Conqueror led an army through southern Wales and may have erected defences at Cardiff on the site of the old Roman fort.
1100: A small town outside the castle was establishing itself. It was made up primarily of settlers Norman/Saxon people.
1315: Llywelyn Bren, a great-grandson of Ifor Bach, attacked Cardiff Castle.
1318: Llewelyn Bren executed at Cardiff as a traitor.
1327: Cardiff declared a Staple Port.
1404: Owain Glyndŵr captured Cardiff Castle.
The county town of Glamorganshire
1536: The legislative union of England and Wales (Laws in Wales Acts 1535–1542) was established. The shire of Glamorgan was established and Cardiff became the county town and the Herbert family became the most powerful family in Cardiff.
1551: William Herbert, Earl of Pembroke, became the first Baron Cardiff (Baron Herbert of Cardiff).
1574: Henry Herbert, 2nd Earl of Pembroke, began restoration work to Cardiff Castle.
1610: A map of Cardiff was produced by John Speed.
1648: The Battle of St. Fagans was fought between the Parliamentarian Army and the Royalists. It was the last major battle to occur in Wales; some 8,000 Royalists were defeated in a two-hour fight by 3,000 Parliamentarian troops of the New Model Army with about 200 soldiers, mainly Royalists, killed.
1737: Flat Holm Lighthouse was built.
1766: John Stuart, 1st Marquess of Bute married into the Herberts, the great local landowning family.
1778: The reconstruction of Cardiff Castle began.
19th-century growth of Cardiff
1793: John Crichton-Stuart, 2nd Marquess of Bute was born. He is later described as the creator of modern Cardiff, building the Port of Cardiff.
1815: Boat service between Cardiff and Bristol was established, running twice a week.
1840: The first railway station in Cardiff opened at Crockherbtown, owned by the Taff Vale Railway. The service ran from Cardiff to Navigation House (now Abercynon). The line was extended from Navigation House to Merthyr Tydfil in 1841 (the Taff Vale Railway, DSM Barrie 1969).
1850: Cardiff Water Company was established to provide water for Cardiff.
1860: The Principality Building Society was established.
1863: The Royal Arcade opened, the first of many shopping arcades in Cardiff.
1865: James Howell established Howells department store.
1872: Cardiff Castle Clock Tower was completed.
1882: Opening of the new Cardiff Free Library, Museum and Schools for Science and Art in The Hayes.
1883: The National Eisteddfod was held in Cardiff.
1884: The Cardiff Arms Park hosted its first international match, a rugby union encounter between Wales and Ireland.
1885/6: In the rugby season, Frank Hancock Cardiff RFC, introduced new 'two-centre' tactical innovation, since adopted worldwide.
1886: The Coal Exchange was opened to conduct trade for the growing industry.
1894: Cardiff Masonic Hall Company Ltd was established after purchasing the thirty-year-old Methodist chapel at Guildford Street.
1897: The Pierhead Building was built.
1899: Riverside Football Club, later to be renamed Cardiff City, was formed.
1904: Cardiff Town Hall opened, later renamed City Hall.
The city of Cardiff – the largest coal port in the world
1907: Queen Alexandra Dock was opened; it was the largest in Cardiff.
1910: Cardiff City played their first match at Ninian Park.
The decline of the docks
1919: Four days of race riots take place in June, leading to the deaths of three men.
1923: The BBC began broadcasting from studios in Castle Street.
1930: Cardiff Round Table, the local branch of Round Table Britain & Ireland, was founded, being the 26th table in the organisation.
1931: Cardiff Municipal Airport was opened on Pengam Moors.
1935: The first RAC Welsh Rally started from Cardiff.
1952: The last execution took place in Cardiff Prison. Mahmood Hussein Mattan was hanged for murder, but his conviction was quashed in 1998.
1959: The movie Tiger Bay was released. It was partly shot in Cardiff.
1961: Public houses in Cardiff were allowed to open for the first time on Sundays since the 1880s.
1966: The Heath Hospital was officially opened.
1970: Bute East Dock was closed. Pearl Assurance House is opened in April, the tallest building in Wales.
1971: The National Sports Centre for Wales opened in Sophia Gardens.
1973: John Desmond Brayley MC DL was nominated for a peerage as Baron Brayley of the City of Cardiff and County Glamorgan.
1980: The M4 motorway to the north of the city was opened.
1983: BBC Cardiff Singer of the World competition was launched.
1984: The National Stadium at Cardiff Arms Park was opened.
1985: The Capel Llanilltern – Culverhouse Cross Link Road opens.
The regeneration of Cardiff Bay and the city
1988: The new County Hall was completed in Cardiff Bay. The Grangetown Link Road opens.
1995: The Butetown Link Road opens.
2001: The 2001 Census showed that the population of Cardiff was 305,353.
2004: The Wales Millennium Centre was opened.
2006: The Senedd, the new debating chamber for the Welsh Assembly, was opened.
2008: Cardiff International Pool opened to the public at the International Sports Village in Cardiff Bay on 12 January, replacing the Wales Empire Pool that had been demolished in 1997 to make way for the Millennium Stadium. The National Eisteddfod was held in Cardiff.
2011: Wales voted in favour of extending the lawmaking powers of the Welsh Assembly in a national referendum. This time Cardiff also voted "yes" to more powers, with over 61% of its people supporting the change. The 2011 Census showed that the population of Cardiff was 346,100, its highest actual recorded figure.
2013: Cardiff City was promoted in the 2012–13 to football's Premier League, 51 years since they were last in football's top tier in 1962, but the first since the Premier League came into being. They were relegated at the end of the 2013–14 season.
2019: In May the Urdd Eisteddfod returns to Cardiff after a 10-year gap, hold its first festival without admission fees in Cardiff Bay.
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