Timeline of Chilean history

This is a timeline of Chilean history, comprising important legal and territorial changes and political events in Chile and its predecessor states. To read about the background to these events, see History of Chile. See also the list of governors and presidents of Chile.

Pre-Columbian Chile

c. 16500 BCSettlement of Monte Verde, the "earliest known human settlement in the Americas".[1]
c. 5050 BCChinchorro culture practices funerary mummification, the first known example of this practice in the world.[2]
c. 1000–1150Tiwanaku Empire collapses[3][4] ushering migratory and societal changes that reach as far south as Araucanía.[5][6]
1300–1399Possible date for a Cunco-Huilliche migration to Chiloé Island.[7][8] Chonos were possibly displaced further such to places like Guaitecas Archipelago.[8]
1420September 1a 9.4 MS-strong earthquake shakes Chile's Atacama Region causing tsunamis in Chile as well as Hawaii and Japan.[9][10]
1471–1493UnknownAt some point in this time interval the battle of the Maule between Incas and Mapuches may have occurred.[11]

16th century

1502The Inca Emperor Túpac Yupanqui reached Itata River
151325 SeptemberVasco Núñez de Balboa becomes the first European to sight the Pacific Ocean from the New World; he calls it Mar del Sur.[12]
1520October - NovemberExplorer Ferdinand Magellan's expedition finds the passage now known as the Strait of Magellan. In the process, they become the first Europeans to describe Chilean Patagonia and its inhabitants.[13]
1532Francisco Pizarro arrives in Peru from Panamá. He begins the Conquest of the Inca Empire and captures Emperor Atahualpa during the Battle of Cajamarca.[14][15]
UnknownA possible date for the battle of the Maule between Incas and Mapuches.[11]
1535July - DecemberSpanish Conquistador Diego de Almagro begins his expedition to the lands south of Peru through the eastern side of the Andes Mountains.[15]
1536March - MayAlmagro's expedition crosses the Andes into the Copiapó River valley and explores the central region of Chile as far south as the Aconcagua River valley.[15]
Winter of 1536Almagro sends an expedition under :es:Gómez de Alvarado southwards toward the Bio-Bio region. The expedition ends at the Battle of Reynogüelén, near the Itata River, being considered the first battle between Spaniards and Mapuches.[15]
154112 FebruaryPedro de Valdivia founds Santiago de Nueva Extremadura, now known as Santiago.[16]
25 Apriles:Lucas Martínez Vegaso founds Villa San Marcos de Arica, now known as Arica.[17]
11 SeptemberAn uprising led by toqui Michimalonco attacks fledgling Santiago in an attempt to drive out the Spanish. Key actions undertaken by Inés de Suárez, the first Spanish woman to set foot in Chile, are attributed with avoiding the complete destruction of the outnumbered settlement.[18]
1544September 4[upper-alpha 1]es:Juan Bohón founds Villanueva de la Serena, now known as La Serena.[20]
1545Foundation of the port of Arica. The port becomes a key staging point between the mines of Potosí in Upper Peru (now Bolivia) and Lima.[21]
1546Mapuche child Lautaro is captured by the Spanish and made a yanacona. Eventually, Lautaro becomes personal page of Pedro de Valdivia.[22]
15505 OctoberPedro de Valdivia founds Concepción del Nuevo Extremo, now known as Concepción.[23]
1552February 9Founding of Valdivia.
Winter of 1552Lautaro, after six years' imprisonment by the Spanish, escapes. He then teaches his people European warfare, including riding horses.
1553December 25Battle of Tucapel: Mapuches led by Lautaro defeat the Spanish at the ruins of Tucapel capturing Pedro de Valdivia who is then executed. A general Mapuche uprising develops under Lautaro.
1557April 30Battle of Mataquito: A Spanish force led by Francisco de Villagra defeats the forces of Lautaro, killing him amidst the battle. Caupolicán assumes the role of Mapuche toqui (wartime chief).
1558Caupolicán is captured and executed by impalement.
27 MarchGovernor García Hurtado de Mendoza founds San Mateo de Osorno, now known as Osorno.[24]
1564AprilConcepción is unsuccessfully besieged by native Mapuches.
1565August 27The King of Spain decrees the creation of Real Audiencia in Concepción.
156712 FebruaryChiloé Archipelago is claimed by Spain. Martín Ruiz de Gamboa founds Castro on the main island; the southernmost European settlement at that time.[25]
August 5Real Audiencia in Concepción starts its functions. The Audiencia is abolished in 1575.
1570February 8Concepción is struck by an earthquake.[23]
1574November 22Spanish captain Juan Fernández discovers the Juan Fernández Islands.
1575December 16Earthquake in Valdivia causes extensive damage in Valdivia and surrounding cities of Villarrica, Osorno, and Castro. As in the 1960 Valdivia earthquake, the Riñihue Lake dams.[26]
1576AprilThe dam of San Pedro River burst flooding many settlements downstream including Valdivia.
1578DecemberFrancis Drake attacks the coast of Chile during his circumnavigation of the earth; La Serena and Valparaíso are plundered.
1580June 26Martín Ruiz de Gamboa founds Chillán.[27]
15845 FebruaryPedro Sarmiento de Gamboa founds the settlement Nombre de Jesús on the eastern end of the Strait of Magellan.[28]
March 25Gamboa founds the settlement Rey Don Felipe in the Strait of Magellan. By 1587 both settlements lay in ruins, leading English pirate Thomas Cavendish to dub Rey Don Felipe as Port Famine.[28]
1598December 23Battle of Curalaba: Governor Martín García Óñez de Loyola killed in a Mapuche ambush.
1599The Real Situado, an annual payment of silver from Potosí to Chile, is established.

17th century

1600February 16Huaynaputina begins its catastrophic eruption.
April 19In the Battle of Castro a Spanish force defeat and expel Huilliche rebels and Dutch corsairs from Castro.
1602General uprising of the Mapuches under Pelantaro. All cities south of the Bío-Bío River are demolished, in what is now called Destruction of the Seven Cities.
1604A fort established in 1602 at the ruins of Valdivia is abandoned.
1608Jesuits establishes themselves in Chiloé Archipelago.
1612Beginning of the Defensive War phase (promoted by Luis de Valdivia) in the Arauco War.
1613Jesuits from Chiloé reach Guayaneco Archipelago for the first time.[29]
1639The alcabala is reestablished after it had been suspended since the Disaster of Curalaba in 1598.
1640Llaima begins an eruption.[30]
1641January 6The first Parliament of Quillín is held.[31]
The first large shipment of Fitzroya wood leaves Chiloé Archipelago.[32]
1643May 20A Dutch expedition led by plunders Carelmapu and Castro soon after. Governor of Chiloé Andrés Herrera dies in battle and is replaced by Fernando de Alvarado.[33]
August 28The Dutch, now led by Elias Herckmans, establish a base at the ruins of Valdivia.[34]
October 28The Dutch retreat from Valdivia to Constantino Island and then to Dutch Brazil.
1644April 30Captain Juan de Acevedo departs to investigate about the Dutch presence in Valdivia, entering the site of the ruins and finding they have left.[35]
1645Repopulation of Valdivia and construction of the Valdivian Fort System. Valdivia comes under direct rule of the Viceroyalty of Peru.
1647May 13Santiago is struck by a devastating earthquake.[36]
1651January 24The Parliament of Boroa is held.
March 21Spanish ship San José with provisions aimed for Valdivia wrecks of the coast south of Valdivia. Its surviving crew is killed by local Cuncos.[37]
1654January 11A Spanish army led by Juan de Salazar is defeated by local Mapuche-Huilliches as it tries to cross Bueno River in Southern Chile.[38]
1655February 14Mapuches launch a general insurrection creating turmoil as far north as Maule River, far beyond the ordinary frontier.
1656January 20New governor Pedro Porter Casanate defeat a Mapuche army at the battle of Conuco.
1660Military leader Alejo is murdered by his two wives.
1664The Viceroalty of Peru estimates 30,000 to 42,000 Spaniards to have died in Chile of which half would have died by the direct consequences of the Arauco War.
1667Governor Francisco de Meneses is destituted after accusations of immorality against him.
1670December 31The expedition of John Narborough leaves Corral Bay having surveyed the coast and lost four hostages to the Spanish.[39]
1671JanuaryThe Parliament of Malloco is held.
1672Jesuits established in Chiloé founds the Mission of Nahuel Huapi across the Andes.
1674November 30Bartolomé Gallardo's expedition reaches the mouth of San Tadeo River after crossing the isthmus of Ofqui.
1675November 28The Antonio de Vea expedition departs from Chiloé to explore the fjords and channels of Patagonia.[40][41]
1676January 26The Antonio de Vea expedition returns to the shipyard of Chiloé.[42]
February 17Sixteen expeditionaries are seen for the last time while attempting to reach Evangelistas Islets.
1680December 13Bartholomew Sharp destroys and pillages La Serena.
1681By royal decree, the Atacama desert is declared to be the border between the Captain-Generalship of Chile and the Viceroyalty of Peru.
1684Valdivia's original site, downtown of modern Valdivia is repopulated.
1687October 20Peru is struck by a major earthquake and stem rust plague. These events marks the beginning of an era of Chilean wheat exports to Peru.

18th century

1709Alexander Selkirk, the inspiration for Defoe's Robinson Crusoe, is rescued from the Robinson Crusoe Island in the Juan Fernández Archipelago.
171210 FebruaryA Huilliche rebellion occurs in the Chiloé Archipelago.
1717The Jesuit mission at Nahuel Huapi Lake is destroyed.[43]
17225 AprilRapa Nui (Easter Island) is discovered by Dutch navigator Jacob Roggeveen.
1723After 30 years of peace, the War of Arauco resumes with a Mapuche uprising.
1726A Mapuche-Spanish peace treaty is signed at a parliament in Negrete.
1737December 24A violent earthquake and subsequent tsunami strike Valdivia and Chiloé.[44]
1740Valdivia is reincorporated as part of the Captaincy General of Chile.
1741HMS Wager is wrecked off the coast of Western Patagonia.
1742Martín Olleta rescue the survivors of HMS Wager and hands them over to Spanish authorities.[45]
1749A fort and prison is established on Robinson Crusoe Island of Juan Fernández Archipelago.[46]
175125 MayA violent earthquake and subsequent tsunami completely destroy the city of Concepción.[23] The earthquake causes severe destruction to cities as far away as Talca.
1759January 27Cuncos and Huilliches defeat a Spanish expedition aiming to build a fort on Bueno River.
1766December 25The Arauco War resumes with a large Mapuche uprising.
1767FebruaryAn agreement between Mapuche and Spanish authorities in Chile bring an end to the Mapuche uprising of 1766–1767.[47]
August 26Jesuits all over Chile are arrested as the Spanish Empire suppresses the Society of Jesus.[48]
1768August 20Ancud is founded. Chiloé becomes part of the Viceroyalty of Peru.
1769Pehuenches attack Spanish settlements in Isla del Laja.[47]
1771The Franciscan order assumes the religious functions of the Jesuits in Chiloé.
OctoberJesuit properties in Chile begin to be auctioned.[49]
1776The territories of Cuyo, previously governed as part of Chile, become part of the Viceroyalty of the Río de la Plata. (See History of Argentina.)
1778Direct commerce between Chile and Spain is allowed.
1788MayAmbrosio O'Higgins, father of future Chilean independence leader Bernardo O'Higgins, is named governor of Chile.[50]
Caicumeo, a road across forests and swamps that connects Castro with Ancud is opened.[51]
1789Start of the French Revolution, which affected Europe and the Americas with its ideas.
1792A Huilliche rebellion occurs in the surroundings of Río Bueno.
1793The parliaments of Negrete and Las Canoas between Spanish and native Mapuche and Huilliche are celebrated. The native chiefs accept the Spanish king as their de jure sovereign, but their own independence is also confirmed.
179613 JanuaryGovernor Ambrosio O'Higgins officially begins the repopulation of Osorno atop the city ruins discovered in 1792. The city had previously been destroyed by the indigenous mapuche in 1602.[24]

19th century

1805Rafael de Sobremonte, the Viceroy of the Río de la Plata, sends the first smallpox vaccines to Santiago and Lima. Friar es:Pedro Manuel Chaparro administers the vaccine throughout Santiago.[52][53]
1807DecemberThe South American branch, under Manuel Julián Grajales, of the Real expedición filantrópica de la Vacuna (Royal Philanthropic Vaccine Expedition) reaches Santiago. Grajales proceeds to organize the Junta Central de Vacuna (Central Vaccine Board) to reinforce the smallpox immunization efforts of 1805.[52][53]
1808Francisco Antonio García Carrasco is the unpopular Governor of Chile. The Spanish king Ferdinand VII is imprisoned by Napoleon during his invasion of Spain.
1810Imitating the juntista movement of the rest of Latin America, the criollos (people of Spanish ancestry, but not born in Spain) of Santiago de Chile proclaim a governing Junta.
1811Tired of being circumvented by political intrigues, José Miguel Carrera takes power by military means and initiates a dictatorship.
1812Hostilities begin between the moderados, led by Bernardo O'Higgins, and the exaltados, led by Carrera. Carrera institutes the first Chilean national symbols (flag, coat of arms, and national anthem), and Fray Camilo Henríquez begins to publish the Aurora de Chile, the first Chilean newspaper. The Chilean Constitution of 1812 comes into effect. Founding of the Logia Lautaro.
1813The Spanish send military expeditions (under Antonio Pareja and Gabino Gaínza) from the Viceroyalty of Peru. In the ensuing battles O'Higgins rises to be seen as a figure of great stature, overshadowing the continually less popular Carrera, who ultimately resigns. Francisco de la Lastra becomes Supreme Director.
1814The "Disaster of Rancagua". Mariano Osorio, in command of a third Spanish expedition, defeats O'Higgins (October 1 2). Osorio reconquers Santiago for Spain. Exodus of Chilean patriots to Mendoza, Argentina, where they receive the support of José de San Martín. Those patriots who remain in Chile are captured by the Spaniards are deported to the Juan Fernández Islands. Osorio is confirmed Governor of Chile by the Viceroy Fernando de Abascal of Peru. The talaveras, under the command of San Bruno, install a regime of terror extending to those merely suspected of sympathy for the Chilean cause.
1815Guerrilla resistance against the Spanish begins, led by Manuel Rodríguez Erdoiza, and other spies such as Justo Estay. Increasing enmity between Osorio and Abascal leads Abascal to replace Osorio with Casimiro Marcó del Pont.
1817Battle of Chacabuco. José de San Martín and O'Higgins defeat Rafael Maroto, reconquering Santiago. Captain San Bruno, hated chief of the talaveras, is captured and less than 24 hours later executed by firing squad. O'Higgins becomes dictator.
1818O'Higgins signs the Chilean Declaration of Independence (February 12). Shortly afterwards, in the Battle of Maipú, O'Higgins defeats a new military expedition led by Mariano Osorio, and Chile definitively obtains independence from Spain (April 5). The rivalry between O'Higgins and Manuel Rodríguez ends with the ambush and assassination of the latter in Tiltil. The brothers Juan José and Luis Carrera are shot in Argentina.
1820Valdivia is captured by Lord Cochrane who commands the Chilean navy. The Freedom Expedition of Perú is organised by the government of Chile, and manages to free some parts of Peru from Spanish rule.
1821José Miguel Carrera arrested as a montonero (mounted rebel/bandit) in Argentina, and executed in Mendoza.
1822The Chilean Constitution of 1822 comes into effect.
1823Ramón Freire leads a military expedition from Concepción to Santiago and forces O'Higgins to resign. He goes into exile in Peru, where he dies in 1842. Freire assumes power.
1825Taking advantage of the un-surveyed border, and ignoring the royal decree of 1681 and the principal uti possidetis, Simón Bolívar grants the port of Cobija to Bolivia. This gives Bolivia an outlet to the sea between Chile and Peru, which it will retain until the War of the Pacific.
1826Freire incorporates Chiloé, the last area under Spanish control, into Chile. He later resigns, initiating an interregnum known as The Anarchy. First attempt in Chile of federal (as against centralized) government, led by the first president of Chile Manuel Blanco Encalada, and the federalist José Miguel Infante.
1828Francisco Antonio Pinto assumes power after the resignation of Encalada and his predecessors. Chilean Constitution of 1828.
1829Chilean Civil War of 1829. After several battles, Joaquín Prieto defeats Ramón Freire in the Battle of Lircay.
1830Diego Portales begins to remodel Chilean institutions, converting the country into an authoritarian republic.
1831José Joaquín Prieto becomes president of Chile. He will serve two consecutive five-year terms. With him, the so-called decenios (decade-long reigns) begin, which continue until 1871. This 30-year Conservative Party hegemony is sometimes referred to as the Authoritarian Republic.
1832Discovery of mineral deposits in Chañarcillo, and the beginning of the rise of silver in what was then el Norte Chico and now constitutes the Atacama and Coquimbo regions of Chile. The mining fortunes constitute an important source of power in the following decades.
1833Chilean Constitution of 1833. "Portalian" that is, inspired by Diego Portales definitively fixed Chilean institutions.[clarification needed]
1834Charles Darwin lands at Valparaíso, during the second voyage of HMS Beagle. He also visits Santiago.
1835Southern Chile is affected by the worst earthquake for several decades on 20 February, an event witnessed by Charles Darwin.[54] Darwin visits Valdivia, Concepción and Mendoza.
1836Diego Portales declares the war on the Peruvian-Bolivian Confederation.
1837Diego Portales is assassinated by mutinous soldiers in Quillota. A Chilean military expedition debarks in Perú, beginning the War of the Confederation.
November 17An earthquake strikes Valdivia and Chiloé. The earthquake caused a tsunami that struck Hawaii, what is now French Polynesia and Japan.[44]
1839Battle of Yungay and defeat of the Confederation.
1840The Vatican acknowledges the Independence of Chile
1841Manuel Bulnes, victorious marshal of the Battle of Yungay, elected president of Chile.
1843University of Chile founded. Fort Bulnes established, the first Chilean presence on the Strait of Magellan.
1844Spain recognizes the Independence of Chile
1848Founding of Punta Arenas in the Strait of Magellan
1851José María de la Cruz revolts in the southern provinces of Chile. Bulnes crushes the revolutionary attempt and signs the treaty of Purapel with the revolutionaries. Manuel Montt becomes the third of the decenal presidents.
1856The Dispute of Sacristán ("Cuestión del Sacristán"). An apparently trivial question of ecclesiastical discipline divides the Conservative Party into secular and ultra-Catholic factions, which lays the ground for their political defeat in the elections of 1861.
1857The Civil Code of Chile comes into effect; it will become a model for Latin American legal codes down to the present day.
1859Chilean Revolution of 1859. Pedro León Gallo, radical revolutionary of Copiapó, and others are defeated by the government forces. However, as a consequence, Antonio Varas renounces to his candidature.
1861José Joaquín Pérez of the Liberal Party elected president. His party will retain power until the Chilean Revolution of 1891.
1863A French adventurer proclaims himself Orélie Antoine I, King of Araucanía. After a short time he is arrested by the Chileans and deported in the pacification of Araucanía.
1866Chile, Ecuador, Peru, and Bolivia at war with Spain. The port of Valparaíso is bombed by the Spanish. A treaty of limits (borders) of 1866 is signed with Bolivia.
1871A constitutional reform prohibits re-election, resulting in the end of the decenios. Governments of five years duration persist until 1925, except for the premature death of Pedro Montt in 1910.
1874Another treaty of limits is signed with Bolivia due to political tensions.
1879The War of the Pacific begins with Chilean troops occupying the then-Bolivian port city of Antofagasta. Bolivia's ally Peru attempts to mediate, but Chile refuses to negotiate and Peru enters the war on the side of Bolivia. Chile captures the provinces of Antofagasta from Bolivia and Tarapacá from Peru.
1880The United States attempts to mediate in the Lackawanna Conference, but both sides refuse to negotiate.
1881Chilean troops occupy Lima, the capital of Perú. Boundary treaty of 1881 between Chile and Argentina.
1883The Treaty of Ancón is signed with Perú to end the war, but hostilities with Bolivia continue. Law of Civil Matrimony adopted. This secularization was fiercely resisted by the Roman Catholic Church. The "Pacification of Araucanía" ends, and according to some historians this concludes the long-running War of Arauco.
1884The War of the Pacific ends with the signing of a truce with Bolivia. Chile's territorial gains allow the mining of saltpeter in the conquered regions, leading to great national prosperity for Chile. Treaty called "Pacto de Tregua".
1888June 21The Pontifical Catholic University of Chile is established.
September 9Policarpo Toro ahead of a naval expedition takes possession of Easter Island.
NovemberThe pirate Pedro Ñancúpel is executed in Castro.[55]
1890The Malleco Viaduct is opened and railway traffic expands further south during the following decades.
18911891 Chilean Civil War. The constitutional president José Manuel Balmaceda is overthrown by troops favorable to the National Congress. The beginning of "Parliamentarism".
1895Easter Island is rented to Compañía Explotadora de Isla de Pascua.

20th century

1903March 20The first auction of sheep farming lands in the Magallanes Territory takes place.[56]
1905October 22The Meat riot in Santiago begins. The workers revolt against the central government due to an increase in the cost of living, including the price of meat. The government responds sending in the army. Two days of riots follow, during which hundreds of civilians are killed in street fighting.
1907Massacre of the Escuela Santa María de Iquique; soldiers fire on saltpeter workers and their unarmed associates. It will be years before the workers, terrorized by the brutal repression, resume the struggle for their rights.
1910Centenary of Chilean independence. Celebrations are darkened by the death of President Pedro Montt, the only president between 1831 and 1925 did not serve for a full five-year term.
1912October 2115 Mapuche-Huilliche are killed by Chilean police in the Forrahue massacre near Osorno.[57][58]
191415 AugustThe Panama Canal opens; with Atlantic–Pacific shipping redirected to the new canal, the formerly crucial port of Valparaíso enters an economic decline.
1 NovemberFirst World War: A German naval squadron decisively defeats a British squadron at the Battle of Coronel, off the coast of Chile.
1920Arturo Alessandri Palma is elected president, indicating a rise to power by the Chilean middle classes.
1924Chile's first income tax is levied.
1925After intense political agitation the Chilean Constitution of 1925 is adopted, only slightly less authoritarian than that of 1833. The Impuesto Global Complementario, a graduated income tax, is introduced.
1927In a bloodless coup, Carlos Ibáñez del Campo takes the presidency by force during great political instability. He subsequently governs as a dictator until 1931.

The corps of Carabineros paramilitary police is founded.

19281 DecemberA magnitude 7.7 Mw earthquake strikes Talca.[59]
1929The crash of 1929 begins to affect the Chilean economy. The World Economic Survey of the League of Nations estimated that Chile was the worst affected nation by the Great Depression.[60]
193021 MarchFuerza Aérea de Chile (Chilean Air Force) founded.[61]
1931The deep economic crisis obliges Ibáñez del Campo to step down. A series of civilian governments and military juntas follows, some of which last no more than a few days.
1932The period of political anarchy ends with the return to power of Arturo Alessandri Palma.
1934Women obtain the legal right to vote in municipal elections.[62]
1938Massacre of Seguro Obrero: the Carabineros execute members of the fascist National Socialist Movement of Chile (Nacistas), after the fascists attempted to oust the government in a coup d'état.
1939The Radical Party gains power, which they will retain until 1952.
1940President Pedro Aguirre Cerda registers the first Chilean claims in Antarctica.
1945Chilean poet Gabriela Mistral receives the Nobel Prize for Literature.[63]
1946Gabriel González Videla becomes president, backed by a broad alliance of parties, including the Radicals and Communists. Once in power, he accedes to pressure from the United States and promulgates the Law of Permanent Defense of the Democracy, also known as the Ley Maldita ("accursed law"). The law outlawed his former allies the Communists, some of whom were placed in concentration camps in Pisagua. Poet Pablo Neruda is hounded into exile.
1949Women obtain the legal right to vote in both presidential and parliamentary elections.[62]
6 AugustFirst publication of Condorito comic in :es:Okey magazine.[64]
1952Carlos Ibáñez del Campo returns to the presidency, this time via the ballot box, ending the era of the Radical Party.
1958Argentine forces destroy a Chilean lighthouse during the Snipe incident.
1960FebruaryFirst instance of the yearly Viña del Mar International Song Festival is organized.[65]
22 MayThe magnitude 9.5 Mw Great Chilean earthquake, the most intense earthquake ever recorded,[66] hits offshore near Valdivia.[67] The earthquake generated a tsunami which spread across the Pacific Ocean, affecting Chile,[68] Hawaii,[69] Japan,[69] the Philippines,[69] and New Zealand,[70] among many.
196230 May - 17 JuneChile hosts the FIFA World Cup football competition.[71] The Chile national football team comes in 3rd; its highest ever placement in the competition.[72]
1964Christian Democrat Eduardo Frei Montalva becomes president, proclaiming the so-called "Revolution in Liberty". His election campaign was largely (and secretly) funded by the CIA, an intelligence agency of the United States.
19704 SeptemberSalvador Allende is elected president; the first democratic election of a Marxist politician.[73] The election campaign was highly polarised and subject to covert interference by foreign intelligence agencies (the CIA[74] and KGB[75]). Allende's socialist and Marxist orientation[73] greatly displeased the government of the United States which directed resources to "prevent Allende from coming to power or to unseat him".[76]
25 OctoberCommander-in-Chief of the Chilean Army René Schneider is assassinated in Santiago in an alleged kidnapping attempt. The group responsible received material support prior to and after the crime from the CIA.[77]
1971Poet Pablo Neruda receives Nobel Prize for Literature.[78]
1973The armed forces, carabineros, and others stage a violent coup by overthrowing Allende, who dies in the course of the coup. Some historians believe that the coup was supported or encouraged by the CIA. In the aftermath, Augusto Pinochet establishes himself as the head of a military junta. The subsequent repression of leftists and other opponents of the military regime results in approximately 130,000 arrests and at least 2,000 dead or "disappeared" over the next 17 years.
1977Beagle conflict: The binding Beagle Channel Arbitration awards the Picton, Nueva and Lennox islands to Chile.
1978Beagle conflict: Argentina refuses to abide by the judgement and invades Chile in Operation Soberania. Argentine forces withdraw before any combat occurs.
1980The military government promulgates the Chilean Constitution of 1980, which is adopted by plebiscite. Economic policy begins to be significantly influenced by the ideas of the Chicago School and of Neoliberalism. The United States oblige President of the Philippines Ferdinand Marcos to cancel a scheduled visit by President Pinochet to the Philippines.
1982Chile provides non-combat support for British armed forces during the Falkland War.
1984Beagle conflict: Treaty of Peace and Friendship of 1984 between Chile and Argentina is signed.
1988Pinochet loses a plebiscite mandated by the constitution, which triggers elections the following year.
1990Patricio Aylwin wins the election and takes office as president. Transition to democracy begins.
1991The volcano Mount Hudson erupts, in one of the world's largest volcanic eruptions of the twentieth century.
1994Eduardo Frei Ruiz-Tagle is elected president.
1998During a visit to London for medical reasons, Augusto Pinochet is arrested in accord with the orders of Spanish judge Baltasar Garzón, beginning an international struggle between his supporters and detractors. He returns to Chile the following year, and the charges against him are later thrown out on the basis of his mental state. Chile suffers greatly from a world economic crisis, resulting in years of inflation and unemployment.
2000In the second round of voting, in a tight contest with right wing candidate Joaquín Lavín, Ricardo Lagos Escobar is elected president.

21st century

2001Chile abolishes the death penalty for ordinary crimes.
30 NovemberEduardo Miño commits suicide by self-immolation in protest to government neglect of Pizarreño's asbestos victims.[79]
2002A general census is performed all over the country.
2004The Supreme Court of Chile declares that Augusto Pinochet is mentally competent to stand trial.
2005The Pinochet trial continues. The presidential election of December 11 puts Michelle Bachelet and Sebastián Piñera into a second round.
2006In the second round of the presidential election the socialist leader Michelle Bachelet emerges the winner. 790,000 students adhere to the 2006 student protests in Chile.
10 DecemberDeath of Augusto Pinochet.
2007Los Ríos Region and Arica y Parinacota Region are created.
201027 February2010 Chile earthquake.
11 MarchSebastián Piñera assumed office as President of Chile.
5 August – 13 OctoberCopiapó mining accident.
20112011 student protests, and later massive protest claiming for better education and economic equality.
2014Michelle Bachelet assumed office as President of Chile as the first woman to be reelected.

See also


  1. Other possible dates for the founding of La Serena are November 15 and December 30, 1543.[19]


  1. "New Evidence About Earliest Americans Supports Coastal Migration Theory". Newswise. 6 May 2008. Archived from the original on 17 October 2017. Retrieved 25 March 2018.
  2. Karoff, Paul (9 March 2015). "Case of the rotting mummies". The Harvard Gazette. Archived from the original on 9 April 2018. Retrieved 25 March 2018.
  3. Owen, Bruce (2005). "Distant Colonies and Explosive Collapse: The Two Stages of the Tiwanaku Diaspora in the Osmore Drainage". Latin American Antiquity. 16 (1): 45–81. doi:10.2307/30042486. JSTOR 30042486.
  4. Kolata, Alan L., "The Agricultural Foundations of the Tiwanaku State: A View from the Heartland", American Antiquity, Vol. 51, No. 4 (October 1986), pp. 748–762, Society for American Archaeology.
  5. Moulian, Rodrígo; Catrileo, María; Landeo, Pablo (2015). "Afines quechua en el vocabulario mapuche de Luis de Valdivia" [Akins Quechua words in the Mapuche vocabulary of Luis de Valdivia]. Revista de lingüística teórica y aplicada (in Spanish). 53 (2): 73–96. doi:10.4067/S0718-48832015000200004. Retrieved January 13, 2019.
  6. Dillehay, Tom D.; Pino Quivira, Mario; Bonzani, Renée; Silva, Claudia; Wallner, Johannes; Le Quesne, Carlos (2007) Cultivated wetlands and emerging complexity in south-central Chile and long distance effects of climate change. Antiquity 81 (2007): 949–960
  7. Alcamán, Eugenio (1997). "Los mapuche-huilliche del Futahuillimapu septentrional: Expansión colonial, guerras internas y alianzas políticas (1750-1792)" (PDF). Revista de Historia Indígena (in Spanish) (2): 29–76. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2013-12-28.
  8. Cárdenas A., Renato; Montiel Vera, Dante; Grace Hall, Catherine (1991). Los chono y los veliche de Chiloé (PDF) (in Spanish). Santiago de Chile: Olimpho. p. 34.
  9. Guzmán, L. (February 14, 2019). "Encuentran registros de megaterremoto ocurrido hace seis siglos en el norte de Chile". El Mercurio (in Spanish). Santiago, Chile. Retrieved June 8, 2019.
  10. Manuel Abad, Tatiana Izquierdo, Miguel Cáceres, Enrique Bernárdez and Joaquín Rodríguez‐Vidal (2018). Coastal boulder deposit as evidence of an ocean‐wide prehistoric tsunami originated on the Atacama Desert coast (northern Chile). Sedimentology. Publication: december, 13th, 2018. https://doi.org/10.1111/sed.12570
  11. Silva Galdames, Osvaldo (1983). "¿Detuvo la batalla del Maule la expansión inca hacia el sur de Chile?". Cuadernos de Historia (in Spanish). 3: 7–25. Retrieved January 10, 2019.
  12. "Vasco Núñez de Balboa - Memoria Chilena" (in Spanish). Biblioteca Nacional de Chile. Archived from the original on 31 March 2018. Retrieved 30 March 2018.
  13. "Todos los Santos - Memoria Chilena" (in Spanish). Biblioteca Nacional de Chile. Archived from the original on 26 March 2018. Retrieved 25 March 2018.
  14. "Cronistas peruanos del siglo XVI - Memoria Chilena" (in Spanish). Biblioteca Nacional de Chile. Archived from the original on 31 March 2018. Retrieved 30 March 2018.
  15. "Diego de Almagro (ca. 1479-1538) - Memoria Chilena" (in Spanish). Biblioteca Nacional de Chile. Archived from the original on 31 March 2018. Retrieved 30 March 2018.
  16. "Fundación de Santiago - Memoria Chilena" (in Spanish). Biblioteca Nacional de Chile. Archived from the original on 26 March 2018. Retrieved 25 March 2018.
  17. "Arica Ciudad de la Eterna Primavera" (in Spanish). Municipalidad de Arica. Archived from the original on 1 April 2018. Retrieved 31 March 2018.
  18. "Inés de Suárez (1507-1580) - Memoria Chilena" (in Spanish). Biblioteca Nacional de Chile. Archived from the original on 23 March 2018. Retrieved 25 March 2018.
  19. "Municipality of La Serena" (in Spanish). Retrieved 4 November 2010.
  20. "La Serena colonial - Memoria Chilena" (in Spanish). Biblioteca Nacional de Chile. Archived from the original on 26 March 2018. Retrieved 25 March 2018.
  21. "Arica (1540-1929) - Memoria Chilena" (in Spanish). Biblioteca Nacional de Chile. Archived from the original on 1 April 2018. Retrieved 31 March 2018.
  22. "El toqui Lautaro (ca.1534-1557) - Memoria Chilena" (in Spanish). Biblioteca Nacional de Chile. Archived from the original on 26 March 2018. Retrieved 25 March 2018.
  23. "Concepción colonial - Memoria Chilena" (in Spanish). Biblioteca Nacional de Chile. Archived from the original on 26 March 2018. Retrieved 25 March 2018.
  24. "Osorno (1558-1950) - Memoria Chilena" (in Spanish). Biblioteca Nacional de Chile. Archived from the original on 26 March 2018. Retrieved 26 March 2018.
  25. "Castro (1567-1834) - Memoria Chilena" (in Spanish). Biblioteca Nacional de Chile. Archived from the original on 1 April 2018. Retrieved 31 March 2018.
  26. "Valdivia colonial (1552-1820) - Memoria Chilena" (in Spanish). Biblioteca Nacional de Chile. Archived from the original on 25 September 2014. Retrieved 25 March 2018.
  27. "Chillán (1580-1939) - Memoria Chilena" (in Spanish). Biblioteca Nacional de Chile. Archived from the original on 1 April 2018. Retrieved 31 March 2018.
  28. "Pedro Sarmiento de Gamboa - Memoria Chilena" (in Spanish). Biblioteca Nacional de Chile. Archived from the original on 1 April 2018. Retrieved 31 March 2018.
  29. Sepúlveda Ortíz, Jorge. "Exploraciones efectuadas en la región de Trapananda antes del siglo XIX" (PDF). Boletín de la Academia de Historia Naval y Marítima de Chile (in Spanish): 95–110. Retrieved January 25, 2019.
  30. Petit-Breuilh Sepúlveda, María Eugenia (2004). La historia eruptiva de los volcanes hispanoamericanos (Siglos XVI al XX): El modelo chileno (in Spanish). Huelva, Spain: Casa de los volcanes. p. 53. ISBN 84-95938-32-4.
  31. Bengoa, José (October 4, 2017). "Columna de José Bengoa: Catalanes, Autonomías y Mapuche (s)". The Clinic (in Spanish). Retrieved October 21, 2017.
  32. Torrejón, Fernando; Cisternas, Marco; Alvial, Ingrid and Torres, Laura. 2011. Consecuencias de la tala maderera colonial en los bosques de alece de Chiloé, sur de Chile (Siglos XVI-XIX)* Archived 2013-12-03 at the Wayback Machine. Magallania. Vol. 39(2):75-95.
  33. Barros Arana 2000, p. 282.
  34. De la Rosa P., Armin Marcelo (2017-01-03). Antecedentes históricos de la Bahía de Corral (PDF) (Report) (in Spanish). Retrieved 2019-07-25.
  35. Barros Arana 2000, pp. 291–292.
  36. "Santiago colonial - Memoria Chilena" (in Spanish). Biblioteca Nacional de Chile. Archived from the original on 26 March 2018. Retrieved 26 March 2018.
  37. Barros Arana 2000, pp. 340–341.
  38. Barros Arana, Diego. "Capítulo XIV". Historia general de Chile (in Spanish). Tomo cuarto (Digital edition based on the second edition of 2000 ed.). Alicante: Biblioteca Virtual Miguel de Cervantes. pp. 346–347.
  39. Urbina C., María Ximena (2017). "La expedición de John Narborough a Chile, 1670: Defensa de Valdivia, rumeros de indios, informaciones de los prisioneros y la creencia en la Ciudad de los Césares" [John Narborough expedition to Chile, 1670: Defense of Valdivia, indian rumours, information on prisoners, and the belief in the City of the Césares]. Magallania. 45 (2): 11–36. doi:10.4067/S0718-22442017000200011. Retrieved December 27, 2019.
  40. de Vea 1886, p. 557
  41. de Vea 1886, p. 555
  42. de Vea 1886, p. 586
  43. Urbina, M. Ximena (2008). "La frustrada misión estratégica de Nahuelhuapi, un punto en la inmesidad de la Patagonia" [The frustrated strategic mission of Nahuelhuapi, a point in Patagonia's inmensity]. Magallania (in Spanish). 36 (1): 5–30. Retrieved 26 April 2013.
  44. Cisternas, M.; Carvajal, M.; Wesson, R.; Ely, L.L.; Gorigoitia, N. (2018). "Exploring the Historical Earthquakes Preceding the Giant 1960 Chile Earthquake in a Time-Dependent Seismogenic Zone". Bulletin of the Seismological Society of America. 107 (6): 2664–2675. doi:10.1785/0120170103.
  45. Urbina Carrasco, Ximena (2016). "Interacciones entre españoles de Chiloé y Chonos en los siglos XVII y XVIII: Pedro y Francisco Delco, Ignacio y Cristóbal Talcapillán y Martín Olleta" [Interactions between Spaniards of Chiloé and Chonos in the XVII and XVII centuries: Pedro and Francisco Delco, Ignacio and Cristóbal Talcapillán and Martín Olleta] (PDF). Chungara (in Spanish). 48 (1): 103–114. Retrieved December 21, 2019.
  46. Prisión de los patriotas chilenos en Juan Fernández 1814-1817[permanent dead link]
  47. Barros Arana, 1886, p. 312.
  48. Barros Arana, 1886, p. 275.
  49. Barros Arana, 1886, p. 297.
  50. "Ambrosio O'Higgins - Memoria Chilena" (in Spanish). Biblioteca Nacional de Chile. Archived from the original on 25 March 2018. Retrieved 24 March 2018.
  51. León León, Marco Antonio (2015). "Una Provincia "Enteramente Insular": Geografía, exploraciones y cotidianeidad en Chiloé Republicano, Chile (1826-1900)". Magallania. 43 (1). Retrieved 30 January 2016.
  52. "Ley de vacuna obligatoria - Memoria Chilena" (in Spanish). Biblioteca Nacional de Chile. Archived from the original on 1 April 2018. Retrieved 31 March 2018.
  53. Martínez Sanz, Pedro (2005). "La Viruela y Fray Chaparro". Ars Medica (in Spanish). Ars Medica Revista de Ciencias Médicas. 34 (1). ISSN 0719-1855. Archived from the original on 1 April 2018. Retrieved 31 March 2018.
  54. The Voyage of the Beagle by Charles Darwin at Project Gutenberg
  55. Cárdenas Álvarez, Renato (January 17, 2005). "La historia del pirata chilote Pedro Ñancúpel" (in Spanish). El Llanquihue. Retrieved January 10, 2019. Cuando es capturado en Melinka ya era una leyenda porque había evadido la persecución.
  56. Sasso Fuentes, Marcello (2006). "Remates de tierras fiscales en el territorio de Magallanes (1903)" [Auction of fiscal lands in Magallan Territory]. Magallania (in Spanish). 34 (1): 157–160. doi:10.4067/S0718-22442006000100010.
  57. Díaz, Catalina (October 19, 2017). "Osorninos recuerdan los 105 años de la mayor matanza que recuerde la provincia". Radio Bío-Bío (in Spanish). Retrieved January 4, 2021.
  58. Bengoa, José (2000). Historia del pueblo mapuche: Siglos XIX y XX (in Spanish) (Seventh ed.). LOM Ediciones. p. 372. ISBN 978-956-282-232-9.
  59. "M 7.7 - Maule, Chile". USGS. Archived from the original on 25 March 2018. Retrieved 24 March 2018.
  60. "El impacto de la Gran Depresión en Chile (1929-1932) - Memoria Chilena" (in Spanish). Biblioteca Nacional de Chile. Archived from the original on 28 March 2018. Retrieved 24 March 2018.
  61. "Los heroicos inicios de la aviación chilena - Memoria Chilena" (in Spanish). Biblioteca Nacional de Chile. Archived from the original on 25 March 2018. Retrieved 24 March 2018.
  62. "Voto femenino - Memoria Chilena" (in Spanish). Biblioteca Nacional de Chile. Archived from the original on 19 March 2018. Retrieved 24 March 2018.
  63. "Gabriela Mistral - Facts". Nobel Media AB 2014. Archived from the original on 25 March 2018. Retrieved 24 March 2018.
  64. "Condorito (1949- ) - Memoria Chilena" (in Spanish). Biblioteca Nacional de Chile. Archived from the original on 18 March 2018. Retrieved 24 March 2018.
  65. "Festival de Viña del Mar - Memoria Chilena" (in Spanish). Biblioteca Nacional de Chile. Archived from the original on 17 April 2018. Retrieved 24 March 2018.
  66. "20 Largest Earthquakes in the World". USGS. Archived from the original on 17 November 2017. Retrieved 24 March 2018.
  67. "Valdivia - Memoria Chilena" (in Spanish). Biblioteca Nacional de Chile. Archived from the original on 25 March 2018. Retrieved 24 March 2018.
  68. "Southern Chile Earthquake and Tsunami, 22 May 1960". National Centers for Environmental Information. Archived from the original on 13 December 2017. Retrieved 24 March 2018.
  69. "Hawaii's 1960 Tsunami". CBS News. 27 February 2010. Archived from the original on 25 March 2018. Retrieved 24 March 2018.
  70. McSaveney, Eileen (12 June 2006). "Tsunamis - Living with tsunami hazards". Te Ara - the Encyclopedia of New Zealand. Archived from the original on 3 February 2018. Retrieved 24 March 2018.
  71. "1962 FIFA World Cup Chile TM". FIFA.com. Archived from the original on 21 March 2018. Retrieved 24 March 2018.
  72. "Chile - Association Information". FIFA.com. Archived from the original on 25 March 2018. Retrieved 24 March 2018.
  73. "Salvador Allende Gossens (1908-1973) - Memoria Chilena" (in Spanish). Biblioteca Nacional de Chile. Archived from the original on 18 March 2018. Retrieved 24 March 2018.
  74. "CIA Activities in Chile: The "Assassination" of President Salvador Allende". Central Intelligence Agency. 18 September 2000. Archived from the original on 12 June 2007. Retrieved 24 March 2018.
  75. "The KGB in the Third World". National Public Radio, Inc. 6 October 2005. Archived from the original on 9 December 2017. Retrieved 24 March 2018.
  76. Kornbluh, Peter. "Chile and the United States: Declassified Documents Relating to the Military Coup, September 11, 1973". National Security Archive. Archived from the original on 6 February 2018. Retrieved 24 March 2018.
  77. "CIA Activities in Chile: The Schneider Assassination". Central Intelligence Agency. 18 September 2000. Archived from the original on 12 June 2007. Retrieved 24 March 2018.
  78. "Pablo Neruda - Facts". Nobel Media AB 2014. Archived from the original on 25 March 2018. Retrieved 24 March 2018.
  79. "Condenan a Pizarreño por muerte de mujer que estuvo expuesta al asbesto" [Pizarreño is convicted for the death of a woman who was exposed to asbestos]. Radio Cooperativa (in Spanish). December 4, 2018. Retrieved June 1, 2021.