Timeline of Croatian history

This is a timeline of Croatian history, comprising important legal and territorial changes and political events in Croatia and its predecessor states. Featured articles are in bold. To read about the background to these events, see History of Croatia. See also the list of rulers of Croatia and years in Croatia.

7th century

660Porga became knez of the Principality of Littoral Croatia.
Littoral Croatia was Christianized.[1]

8th century

799Siege of Trsat: Invading Frankish forces were repelled from Trsat, resulting in the death of their commander Eric of Friuli.[2]

9th century

803Borna became knez of Littoral Croatia following the death of his father Višeslav.
810Ljudevit became knez of the Slavs in Lower Pannonia.
823Ljudevit died.[3]
838Knez Ratimir was deposed from the throne of Lower Pannonia in favor of the pro-French Ratbod.
839Knez Mislav of Littoral Croatia signed a peace treaty with the Republic of Venice[4] during the early phase of the Croatian-Venetian wars.
840Venetian Doge Pietro Tradonico led a failed assault on the nearby Croat land of Pagania.
The Byzantine Emperor Basil I helped break an Arab siege of Dubrovnik.[5][6]
846Pagania breached Venice and raided the Venetian town of Caorle.[4]
8797 JunePope John VIII styled knez Branimir of Littoral Croatia Duke of Croats, effectively recognizing Littoral Croatia as an independent state.[7]
88718 SeptemberVenetian Doge Pietro I Candiano was killed in an attempted invasion of Pagania.[8]

10th century

925Knez Tomislav of Littoral Croatia was crowned King of a united Croatia, establishing the Trpimirović dynasty[9][10]
926Croatian–Bulgarian battle of 926: Tomislav defeated the invading forces of the Bulgarian Empire.[9]
928Pope Leo VI transferred the bishopric at Nin to Skradin.[11]
948Venice tried and failed to capture Dubrovnik.[12]
949King Miroslav was killed by Ban Pribina during a civil war started by his younger brother Michael Krešimir II, who succeeded him.
986Byzantine Emperor Basil II recognized Croatia as an independent kingdom and declared King Stephen Držislav the Patriarch of Dalmatia and Croatia.
996Venetian Doge Pietro II Orseolo stopped paying tax to the Croatian King after a century of peace, renewing old hostilities and starting a new phase of the Croatian-Venetian wars.
998Siege of Zadar: Emperor Samuil of Western Bulgarian Tsardom launched a military campaign against Kingdom of Croatia and besieged the city of Zadar.

11th century

1000Battle of Lastovo: Doge Pietro II Orseolo of the Republic of Venice attacked the Town of Lastovo in the Kingdom of Croatia and destroyed it.
1020King Krešimir III was accused in the death of his brother Gojslav. Pope Benedict VIII withdrew his title pending an investigation.[13]
Krešimir was restored.[13]
1058Peter Krešimir IV "The Great" succeeded his father Stephen I upon his death.
10768 OctoberDemetrius Zvonimir was crowned King in Solin by a representative of Pope Gregory VII.[9]
1091King Stephen II died peacefully without an heir, bringing the Trpimirović dynasty to a close.[14]
1097Battle of Gvozd Mountain: King Petar Svačić died in a loss to King Coloman of Hungary.[15]

12th century

1102The Croatian nobility agreed to the Pacta conventa under which Croatia was joined in a personal union with Hungary, with the King appointing the Ban of Croatia and the Croatian nobility holding power in a Sabor, or Parliament.[16][17]
1185Serbian forces launched a failed siege against Dubrovnik.[18]

13th century

120426 AugustEmeric abdicated the throne to his young son Ladislaus III of Hungary.
12057 MayLadislaus died. He was succeeded by Emeric's younger brother Andrew II of Hungary.
123521 SeptemberAndrew died. He was succeeded by his son Béla IV of Hungary.
124216 NovemberBéla issued the Golden Bull of 1242, giving the residents of Gradec some individual and democratic rights and releasing them from allegiance to local lords.[19][20]
12703 MayBéla died. He was succeeded by his son, Stephen V of Hungary.
12726 AugustStephen died. He was succeeded by his son Ladislaus IV of Hungary.
1293Paul I Šubić of Bribir became Ban of Croatia.
1299Paul conquered Bosnia, taking the title of Dominus of Bosnia, and appointing his brother Mladen I Šubić of Bribir Ban of Bosnia.[21]

14th century

130114 JanuaryAndrew died without a son. Charles Martel's son Charles I of Hungary was crowned King of Hungary.
27 AugustThe Hungarian nobility crowned Wenceslaus III of Bohemia King of Hungary and Croatia.
1305After quashing resistance in Bosnia, Paul I Šubić took the title Lord of All Bosnia and the exclusive power of coining money.[21][22]
6 DecemberWenceslaus III of Bohemia abdicated the throne to Otto III, Duke of Bavaria.
1307JuneOtto was imprisoned by the Transylvanian Voivode Ladislaus Kán.
10 OctoberThe Hungarian nobility elected Charles King.
1308Otto abdicated his claim to the Hungarian throne.
13121 MayPaul I Šubić died. His son Mladen II Šubić of Bribir succeeded him as Ban.
1322Battle of Bliska: Mladen lost to a coalition of Croatian noblemen at Trogir.
8 OctoberCharles dismissed Mladen as Ban.
134216 JulyCharles died. He was succeeded by his son Louis I of Hungary.
134512 AugustSiege of Zadar was laid by the Republic of Venice.
135818 FebruaryThe Treaty of Zadar was signed. Venice ceded Dalmatia to Croatia.
137017 NovemberLouis became King of Poland on the death of Casimir III the Great.
138211 SeptemberLouis died. He was succeeded in Hungary by his ten-year-old daughter Mary, Queen of Hungary with his wife Elizabeth of Bosnia acting as regent.
1385Mary was overthrown by Charles III of Naples.
13867 FebruaryCharles was assassinated on Elizabeth's orders.
138731 MarchMary was again crowned Queen of Hungary. Her husband Sigismund, Holy Roman Emperor was crowned King.
1390Charles's son Ladislaus of Naples expressed a claim to the throne of Hungary.
1392Sigismund appointed Nicholas II Garay Ban of Croatia.
139517 MayMary died under suspicious circumstances. Sigismund became the sole ruler of Croatia and Hungary.
1397Nicholas left office.
27 FebruaryBloody Sabor of Križevci: Croatian Ban Stjepan II Lacković was killed in Križevci for supporting Ladislaus against King Sigismund.[23][24]

15th century

14035 AugustHungarian nobles opposed to Sigismund crowned Ladislaus King.
1406Hermann II, Count of Celje became Ban of Croatia.
1408Hermann left office.
1409Ladislaus sold his rights on Dalmatia to Venice.[25]
14379 DecemberSigismund died.
14381 JanuarySigismund's son-in-law Albert II of Germany was crowned King of Hungary and Croatia according to his will.
143927 OctoberAlbert died without a male heir; his wife was pregnant with his son Ladislaus the Posthumous.
144022 FebruaryLadislaus was born.
15 MayWładysław III of Poland accepted the Hungarian crown from the nobility.
Ladislaus's mother crowned him King.
144410 NovemberBattle of Varna: Władysław died in a battlefield loss to the Ottoman Empire. The Hungarian nobility elected Ladislaus, then imprisoned in Schloss Ort by his second cousin Frederick III, Holy Roman Emperor, King of Hungary, with John Hunyadi acting as regent.
1452Ladislaus was freed by Ulrich II, Count of Celje, who became his guardian and effectively his regent.
14569 NovemberUlrich was killed by Hunyadi's son Ladislaus.
145716 MarchLadislaus had Ladislaus Hunyadi beheaded and fled Hungary.
23 NovemberLadislaus died, probably of leukemia.
145820 JanuaryThe Hungarian nobility elected Ladislaus Hunyadi's brother Matthias Corvinus King.
1472Nicholas of Ilok became Ban of Croatia.
Nicholas left office.
1483Matija Gereb was made Ban.
1489Gereb left office.
14906 AprilMatthias died without legitimate heirs.
18 SeptemberThe Hungarian nobility elected Vladislaus II of Bohemia and Hungary as King.
14939 SeptemberBattle of Krbava field: Croatia suffered a defeat at the hands of the Ottoman Empire.[26][27]
1499Matthias's illegitimate son John Corvinus became Ban of Croatia.

16th century

150412 OctoberCorvinus died.
1513Petar Berislavić was appointed Ban of Croatia.
151613 MarchVladislaus died. He was succeeded by his ten-year-old son Louis II of Hungary, with a royal council appointed by the Hungarian diet acting as regent.
152020 MayBerislavić was killed.
1521Ivan Karlović became Ban.
1524Karlović left office.
152629 AugustBattle of Mohács: Louis died childless in a crushing defeat at the hands of the Ottoman Empire near Mohács.[28]
10 NovemberJohn Zápolya was crowned King of Hungary.
DecemberFerdinand I, Holy Roman Emperor crowned himself King of Hungary.
1527Karlović again became Ban.
1 January1527 election in Cetin: The Croatian nobility unanimously elected Ferdinand King and confirmed the succession to his heirs, ending the personal union with Hungary.[28]
27 SeptemberBattle of Tarcal: Forces allied to Ferdinand dealt a bloody defeat to supporters of Zápolya.
152820 MarchBattle of Szina: Zápolya was defeated and forced to flee to Poland.
1531Karlović died.
1537Petar Keglević became Ban.
153824 FebruaryThe Treaty of Grosswardein was signed, dividing Hungary between Ferdinand and Zápolya and making Ferdinand heir to the entire kingdom on the death of the then-childless Zápolya.[citation needed]
154018 JulyZápolya had a son, John II Sigismund Zápolya.
22 JulyZápolya died. The Hungarian nobility recognized his son John II as King.
1542Keglević was removed from office.
Nikola Šubić Zrinski was appointed Ban.
1553In response to repeated Ottoman incursions, Ferdinand established the directly administered Croatian Military Frontier.
1556Zrinski was removed from office.
1557Péter Erdődy was appointed Ban.
156425 JulyFerdinand died. He was succeeded by his son Maximilian II, Holy Roman Emperor.
15668 SeptemberSiege of Szigetvár: The forces of the Ottoman Empire suffered losses taking the fortress at Szigetvár that forced them to abandon their advance on Vienna.[29]
1567Erdődy died.
1570Hungarian King John II abdicated the throne to Maximilian.
157328 JanuaryCroatian–Slovenian peasant revolt: A peasant revolt led by Matija Gubec began which sought to overthrow the power of the nobility.
9 FebruaryCroatian–Slovenian peasant revolt: Gubec was captured.
157612 OctoberMaximilian died. He was succeeded by his son Rudolf II, Holy Roman Emperor.
1578Krsto Ungnad was appointed Ban.
1583Ungnad left office. He was succeeded as Ban by Tamás Erdődy.
158426 OctoberBattle of Slunj: Invading Ottoman forces were defeated by the defending Croatian army.
1592Siege of Bihać: Once capital of Croatia conquered by the Ottomans; never reconquered back, lost for Croatia forever.
159322 JuneBattle of Sisak: Croatia dealt the Ottoman Empire a crushing defeat at Sisak.[30]
1595Erdődy left office.

17th century

1608Erdődy again became Ban.
19 NovemberRudolf was deposed from the throne of Croatia by his brother Matthias, Holy Roman Emperor.
1615Erdődy left office.
16181 JulyMatthias was succeeded by his cousin Ferdinand II, Holy Roman Emperor.
162215 NovemberJuraj V Zrinski was appointed Ban.
162628 DecemberZrinski was poisoned.
163715 FebruaryFerdinand II died. He was succeeded by his son Ferdinand III, Holy Roman Emperor.
1647Nikola Zrinski was appointed Ban of Croatia.
16572 AprilFerdinand III died. He was succeeded by his son Leopold I, Holy Roman Emperor.
1663SeptemberAustro-Turkish War (1663–1664): An Ottoman army invaded Hungary.
16645 JuneSiege of Novi Zrin (1664): Ottoman forces started to besiege the fortress in Međimurje County.
1 AugustBattle of Saint Gotthard (1664) : Ottoman forces were dealt a decisive defeat by the League of the Rhine at Szentgotthárd.
10 AugustAustro-Turkish War (1663–1664): The Peace of Vasvár was signed, ending hostilities for twenty years and ceding some Croatian land to the Ottoman Empire.
18 NovemberNikola Zrinski died.
166524 JanuaryPetar Zrinski was appointed Ban.
167130 AprilZrinski was executed for high treason in connection with the Magnate conspiracy.
Miklós Erdődy was appointed Ban of Croatia.
1693Erdődy died.

18th century

170424 JanuaryJános Pálffy was appointed Ban.
17055 MayLeopold died. He was succeeded as king by his son Joseph I, Holy Roman Emperor.
171117 AprilJoseph died of smallpox. He was succeeded by his younger brother Charles VI, Holy Roman Emperor.
17139 AprilCharles issued the Pragmatic Sanction of 1713, which made it possible for women to inherit the Habsburg throne.
173217 FebruaryPálffy left office.
174020 OctoberCharles died. He was succeeded by his daughter, Queen Maria Theresa.
174316 MarchKároly József Batthyány became Ban.
1756The capital was moved from Zagreb to Varaždin.
6 JulyBatthyány left office.
1776A fire destroyed two-thirds of Varaždin.[31][32] The Croatian capital moved back to Zagreb.
178029 NovemberMaria Theresa died. Her son Joseph II, Holy Roman Emperor became King of Croatia.
179020 FebruaryJoseph died. He was succeeded by his younger brother Leopold II, Holy Roman Emperor.
17921 MarchLeopold died. He was succeeded by his son Francis II, Holy Roman Emperor.

19th century

180411 AugustFrancis established the Austrian Empire on the territories of the Habsburg Monarchy.
1806Ignaz Gyulai was appointed Ban of Croatia.
183111 NovemberGyulai died.
183210 FebruaryFranjo Vlašić was appointed Ban.
18352 MarchFrancis died of fever. He was succeeded as king by his son Ferdinand I of Austria.
184016 MayVlašić died. He was succeeded as acting Ban by Juraj Haulik.
184529 JulyThirteen protesters, the July victims, were killed in Zagreb while protesting a flawed local election.
184815 MarchHungarian Revolution of 1848: Revolutionaries read the 12 points of the Hungarian Revolutionaries of 1848 before a crowd in Buda. The crowd marched on the Imperial Governing Council and forced Ferdinand's representatives to sign them.
23 MarchJosip Jelačić was appointed Ban.
11 AprilFerdinand signed the April Laws, devolving some powers to the Kingdom of Hungary.
19 AprilThe Sabor proclaimed the union of the Croatian provinces, their secession from the Kingdom of Hungary within the Austrian Empire, and the abolition of serfdom. It further declared the equality of peoples in Croatia.[33]
29 SeptemberBattle of Pákozd: A revolutionary army seeking Hungarian independence from Austria forced a Croatian retreat.
2 DecemberHungarian Revolution of 1848: Ferdinand abdicated in favor of his nephew Franz Joseph I of Austria.
185920 MayJelačić died.
28 JulyJohann Baptist Coronini-Cronberg was appointed Ban.
186019 JuneJosip Šokčević was appointed Ban.
186614 JuneAustro-Prussian War: Prussia declared war on Austria.
3 JulyBattle of Königgrätz: Austria suffered a devastating defeat at Prussian hands at Königgrätz.
23 AugustAustro-Prussian War: The Peace of Prague (1866) was signed, ending the war.
186730 MarchThe Austro-Hungarian Compromise of 1867 was ratified, establishing the dual monarchy of Austria-Hungary which devolved almost all power to the Austrian and Hungarian kingdoms respectively.[citation needed]
27 JuneLevin Rauch was appointed acting Ban.
20 OctoberA new electoral law reduced the size of the Sabor to sixty-six seats.
1868The Croatian–Hungarian Settlement was signed by the Hungarian Parliament and the Croatian Sabor. The Kingdom of Slavonia was incorporated into Croatia; the Kingdom of Croatia-Slavonia was established as an autonomous state within Hungary.[34]
187126 JanuaryKoloman Bedeković succeeded Rauch as Ban.
8 OctoberRakovica Revolt: Politician Eugen Kvaternik declared the establishment of an independent Croatian government, seated at Rakovica and incorporating the Croatian Military Frontier.[citation needed]
11 OctoberRakovica Revolt: Kvaternik was executed.
187320 SeptemberIvan Mažuranić became Ban.
188021 FebruaryLadislav Pejačević succeeded Mažuranić as Ban.
1881The Croatian Military Frontier was incorporated into Croatia-Slavonia.
188319 AprilCroatian parliamentary by-election, 1883: The first day of elections to the Sabor from the former territories of the Croatian Military Frontier was held.[citation needed]
21 AprilCroatian parliamentary by-election, 1883: The last day of elections was held. The government list won a majority of available seats.
4 SeptemberHermann von Ramberg succeeded Pejačević as Ban.
1 DecemberRamberg was dismissed.
4 DecemberKároly Khuen-Héderváry became Ban.
188416 SeptemberCroatian parliamentary election, 1884: The first day of balloting was held.
19 SeptemberCroatian parliamentary election, 1884: The last day of balloting was held. The People's Party won a majority of seats in the Sabor.
189516 October1895 visit of Emperor Franz Joseph to Zagreb: Student protesters burned the Hungarian flag in Ban Jelačić Square.
189719 MayCroatian parliamentary election, 1897: The first day of elections was held.
22 MayCroatian parliamentary election, 1897: The last day of balloting was held. The People's Party won a majority of seats in the Sabor.

20th century

190327 JuneBan Khuen-Héderváry resigned to become the Hungarian Prime Minister.
Teodor Pejačević was appointed Ban.
190726 JuneAleksandar Rakodczay became Ban.
19088 JanuaryPavao Rauch was appointed Ban.
27 FebruaryCroatian parliamentary election, 1908: The first day of balloting was held.
28 FebruaryCroatian parliamentary election, 1908: The second day of balloting was held. The Croat-Serb Coalition won a majority of seats in the Sabor.
12 MarchRauch dissolved the Sabor.
19105 FebruaryRauch was dismissed and replaced as Ban by Nikola Tomašić.
28 OctoberCroatian parliamentary election, 1910: The Croat-Serb Coalition won a plurality of seats in the Sabor.
191219 JanuarySlavko Cuvaj was appointed Ban.
191321 JulyIvan Škrlec was appointed Ban.
16 DecemberCroatian parliamentary election, 1913: The first day of balloting was held.
17 DecemberCroatian parliamentary election, 1913: The second day of balloting was held. The Croat-Serb Coalition won a majority of seats in the Sabor.
191428 JuneAssassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria: Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria was assassinated by Gavrilo Princip of the Bosnian separatist group Young Bosnia.[citation needed]
23 JulyJuly Crisis: Austria-Hungary issued an ultimatum to Serbia, demanding, among other things, the right to participate in the investigation into the assassination of Franz Ferdinand, which Serbia refused.[citation needed]
28 JulyWorld War I: Austria-Hungary declared war on Serbia.
30 JulyWorld War I: Russia mobilized its army to defend Serbia.
1915Škrlec reconvened the Sabor.
26 AprilWorld War I: The secret Treaty of London (1915) was signed, under which Russia, France and the United Kingdom recognized Italian territorial claims (including some in Croatia) in return for Italy's joining the war on the side of the Triple Entente.[citation needed]
191621 NovemberFranz Joseph I of Austria died. He was succeeded as king by his grandnephew Charles I of Austria.
191729 JuneSkerlecz resigned. Antun Mihalović became Ban.
191829 OctoberThe Sabor dissolved Croatia's union with Austria-Hungary and incorporated the Kingdom of Dalmatia into the new State of Slovenes, Croats and Serbs.
1 DecemberThe State of Slovenes, Croats and Serbs joined with Serbia to form the new Kingdom of Yugoslavia under King Peter I of Serbia.
191920 JanuaryMihalović left office.
192012 NovemberYugoslavia signed the Treaty of Rapallo (1920), acceding to Italian claims on some of its territory.
28 NovemberKingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes Constitutional Assembly election, 1920: The Democratic Party, People's Radical Party and Communist Party were the three most successful parties by number of seats received in the Assembly.
29 DecemberThe government issued a decree banning Communist propaganda and ordering the dissolution of all Communist organizations until approval of the Constitution.
192128 JuneThe Vidovdan Constitution, which abolished the traditional divisions of the region in favor of thirty-three oblasts ruled by royal appointees, was approved.
16 AugustPeter died. He was succeeded as king by his son Alexander I of Yugoslavia.
192318 MarchKingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes parliamentary election, 1923: The People's Radical Party won a plurality of seats in Parliament.
19258 FebruaryKingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes parliamentary election, 1925: The People's Radical Party won a plurality of seats in Parliament.
192711 SeptemberKingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes parliamentary election, 1927: The People's Radical Party won a plurality of seats in Parliament.
192820 JunePuniša Račić of the People's Radical Party shot five members of the Croatian Peasant Party (HSS) during a session of Parliament. Two were killed instantly, and Party leader Stjepan Radić was fatally wounded.
8 AugustRadić died.
19296 January6 January Dictatorship: Alexander issued a decree dissolving Parliament and abolishing the Constitution.
3 OctoberAlexander replaced the thirty-three oblasts with nine banovinas.
19313 September6 January Dictatorship: Alexander issued the 1931 Yugoslav Constitution, ending the dictatorship.
19349 OctoberAlexander was assassinated by a Bulgarian mercenary, Vlado Chernozemski, with the Internal Macedonian Revolutionary Organization; Chernozemski had been contracted by the Ustaše, which was formed in 1929. Alexander was succeeded by his eleven-year-old son, Peter, with his cousin, Prince Paul, leading a regency council of three.[citation needed]
19355 MayYugoslavian parliamentary election, 1935: The Yugoslav National Party won a majority of seats in Parliament.
193811 DecemberYugoslavian parliamentary election, 1938: The Yugoslav Radical Union won a majority of seats in Parliament.
193923 AugustThe Cvetković–Maček Agreement was approved, establishing the autonomous Banovina of Croatia with an elected Sabor and a crown-appointed Ban.
26 AugustIvan Šubašić was appointed Ban of Croatia.
194125 MarchWorld War II: Prince Paul signed the Tripartite Pact, pledging support to the Axis Powers.
27 MarchYugoslav military coup of March 27, 1941: A military coup overthrew the Regency and declared Peter II to be of age.[citation needed]
6 AprilWorld War II in Yugoslavia begins
6 AprilInvasion of Yugoslavia: Germany opened an invasion of Yugoslavia with an air attack on Belgrade.
10 AprilIndependent State of Croatia declared by Ante Pavelić of the Ustaše.
13 MayCroatia signed a treaty establishing its borders with Germany.
18 MayPrince Aimone, Duke of Aosta was crowned King Tomislav II of Croatia by the Italian King Victor Emmanuel III of Italy.
19 MayCroatia ceded land, including most of Dalmatia, to Italy by signing the treaty of Rapallo.
7 JuneCroatia's borders with Serbia were established.
22 JuneOperation Barbarossa: Germany launched an invasion of the Soviet Union.
4 JulyA call by the Communist Party of Yugoslavia to resist the Ustaše government marked the birth of the Yugoslav Partisans.
AugustGlina massacre: The Ustaše killed several hundred Serb civilians in a church in Glina.
27 OctoberCroatia's borders with Montenegro were established.
19425 OctoberOperation Alfa: Italian and Chetnik forces attacked the Partisan-held town of Prozor.
10 OctoberOperation Alfa: The battle ended in a Partisan defeat.
26 NovemberThe Anti-Fascist Council of the People's Liberation of Yugoslavia (AVNOJ) was established as the political organization of the Yugoslav Partisans.
194315 MayBattle of the Sutjeska: Axis troops surrounded the main Partisan force on the east bank of the Sutjeska river in Bosnia.
14 JuneThe National Anti-Fascist Council of the People's Liberation of Croatia (ZAVNOH), composed of Croatian members of the AVNOJ, held its first session and declared Vladimir Nazor President.
16 JuneBattle of the Sutjeska: The Partisans escaped across the Sutjeska.
25 JulyItalian King Victor Emmanuel III of Italy dismissed his Prime Minister Benito Mussolini.
31 JulyTomislav abdicated on the orders of the Italian King Victor Emmanuel III of Italy.
8 SeptemberWorld War II: An armistice between Italy and Allied armed forces was published, voiding Croatia's territorial concessions of 1941 and the Treaty of Rapallo (1920).
15 NovemberOperation Delphin: Croatian forces undertook a campaign to capture several islands in the Adriatic Sea off the cost of central Dalmatia.
21 NovemberThe second session of the AVNOJ established the National Committee for the Liberation of Yugoslavia, the government-in-waiting of a federal, democratic Yugoslavia under Prime Minister Josip Broz Tito.
1 DecemberOperation Delphin: The operation concluded successfully.
19449 MayThe Federal State of Croatia was established at the third session of the ZAVNOH.
13 MayThe Department for the Protection of the People (OZNA) was established under Aleksandar Ranković.
25 MayRaid on Drvar: German paratroopers attacked Partisan headquarters near Drvar. Tito escaped.
16 JuneTito and Šubašić signed the Treaty of Vis, which provided for a coalition of royalists and Communists in the government of the future Yugoslavia.
194530 MarchBattle on Lijevče field: Croatian and Chetnik forces met at Lijevče.
8 AprilBattle on Lijevče field: The Chetniks surrendered.
6 MayPavelić fled the country.
8 MayWorld War II in Yugoslavia formally ends with the German Instrument of Surrender, but fighting continues.
14 MayBattle of Poljana: Retreating Axis troops were forced to surrender to the Partisans.
15 MayBleiburg repatriations: After the retreating Axis column is stopped at Bleiburg, Austria, and forced by the British Army to surrender instead to the Yugoslav Partisans,[35] the Yugoslav Partisans commit thousands of reprisal killings against the remnants of the Ustaše and the civilians who fled Croatia alongside them, as well as some Slovene, Serb, and Montenegrin collaborators.[citation needed]
10 JuneTito agreed to the separation of Allied and Partisan forces at the Morgan Line.
21 AugustZAVNOH declared itself the People's Parliament of Croatia.
25 AugustThe People's Parliament elected Nazor President of Croatia.
OctoberThe royalists in the Yugoslavian government resigned.
11 NovemberThe Communist Party won an overwhelming majority of votes to the Constituent Assembly of Yugoslavia.
29 NovemberThe Federal People's Republic of Yugoslavia was declared and King Peter deposed.
194631 JanuaryThe 1946 Yugoslav Constitution came into force.
194710 FebruaryThe Paris Peace Treaties, 1947 were signed, solidifying Yugoslavia's border with Italy and establishing the Free Territory of Trieste, half of which was to be under Yugoslavian military occupation.[citation needed]
SeptemberThe Cominform was established.
1948MayTito–Stalin split: Croatian Communist Party member Andrija Hebrang was arrested after supporting the Soviet Union in a dispute with Yugoslavia.[citation needed]
28 JuneTito–Stalin split: Yugoslavia was expelled from the Cominform.
194919 JuneNazor died.
195026 JuneTito announced the introduction of workers' self-management in Yugoslavia.
195313 JanuaryThe 1953 Yugoslav Constitution came into force.
DecemberVladimir Bakarić became President of Croatia.
19637 AprilThe 1963 Yugoslav Constitution came into force.
196713 MarchCroatian Spring: The Declaration on the Status and Name of the Croatian Literary Language was published, demanding equal status for the Croatian language.
197123 NovemberCroatian Spring: A student protest began in Zagreb.
DecemberCroatian Spring: Tito forced Chair of the Croatian Communist Party Savka Dabčević-Kučar to resign.
197421 FebruaryThe 1974 Yugoslav Constitution came into force, establishing a nine-member Presidency of Yugoslavia of which Tito was president for Life.
AprilIvo Perišin became President of Croatia.
8 MayPerišin was succeeded by a rotating Croatian Presidency under the 1974 Yugoslav Constitution.
197510 NovemberThe Treaty of Osimo was signed, under which Italy and Yugoslavia were allowed to annex their respective occupation zones in Trieste.
19804 MayTito died. He was succeeded as President of the Presidency of Yugoslavia by the Macedonian Lazar Koliševski.
15 MayThe Yugoslavian Presidency rotated to the Bosnian Cvijetin Mijatović.
198115 MayThe Yugoslavian Presidency rotated to the Slovenian Sergej Kraigher.
198215 MayThe Yugoslavian Presidency rotated to the Serbian Petar Stambolić.
198315 MayThe Yugoslavian Presidency rotated to the Croatian Mika Špiljak.
198415 MayThe Yugoslavian Presidency rotated to the Montenegrin Veselin Đuranović.
198515 MayThe Yugoslavian Presidency rotated to the Vojvodin Radovan Vlajković.
198610 MayAnte Marković assumed the Presidency of Croatia.
15 MayThe Yugoslavian Presidency rotated to the Kosovar Sinan Hasani.
198715 MayThe Yugoslavian Presidency rotated to the Macedonian Lazar Mojsov.
198815 MayThe Yugoslavian Presidency rotated to the Bosnian Raif Dizdarević.
198915 MayThe Yugoslavian Presidency rotated to the Slovenian Janez Drnovšek.
199023 JanuaryA Communist Party Congress ended the party's legal monopoly in Croatia.
22 AprilCroatian parliamentary election, 1990: The first round of elections was held.
6 MayCroatian parliamentary election, 1990: The second round of elections was held. The Croatian Democratic Union (HDZ) won a majority of seats in all houses of Parliament.
15 MayThe Yugoslavian Presidency rotated to the Serbian Borisav Jović.
30 MayThe Serb Democratic Party (SDS) quit the Croatian Parliament.
25 JulyA Serbian Assembly led by the SDS declared the establishment of the Serbian Autonomous Oblast of Kninska Krajina.
17 AugustLog Revolution: Secessionist Serbs barricaded roads connecting Kninska Krajina to the rest of Croatia.
OctoberKninska Krajina was superseded by the larger Serbian Autonomous Oblast of Krajina.
22 DecemberThe current Constitution of Croatia was ratified. Franjo Tuđman of the HDZ was made President of Croatia.
19912 MarchPakrac clash: Croatian police arrested 180 Serb rebels who had occupied the town of Pakrac.
25 MarchPresidents of Croatia and Serbia partake in the Karađorđevo meeting
31 MarchPlitvice Lakes incident: Croatian police entered the Plitvice Lakes National Park to expel the secessionist forces of Krajina. Two combatants were killed.
1 AprilPlitvice Lakes incident: The Yugoslavian army intervened to end the crisis.
1 MayTwo Croatian police officers were taken prisoner by Serb secessionists in Borovo Selo.
2 MayThe Croatian Parliament voted to hold a referendum on independence from Yugoslavia.
Borovo Selo killings: An attempt to free the captives resulted in a firefight between Serb rebels and police. Twelve Croatian policemen killed, with an unknown number of rebel casualties.
15 MaySerbia blocked the accession of Croatian Stjepan Mesić to the Yugoslavian Presidency.
19 MayCroatian independence referendum, 1991: Croatian independence from Yugoslavia was approved in referendum, with 93% support.
25 JuneThe Croatian Parliament declared Croatia independent from Yugoslavia.
Serb secessionists declared the Serbian Autonomous Oblast of Eastern Slavonia, Baranja and Western Syrmia.
JulyBattle of Osijek: JNA forces began shelling the town of Osijek.
15 JulyOperation Coast-91: JNA and SAO Krajina forces attacked the town of Biograd but were rebuffed.
AugustOperation Opera Orientalis: Yugoslavian intelligence bombed Jewish cemeteries in an attempt to turn international opinion against Croatian independence.
1 AugustDalj massacre: Serb rebels killed twenty-eight police officers and eleven Croat civilians in Dalj.
12 AugustSerb secessionists declared the Serbian Autonomous Oblast of Western Slavonia.
25 AugustBattle of Vukovar: The Yugoslavian army and Serb militias laid siege to the town of Vukovar.
9 SeptemberBattle of the Barracks: The Yugoslavian barracks in Sisak surrendered to Croatian forces.
16 SeptemberBattle of Šibenik (1991): The Yugoslavian army attacked Croatian forces in Šibenik.
22 SeptemberBattle of Šibenik (1991): Yugoslavian forces were made to retreat.
1 OctoberSiege of Dubrovnik: Yugoslavian forces surrounded Dubrovnik.
6 OctoberOperation Coast-91: A truce was agreed.
7 OctoberBombing of Banski dvori: The Yugoslavian army bombed the government residence, the Banski dvori in Zagreb.
13 OctoberŠiroka Kula massacre: Serb forces killed thirty-four civilians.
16 OctoberGospić massacre: A three-day massacre began during which Serb forces killed between twenty-three and one hundred civilians.
18 OctoberLovas massacre: Serbs forced a group of Croat civilians to walk across a minefield, killing twenty-one.
21 OctoberBaćin massacre: Serb rebel forces killed some fifty-six civilians.
31 OctoberOperation Otkos 10: Croatian forces moved to block a Yugoslavian advance on Zagreb.
4 NovemberOperation Otkos 10: The operation concluded successfully.
10 NovemberErdut massacre: Serb rebels executed the first ten of the thirty-seven Hungarian and Croat civilians they would eventually massacre in Erdut.
12 NovemberSaborsko massacre: Serb rebel forces killed twenty-nine civilians in Saborsko.
14 NovemberBattle of the Dalmatian channels: A Yugoslavian ship was sunk by the Croatian navy near Split.
16 NovemberBattle of the Dalmatian channels: The Yugoslavian blockade of Split was broken.
18 NovemberBattle of Vukovar: The last Croatian forces surrendered.
Škabrnja massacre: Serb forces took the town of Škabrnja and began a massacre which would eventually claim eighty-six lives.
Bosnian War: The Croatian Democratic Union of Bosnia and Herzegovina (HDZBiH) established Croatian Community of Herzeg-Bosnia at municipalities with majority of Croatian people on the territory of Bosnia and Herzegovina.
20 NovemberVukovar massacre: Some 264 civilians, mostly Croats, were murdered by Serb militias near Vukovar.
12 DecemberOperation Orkan 91 The Croatian Army began an advance into Krajina.
Operation Whirlwind: The Croatian army attempted to cross the Kupa river against Krajina forces.
13 DecemberVoćin massacre: A Serb paramilitary group, the White Eagles, killed several dozen people before retreating from Voćin.
Operation Whirlwind: The Croatian advance was stopped.
16 DecemberJoševica massacre: Serb forces killed twenty-one civilians in Joševica.
19 DecemberKrajina declared independence from Croatia, proclaiming itself the Republic of Serbian Krajina.
21 DecemberBruška massacre: Serb forces killed ten civilians in Bruška.
19922 JanuaryOperation Orkan 91: A ceasefire was negotiated.
Battle of Osijek: A ceasefire was negotiated.
26 FebruaryKrajina invested SAO Eastern Slavonia, Baranja and Western Syrmia and Western Slavonia.
6 MayBosnian War: The Graz agreement was drafted, delineating the demarcation between Herzeg-Bosnia and the Republika Srpska in Bosnia and Herzegovina.
26 MaySiege of Dubrovnik: Croatian forces broke the siege.
JuneOperation Vrbas '92: Military offensive of the Army of Republika Srpska against the HVO and ARBiH in Jajce.
14 JuneOperation Corridor: The Army of Republika Srpska launched an offensive against the joint forces of Bosnia and Herzegovina, Croatia and Herzeg-Bosnia.
21 JuneMiljevci plateau incident: Croatian forces captured some thirty square miles in a surprise attack on Krajina forces.
26 JuneOperation Corridor: The operation ended with the successful linking of the two parts of Republika Srpska.
2 AugustCroatian parliamentary election, 1992: The HDZ won a majority of seats in the Sabor.
Croatian presidential election, 1992: Tuđman was reelected with 57% of the vote.
12 AugustHrvoje Šarinić of the HDZ was elected Prime Minister.
18 OctoberCroat–Bosniak War: First armed clashes between the Croatian Defence Council (HVO) and the Army of the Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina (ARBiH).
27 OctoberOperation Vrbas '92: The operation concluded with the conquest of Jajce.
199322 JanuaryOperation Maslenica: The Croatian army launched an offensive to reconquer Krajina territory in northern Dalmatia.
1 FebruaryOperation Maslenica: The Croatian government halted the offensive.
SeptemberOperation Neretva '93: ARBiH forces attack the HVO in Herzegovina and central Bosnia.
9 SeptemberOperation Medak Pocket: Croatian forces launched a southeastward offensive against Krajina towards the village of Medak.
17 SeptemberOperation Medak Pocket: Croatia negotiated a ceasefire under international pressure.
199423 FebruaryCroat–Bosniak War: The war was effectively ended with a ceasefire.
18 MarchCroat–Bosniak War: The Washington Agreement was signed, establishing the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina within Bosnia and Herzegovina.
29 NovemberOperation Winter '94: Croatian forces launched an offensive into western Bosnia and Herzegovina.
24 DecemberOperation Winter '94: The offensive ended to Croatian territorial advantage.
19951 MayOperation Flash: The Croatian Army launched an offensive which would reconquer the territory of the former Western Slavonia in Krajina.
2 MayZagreb rocket attacks: A two-day series of rocket attacks by Serb forces on Zagreb began which would kill seven civilians.
3 MayOperation Flash: The offensive came to a successful conclusion.
25 JulyOperation Summer '95: Croatian forces launched a northward offensive from Bosnia and Herzegovina against Krajina forces.
30 JulyOperation Summer '95: The operation ended to Croatian territorial advantage.
4 AugustOperation Storm: One hundred and fifty thousand Croatian soldiers launched an offensive across a three hundred-mile front into Krajina.
9 AugustOperation Storm: The operation concluded with the surrender of Krajina forces at Vojnić.
8 SeptemberOperation Mistral 2: Croatian and Bosnia and Herzegovina forces attacked Republika Srpska forces in western Bosnia and Herzegovina.
15 SeptemberOperation Mistral: The battle ended in a Republika Srpska defeat.
29 OctoberCroatian parliamentary election, 1995: The HDZ won a majority of seats in the Sabor.
7 NovemberZlatko Mateša of the HDZ was elected Prime Minister.
12 NovemberThe Erdut Agreement was signed by representatives of Croatia and Krajina, establishing a Joint Council of Municipalities in Eastern Slavonia, Baranja and Western Syrmia (1995-1998), which would guarantee Serb rights under the protection of the United Nations Transitional Authority for Eastern Slavonia, Baranja and Western Sirmium (UNTAES) and later under Croatian sovereignty.[citation needed]
14 DecemberBosnian War: The Dayton Agreement was signed, establishing Bosnia and Herzegovina as an indivisible federation, with an alternating presidency, of the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina and the Republika Srpska.
199615 JanuaryThe UNTAES mission began.
199715 JuneCroatian presidential election, 1997: Tuđman was reelected with 61% of the vote.
199815 JanuaryThe UNTAES mission ended.
199926 NovemberTuđman was declared incapacitated due to illness. Speaker of the Croatian Parliament Vlatko Pavletić became acting president.
10 DecemberTuđman died of cancer.
20003 JanuaryCroatian parliamentary election, 2000: The Social Democratic Party of Croatia (SDP) won a plurality of seats in the Sabor.
24 JanuaryCroatian presidential election, 2000: Mesić, running with the Croatian People's Party – Liberal Democrats (HNS), and Dražen Budiša of the Croatian Social Liberal Party (HSLS) qualified for the second round.
27 JanuaryIvica Račan of the SDP was elected Prime Minister, with the HSLS joining the SDP in coalition.
2 FebruaryZlatko Tomčić of the HSS was elected Speaker of the Croatian Parliament, replacing Pavletić in that role and as acting president.
7 FebruaryCroatian presidential election, 2000: Mesić won with 56% of the vote.

21st century

2001The Chamber of Counties was abolished by Constitutional amendment.
200323 NovemberCroatian parliamentary election, 2003: The HDZ won a plurality of seats in the Sabor.
23 DecemberIvo Sanader of the HDZ was confirmed Prime Minister by the Sabor, with the Croatian Party of Pensioners (HSU) and Independent Democratic Serb Party (SDSS) joining the HDZ in coalition.
20052 JanuaryCroatian presidential election, 2005: Mesić, running as an independent, and Jadranka Kosor of the HDZ qualified for the second round.
16 JanuaryCroatian presidential election, 2005: Mesić was reelected with 66% of the vote.
200725 NovemberCroatian parliamentary election, 2007: The HDZ maintained its plurality in the Sabor.
Sanader was again confirmed Prime Minister, with the HSS and HSLS now supporting his candidacy.
20091 JulySanader resigned. Deputy Prime Minister Kosor became Prime Minister.
3 July2009 flu pandemic in Croatia. First case confirmed with its origin from Australia. 526 people were infected and 22 people died from the Swine Flu.
27 DecemberCroatian presidential election, 2009–2010: Ivo Josipović of the SDP and the independent Milan Bandić qualified for the second round.
201010 JanuaryCroatian presidential election, 2009–2010: Josipović won with 60% of the vote.
20114 DecemberCroatian parliamentary election, 2011: The SDP won a plurality of seats in the Sabor.
20131 JulyCroatia becomes the 28th member state of the European Union.
201511 January2014–15 Croatian presidential election: Kolinda Grabar-Kitarović was voted to be the president of Croatia with 50,74% of the vote.,[36] becoming Croatia's first female president.[37][Note 1]
20158 NovemberCroatian parliamentary election, 2015: The Patriotic Coalition won a plurality of seats in the Sabor, with Croatia is Growing coalition coming second and MOST third.
2019-2022 December-5 January2019–20 Croatian presidential election was held. Zoran Milanović (SDP) wins with over 52% popular vote against Kolinda Grabar-Kitarović (HDZ)
202025 February-Present2020 coronavirus outbreak in Croatia. Currently there over 210 cases of COVID-19 confirmed.
202022 March 20202020 Zagreb earthquake. At 6:24 AM, an 5.4 magnitude earthquake hit Zagreb and killed 1 teenager from the falling bricks. Its shock traveled few hundred kilometers.

Map Timeline

Map Date Name Capital Flag
7th century Byzantine Empire Constantinople
7th century-925 Duchy of Croatia No permanent capital
925-1102 Kingdom of Croatia No permanent capital
1102-1526 Kingdom of Croatia and Dalmatia.

(Croatia in union with Hungary)

No permanent capital
(Shown in Red)
1526-1868 Kingdom of Croatia (Habsburg) No permanent capital
(Shown in Red)
1868-1918 Kingdom of Croatia-Slavonia Zagreb
29 Oct 1918-1 Dec 1918 State of Slovenes, Croats and Serbs Zagreb
1918-1929 Kingdom of Slovenes, Croats and Serbs Belgrade
1929-1941 Kingdom of Yugoslavia Belgrade
1941-1945 Independent State of Croatia Zagreb
1945-1963 Federal People's Republic of Yugoslavia Belgrade
1963-1991 Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia Belgrade
1991-Now Republic of Croatia Zagreb

See also

Cities in Croatia


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  2. Dzino, Danijel (2010). Becoming Slav, Becoming Croat: Identity Transformations in Post-Roman and Early Medieval Dalmatia. Brill. p. 183. ISBN 9789004186460.
  3. Royal Frankish Annales Annales Regni Francorum ed. G. H. Pertz. Monumenta Germanicae Historica, Scriptores rerum Germanicarum 6, (Hannover 1895) for the years 819-822.
  4. Norwich, John Julius. A History of Venice. Alfred A. Knopf: New York, 1982.
  5. Fine, John Van Antwerp (p.257): "The early medieval Balkans: a critical survey from the sixth to the late 12th century" University of Michigan Press; ISBN 0-472-08149-7/ISBN 978-0-472-08149-3
  6. H.T. Norris (1994). Islam in the Balkans, C. Hurst & Co. Publishers; ISBN 1-85065-167-1
  7. Stjepan Antoljak, Pregled hrvatske povijesti, Split 1993., str. 43.
  8. Croatian History, geocities.com; accessed 8 March 2016.
  9. Klaić V., Povijest Hrvata, Knjiga Prva, Druga, Treća, Četvrta i Peta Zagreb 1982. (in Croatian)
  10. Opća enciklopedija JLZ. Yugoslavian Lexicographical Institute. Zagreb. 1982.
  11. Hrvatski leksikon (1996-1997) (in Croatian)
  12. Frederick Bernard Singleton (1985). "A Short History of the Yugoslav Peoples", Cambridge University Press, ISBN 0-521-27485-0
  13. ...audivit de Cressimiro Chroatorum principe quod dolo necari fecisset Goislavum fratrem suum misso apocrisario Mainardo...
  14. Stjepan II (1089 - 1091) royalcroatia
  15. Petar Svacic (c.1091- 1097) royalcroatia
  16. "Croatia (History)". Encarta. Archived from the original on 31 October 2009.
  17. "Croatia (History)". Britannica.
  18. Fine, John Van Antwerp: "The Late Medieval Balkans: A Critical Survey from the Late 12th century to the Ottoman Conquest", University of Michigan Press; ISBN 0-472-08260-4
  19. "750th Anniversary of the Golden Bull Granted by Bela I". Croatian Post. Archived from the original on 4 March 2016. Retrieved 16 August 2013.
  20. M. Šašić (17 November 1998). ""Zlatna bula" - temelj razvoja Zagreba kroz stoljeća". Vjesnik (in Croatian). Zagreb. Archived from the original on 4 January 2009.
  21. Šubići bribirski do gubitka nasljedne banske časti (1322.) Damir Karbić (in Croatian)
  22. "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 20 April 2009. Retrieved 16 March 2009.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  23. Križevci Bloody Assembly krizevci.eu
  24. Kingdom of Croatia AD 925 - 1918 European Kingdoms
  25. "History: 1301 to 1526 AD". Zum.de. Retrieved 5 September 2010.
  26. Ramet, Sabrina P. & Davorka Matić. Democratic Transition in Croatia: Value Transformation, Education & Media, pg. xii
  27. Battle of Krbava field, crohis.com; accessed 8 March 2016.(in Croatian)
  28. "R.W. SETON -WATSON:The southern Slav question and the Habsburg Monarchy, page 18". Retrieved 5 September 2010.
  29. Turnbull, Stephen. The Ottoman Empire 1326-1699. New York: Osprey, 2003. 57
  30. Moačanin, Nenad: Some Problems of Interpretation of Turkish Sources concerning the Battle of Sisak in 1593 Archived 16 July 2011 at the Wayback Machine. In: Nazor, Ante, et al.(ed.), Sisačka bitka 1593, "Proceedings of the Meeting from June 18-June 19, 1993". Zagreb-Sisak 1994, pp. 125-30.
  31. "Croatian post Inc". Posta.hr. Archived from the original on 14 June 2011. Retrieved 5 September 2010.
  32. "Varazdin - Historic Nucleus and Old Town (the Castle) - UNESCO World Heritage Centre". Whc.unesco.org. Retrieved 5 September 2010.
  33. "Zahtijevanja naroda" Hrvatski sabor (in Croatian)
  34. "Nagodba". Britannica.
  35. Bethell, Nicholas (1974). The Last Secret. London, UK.
  36. Potpuni rezultati izbora za predsjednika Republike Hrvatske. 18 January 2015. (in Croatian). Archived 24 October 2015 at the Wayback Machine
  37. Croatians Elect Kolinda Grabar-Kitarovic as Their First Female President. The New York Times

Further reading


  1. Not counting Ema Derossi-Bjelajac who, as President of the Presidency of Croatia served as the first female head of state of SR Croatia.