Timeline of Irish history
This is a timeline of Irish history, comprising important legal and territorial changes and political events in Ireland. To read about the background to these events, see History of Ireland. See also the list of Lords and Kings of Ireland and Irish heads of state and the list of years in Ireland.
Mesolithic and neolithic periods
Bronze and Iron Ages
|c. 140 AD||Ptolemy's Geographia provides the earliest known written reference to habitation in the Dublin area, referring to a settlement in the area as Eblana Civitas|
|1534||11 June||Thomas FitzGerald, the 10th Earl of Kildare, publicly renounces his allegiance to Henry VIII of England.|
|1537||3 February||FitzGerald is hanged, drawn and quartered at Tyburn.|
|1542||The Irish parliament passes the Crown of Ireland Act, which establishes a Kingdom of Ireland to be ruled by Henry VIII and his successors.|
|1570||25 February||Pope Pius V issues a papal bull, Regnans in Excelsis, declaring Elizabeth I of England a heretic and releasing her subjects from any allegiance to her.|
|1575||May–August||The Annals of the Four Masters records a drought, in which no rain fell "from Bealtaine to Lammas" (1 May to 1 August), resulting in disease and plague.|
|1577||November||The Annals of the Four Masters records that the Great Comet of 1577 "was wondered at by all universally".|
|1579||16 July||Second Desmond Rebellion: James FitzMaurice FitzGerald, a cousin of the 14th Earl of Desmond, lands a small force of rebels at Dingle.|
|1594||The Nine Years' War commences in Ulster, as Hugh O'Neill and Red Hugh O'Donnell rebel against Elizabeth I's authority in Ulster.|
|1607||14 September||The Flight of the Earls: The departure from Ireland of Hugh O'Neill, 2nd Earl of Tyrone and Rory O'Donnell, 1st Earl of Tyrconnell.|
|1609||Plantation of Ulster by Scottish Presbyterians begins on a large scale.|
|1641||22 October||Irish Rebellion of 1641: Phelim O'Neill leads the capture of several forts in the north of Ireland.|
|1642||Irish Confederate Wars: The Irish Catholic Confederation is established, under the nominal overlordship of Charles I of England, with its capital at Kilkenny.|
|1646||28 March||The Supreme Council of the Irish Catholic Confederation signs an agreement with a representative of Charles I, which procures some rights for Catholics in return for their military support of the royalists in England.|
|The members of the Supreme Council are arrested; the General Assembly renounces the agreement with England.|
|1647||A more favorable agreement is reached with Charles's representative, which promises toleration of Catholicism, a repeal of Poynings' Law, and recognition of lands taken by Irish Catholics during the war.|
|1690||1 July||Battle of the Boyne|
|1695||The Education Act, one of a series of Penal Laws, is passed in 1695. It prohibits Catholics from sending their children to be educated abroad, and remains in place until 1782.|
|1913||19 August||A Dublin businessman, William Martin Murphy, fires forty workers he suspects belong to the Irish Transport and General Workers' Union (ITGWU). A resulting strike and related civil unrest, the Dublin Lockout, lasts from August 1913 to January 1914.|
|1914||18 September||Government of Ireland Act is passed, providing for Irish Home Rule, but its application is simultaneously postponed for the duration of World War I.|
|1916||24 April||Easter Rising: The Irish Republican Brotherhood leads an action which seizes key government buildings in Dublin, and issues the Proclamation of the Irish Republic. The Rising lasts til 29 April 1916.|
|1918||18 April||Acting on a resolution of Dublin Corporation, the Lord Mayor convenes a conference at the Mansion House to devise plans to resist conscription.|
|14 December||A general election returns a majority for Sinn Féin.|
|1919||21 January||The First Dáil of the Irish Republic meets and issues a Declaration of Independence from the UK.|
|21 January||Irish War of Independence: Volunteers of the Irish Republican Army (IRA) kill two members of the Royal Irish Constabulary in what is considered to be the first act of the War of Independence.|
|1921||3 May||Northern Ireland is established.|
|1921||6 December||Irish War of Independence: The War of Independence ends when negotiations between the British government and representatives of the de facto Irish Republic conclude with the signing of the Anglo-Irish Treaty and the creation of the Irish Free State.|
|1922||28 June||Irish Civil War: Bombardment by Michael Collins of Anti-Treaty forces occupying the Four Courts marks the start of the Irish Civil War,|
|1923||24 May||Irish Civil War: IRA Chief of Staff Frank Aiken orders volunteers to dump arms, effectively ending the Civil War.|
|1937||29 December||The Constitution of Ireland comes into force, replacing the Irish Free State with a new state called "Éire", or, in the English language, "Ireland"|
|1949||18 April||The Republic of Ireland Act abolishes the statutory functions of the British monarch in relation to Ireland and confers them on the President of Ireland.|
|1955||14 December||Ireland joins the United Nations along with sixteen other sovereign states.|
|1969||August||Troops are deployed on the streets of Northern Ireland, marking the start of the Troubles.|
|1972||March||The Parliament of Northern Ireland is prorogued (and abolished the following year).|
|1973||1 January||Ireland joins the European Community along with the United Kingdom and Denmark.|
|1973||June||The Northern Ireland Assembly is elected.|
|1974||1 January||A power-sharing Northern Ireland Executive takes office, but resigns in May as a result of the Ulster Workers' Council strike; the Assembly is suspended and later abolished.|
|1985||15 November||The governments of Ireland and the United Kingdom sign the Anglo-Irish Agreement.|
|1990||3 December||Mary Robinson becomes the first female President of Ireland.|
|1995||Ireland enters the Celtic Tiger period, a time of high economic growth which continues until 2007.|
|1998||April||The Belfast Agreement is signed; as a result, the Northern Ireland Assembly is elected, to which powers are devolved in 1999 and a power-sharing Executive takes office.|
|1999||1 January||Ireland yields its official currency, the Irish pound, and adopts the Euro.|
- Bradley, Richard (2007). The prehistory of Britain and Ireland. Cambridge University Press. p. 8. ISBN 978-0-521-84811-4.
- "Bear bone opens new chapter in Ireland's archaeology". Irish Times. 21 March 2016. Archived from the original on 26 April 2016. Retrieved 20 April 2016.
- O'Brian, William (2005). Ross Island: Mining, Metal and Society in Early Ireland. Oxbow books. ISBN 978-0-9535620-3-9.
- Johnston, Wesley; Abbot, Patrick. "Celtic Ireland in the Iron Age". History of Ireland. WesleyJohnston.com. Archived from the original on 12 November 2012. Retrieved 17 November 2012.
- Moody, T.W; Martin, F.X; Byrne, F.J, eds. (1982). A New History of Ireland VIII: A Chronology of Irish History to 1976 - A Companion to Irish History Part I. Oxford Clarendon Press. ISBN 978-0-19-821744-2.
- Geoffrey Keating, Foras Feasa ar Éirinn 1.42 Archived 2014-03-23 at the Wayback Machine, 43 Archived 2012-10-15 at the Wayback Machine, 44 Archived 2012-10-15 at the Wayback Machine, 45, 46 Archived 2013-09-28 at the Wayback Machine
- Francis J. Byrne, Irish Kings and High Kings, Four Courts press, 2001, p. 65-69
- Stephen, Leslie, ed. (1887). . Dictionary of National Biography. 12. London: Smith, Elder & Co.
- Welch, Robert (2003). The Concise Oxford Companion to Irish Literature. Oxford University Press. ISBN 9780192800800.
- Charles-Edwards, Thomas M (2000). Early Christian Ireland. Cambridge University Press. p. 145. ISBN 978-0521037167.
- Foster, RF (1989). The Oxford Illustrated History of Ireland. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
- Annals. Annals of Ulster and Annals of the Four Masters.
Palladius, having been consecrated by Celestine, bishop of the city of Rome, is sent to Ireland [...] in the eighth year of Theodosius.
- Annals of Ulster - U432. Annals of Ulster. Archived from the original on October 21, 2012. Retrieved November 17, 2012.
Year U432: Patrick arrived in Ireland in the ninth year of the reign of Theodosius the Less and in the first year of the episcopate of Xistus, 42nd bishop of the Roman Church. So Bede, Maxcellinus and Isidore compute in their chronicles.
- R. B. Stothers (26 January 1984). "Mystery cloud of AD 536". Nature. 307 (5949): 344–345. doi:10.1038/307344a0.
- Annals of Ulster - Part 105. Annals of Ulster. Archived from the original on October 20, 2012. Retrieved November 17, 2012.
U536.3 Failure of bread
- Duffy, S (2005). The Concise History of Ireland. Dublin: Gill & Macmillan. ISBN 9780717138104.
- Annals of the Four Masters - Part 49. Annals of the Four Masters. Archived from the original on October 15, 2012. Retrieved November 17, 2012.
- Weston Joyce, Patrick (1903). Medicine and Medical Doctors. Longmans. Archived from the original on 1 August 2013. Retrieved 17 November 2012.
- Ó Corráin, Donnchadh. "Vikings & Ireland" (PDF). Cork, Ireland: University College Cork. Archived (PDF) from the original on 6 March 2012. Retrieved 17 November 2012.
- Ó Corráin, Donnchadh (1972). Ireland Before the Normans. The Gill history of Ireland. Gill and MacMillan.
- – via Wikisource.
Text reads: This is the agreement which was made at Windsor in the octaves of Michaelmas [October 6] in the year of Our Lord 1175
- Annals of the Four Masters – Part 9. Annals of the Four Masters. Archived from the original on October 21, 2012. Retrieved November 17, 2012.
Great heat and drought prevailed in this Summer, so that people crossed the beds of the principal rivers of Ireland with dry feet. The reaping of the corn crops of Ireland was going on twenty days before Lammas 1 August, and the trees were scorched by the heat of the sun.
- Moody, TW; Martin, FX, eds. (1967). The Course of Irish History. Cork, Ireland: The Mercier Press. p. 370.
- Annals of the Four Masters - Part 10. Annals of the Four Masters. Archived from the original on October 21, 2012. Retrieved November 17, 2012.
A wonderful animal was sent to Ireland by the King of England. She resembled a mare, and was of a yellow colour, with the hoofs, of a cow, a long neck, a very large head, a large tail, which was ugly and scant of hair. She had a saddle of her own. Wheat and salt were her usual food. She used to draw the largest sled-burden by her tail. She used to kneel when passing under any doorway, however high, and also to let her rider mount.
- Annals of the Four Masters - Part 12. Annals of the Four Masters. Archived from the original on October 15, 2012. Retrieved November 17, 2012.
There was an earthquake at Sliabh Gamh, by which a hundred persons were destroyed, among whom was the son of Manus Crossagh O'Hara. Many horses and cows were also killed by it, and much putrid fish was thrown up; and a lake, in which fish is now caught, sprang up in the place.
- Annals of the Four Masters - Part 13. Annals of the Four Masters. Archived from the original on October 15, 2012. Retrieved November 17, 2012.
Great famine prevailed through all Ireland in this and the following year, so that people ate of food unbecoming to mention, and never before heard of as having been introduced on human dishes.
- Vaughan, W.E; Fitzpatrick, A.J, eds. (1978). Irish Historical Statistics, Population, 1821/1971. Royal Irish Academy. ISBN 978-0901714107.
- Cottrell, Peter (2009). The War for Ireland, 1913-1923. Oxford: Osprey. pp. 14–15. ISBN 978-1-84603-9966.
- "Ireland becomes first country to approve same-sex marriage by popular vote". Irish Times. 24 May 2015. Archived from the original on 20 August 2015. Retrieved 6 September 2015.