Timeline of Jainism

Jainism is an ancient Indian religion belonging to the śramaṇa tradition. It prescribes ahimsa (non-violence) towards all living beings to the greatest possible extent. The three main teachings of Jainism are ahimsa, anekantavada (non-absolutism), aparigraha (non-possessiveness). Followers of Jainism take five main vows: ahimsa, satya (not lying), asteya (non stealing), brahmacharya (chastity), and aparigraha. Monks follow them completely whereas śrāvakas (householders) observe them partially. Self-discipline and asceticism are thus major focuses of Jainism.

Before common era (BCE)

Common era (CE)

Sculpture depicting Acharya Kundkund

Middle Ages

British India


  • 1970s: significant presence of Jainism in the United States
  • 1972: Aacharya Shri Vidyasagar Maharaj elevated to the Acharya status.
  • 1975: Acharya Sushil Kumar (Jain monk) ji travels to USA. The first Jain muni to travel by air out of the Indian subcontinent.
  • 1975: Monolithic statue of Bahubali is installed at Dharmasthala, Karnataka, India under the auspices of D. Rathnavarma Heggade and Mathrushree D. Rathnamma Heggade, members of Dharmasthala's Jaina lineage who also manage the local Shivaite temple. Carving work began in 1966 under the sculptor Rejala Gopalkrishna Shenoy of Karkala.
  • 1976: In Arya Samaj Education Trust, Delhi & Others v. The Director of Education, Delhi Administration, Delhi & Others (AIR 1976 Delhi 207), the Court referred to Heinrich Zimmer's Philosophies of India describing Jainism as "a heterodox Indian religion" and J. N. Farquhar's Modern Religious Movements in India describing Jainism as "a rival of Hinduism."
  • 1981: First Jain convention in Los Angeles
  • 1983: Formal organization of JAINA (Jain Associations in North America)
  • 1990: Temple Pratishtha, The Jain Sangh Cherry Hill, New Jersey
  • 1990: Temple Pratishtha, Jain Society of Metropolitan Washington
  • 1991: Founding of Siddhachalam, the Jain tirtha
  • 1991: Death of Jain Acharya Shri Ramchandra Surishwarji
  • 1993: Temple Pratishtha, Jain Society of Metropolitan Chicago
  • 1995: Temple Pratishtha, Jain Center of Cincinnati and Dayton
  • 1998: Temple Pratishtha, Jain Society of Greater Detroit
  • 2000: Temple Pratishtha, Jain Center of Northern California (JCNC)
  • 2000: Jain Vishwa Bharati Orlando
  • 2005: the Supreme Court of India declined to grant Jains the status of a religious minority throughout India, leaving it to the respective states to decide on the minority status of Jainis.
  • 2006: the Supreme Court opined that "Jain Religion is indisputably not a part of the Hindu religion" (Para 25, Committee of Management Kanya Junior High School Bal Vidya Mandir, Etah, U.P. v. Sachiv, U.P. Basic Shiksha Parishad, Allahabad, U.P. and Ors., Per Dalveer Bhandari J., Civil Appeal No. 9595 of 2003, decided On: 21.08.2006, Supreme Court of India.)
  • 2008: Delhi city government declares Jain community a minority per the Supreme Court Orders.
  • 2014: Jain community is designated a minority at the national level.[14]

See also


  1. "NamiNatha Bhagwan". jainmuseum.com.
  2. "About Tonks Of 24 Jain Tirthankaras On Parasnath Hills Information-Topchanchi". hoparoundindia.com.
  3. Zimmer 1953, p. 226.
  4. Jinasena, Acharya; Jain (Sahityacharya), Dr. Pannalal (2008). Harivamsapurana [Harivamsapurana]. Bhartiya Jnanpith (18, Institutional Area, Lodhi Road, New Delhi - 110003). ISBN 978-81-263-1548-2.
  5. Fisher, Mary Pat (1997). Living Religions: An Encyclopedia of the World's Faiths. London: I.B.Tauris. ISBN 1-86064-148-2. p. 115
  6. "Parshvanatha". Encyclopædia Britannica. Encyclopædia Britannica Online. 2007. Retrieved 22 October 2007.
  7. Bowker, John (2000). "Parsva". The Concise Oxford Dictionary of World Religions. Oxford Reference Online. Oxford University Press. Retrieved 22 October 2007.
  8. Deo, Shantaram Bhalchandra (1956). History of Jaina monachism from inscriptions and literature. Poona [Pune, India]: Deccan College Post-graduate and Research Institute. pp. 59–60.
  9. "Mahavira." Britannica Concise Encyclopedia. Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc., 2006. Answers.com 28 Nov. 2009. http://www.answers.com/topic/mahavira
  10. Rapson, "Catalogue of the Indian coins of the British Museum. Andhras etc...", p XVII.
  11. Full text of the Hathigumpha Inscription in English Archived 17 November 2006 at the Wayback Machine
  12. Cort 2009, p. 39-41.
  13. Kerkar & TNN 2014.
  14. Government notification- minority