Timeline of Mexican history

This is a timeline of Mexican history, comprising important legal and territorial changes and political events and improvements in Mexico and its predecessor states. To read about the background to these events, see history See also the list of heads of state of Mexico and list of years in Mexico.

16th century

152020 MayMassacre in the Great Temple: Spanish soldiers killed a group of Aztec nobles in the Templo Mayor in Tenochtitlan during the celebration of Toxcatl.
29 JuneSpanish conquest of the Aztec Empire: Moctezuma II, the tlatoani of Tenochtitlan and ruler of the Aztec Triple Alliance, was killed.
30 JuneLa Noche Triste: The Spaniard Hernán Cortés lost several hundred men in a fighting escape from Tenochtitlan.
7 JulyBattle of Otumba: Combined Spanish and Tlaxcala forces seriously defeated a vastly superior Aztec force at Otumba de Gómez Farías.
152113 AugustFall of Tenochtitlan: Tenochtitlan was taken by Spanish forces. The tlatoani Cuauhtémoc was taken prisoner.

18th century

171311 AprilWar of the Spanish Succession: The Treaty of Utrecht was signed, under which Great Britain, Savoy, Portugal, and the United Provinces recognized Philip V of Spain of the House of Bourbon as king of Spain, ending the war. In exchange, Philip renounced the right to pass the throne to his heirs.
172415 JanuaryPhilip abdicated in favor of his son Louis I of Spain.
31 AugustLouis died of smallpox.
1767JuneThe Society of Jesus was expelled from New Spain.
1776The autonomous Commandancy General of the Provincias Internas was established under Teodoro de Croix in the northern provinces of New Spain.

19th century

181016 SeptemberGrito de Dolores: The Catholic priest Miguel Hidalgo y Costilla encouraged his congregation to revolt against the Spanish crown in a speech made at Dolores.
28 SeptemberMexican War of Independence: After Hidalgo orders Juan Antonio Riaño the surrender of Guanajuato, the insurgent troops led by José Mariano Abasolo and Ignacio Camargo take the city.
30 OctoberBattle of Monte de las Cruces: Insurgent forces under Hidalgo and Ignacio Allende defeated Spanish troops at Ocoyoacac.
181110 February
28 February
1 March
San Antonio Béjar
10 March
21 March
26 June
11 July
30 July
181314 September
Congress of Chilpancingo
181527 November
  • The Inquisition declares Morelos a heretic and sentences him to life imprisonment in Africa if he is not sentenced to the death penalty. The ecclesiastical degradation of Morelos is carried out in the chapel of the Holy Office.
Degradation of Morelos
22 December
Execution of Morelos
181630 January
Pope Pius VII
182121 FebruaryMexican War of Independence: The Spanish colonel Agustín de Iturbide and the insurgent leader Vicente Guerrero together issued the Plan of Iguala at a meeting in Iguala, under which Mexico was to become an independent, Catholic constitutional monarchy.
24 FebruaryMexican War of Independence: The armies under Iturbide and Guerrero were consolidated into Iturbide's control in the Army of the Three Guarantees.
24 AugustMexican War of Independence: Iturbide and Spanish viceroy Juan O'Donojú signed the Treaty of Córdoba, recognizing the independence of Mexico in personal union with Spain.
183610 February
San Antonio Béjar
6 March
  • After 12 days of siege, the army Mexican undertakes the assault on El Álamo. The Texan defenders are annihilated in combat. The Texas separatists forge the phrase "Remember the Alamo".
Battle of the Alamo
26 March
7 April
San Felipe de Austin
21 April
  • Santa Anna's troops, stationed in a hill near the San Jacinto River receive the reinforcement of Perfecto of Cos. The enemy takes refuge in the forest and Santa Anna decides to offer rest to his troops. To his misfortune, Houston's men ambush him. The confrontation lasts for hours until the Mexican ranks disperse.
Battle of San Jacinto
22 April
  • Santa Anna, who had fled in the fray of the previous day, is captured by Texan forces.
183826 October
27 October
184625 April
13 May
  • The U.S. Congress declares war against Mexico.
14 May
184722/23 February
  • The Battle of Buena Vista takes place. The Mexican army is superior in number, but it found poorly armed and exhausted by the march and severity of the weather; For its part, the US military is smaller, but is better organized and has more artillery. The result is indecisive.
Battle of Buena Vista
23 February
  • During the night, Santa Anna orders the withdrawal of his troops from the battlefield for his focus on the hacienda of Agua Nueva.
Agua Nueva
27 February
San Luis Potosí
Mexico City
20 August
12/13 September
  • General Scott assaults Chapultepec Castle. Los Niños Héroes (six cadets between 12 and 18 years old who died in defense of the military academy) pass into legend.[1] Some captured San Patricios members executed during the battle.
15 September
  • After several days of fierce fighting, Mexico City falls.
27 September
13 October
18482 February
4 July
  • The Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo goes into effect.
18541 March
4 October
18575 February
17 December
185815 January
  • Benito Juarez becomes president and he moves to Veracruz.
18611 January
  • Juarez recaptures Mexico City and goes on to defeat the Conservatives. He is elected president in his own right in March.
31 October
  • France, Great Britain, and Spain agree to the Convention of London, a joint effort to extract loan repayments from Mexico, which President Juarez had frozen three months earlier.
8 December
  • France, Spain, and Great Britain disembark in Veracruz. Spain and Britain later withdraw.
18625 May
186310 July
186410 June
  • Fernando Maximiliano José María de Habsburgo-Lorena, Archduke of Austria, was offered the Mexican crown in October, 1863, which he accepted on 10 April. He and his wife, Charlotte of Belgium arrived in Veracruz on 29 May 1864, and they soon established their official residence at Chapultepec Castle in Mexico City.
186719 June
  • Napoleon III withdrew his army from Mexico in 1866, and Juarez's liberal forces captured Mexico City on 15 May 1867. Maximilian was captured the next day, and following a trial, he was sentenced to death. Maximilian, General Miguel Miramón, and General Tomás Mejía Camacho were executed by firing squad in Cerro de las Campanas, Querétaro City at 6:40am on the morning of 19 June 1867.

20th century

191020 NovemberMexican Revolution: Francisco I. Madero calls for armed rebellion against the government of President Porfirio Díaz.[2]
19175 FebruaryMexican Revolution: The current constitution of Mexico was approved by a constituent assembly in Querétaro.
19203 JanuaryAn earthquake of magnitude 7.8 hits Puebla and Veracruz, leaving 648–4,000 dead.
193818 MarchMexican oil expropriation: President Lázaro Cárdenas expropriates the oil industry.
196021 SeptemberPresident Adolfo López Mateos nationalized the electrical system.
19682 OctoberTlatelolco massacre: The government fired on a crowd of student protesters in the Plaza de las Tres Culturas in Mexico City, killing between thirty and three hundred.
197328 AugustAn earthquake of magnitude 7.5 hits Puebla and Veracruz, leaving 539–1,000 dead.
19821 SeptemberPresident José López Portillo nationalizes the banking industry.
198519 September1985 Mexico City earthquake: An earthquake centered off the Pacific coast of Michoacán caused ten thousand deaths and between three and four billion US$ in damage in Mexico City.
19886 July1988 Mexican general election: Carlos Salinas de Gortari of the Institutional Revolutionary Party (PRI) was elected president in a rigged election, with an official 51% of the vote. The PRI maintained its majority in the Chamber of Deputies.
19895 MayConstituent parties of the National Democratic Front (FDN) established the Party of the Democratic Revolution (PRD) under the leadership of Cuauhtémoc Cárdenas.
199323 MarchLuis Donaldo Colosio is assassinated during his campaign to become the Mexican president in a rally in Tijuana.

21st century

20036 July2003 Mexican legislative election: The PRI won a plurality of seats in the Chamber of Deputies.
20062 July2006 Mexican general election: Felipe Calderón of the National Action Party (PAN) won the presidency with 36% of the vote. The PAN won a plurality of seats in the Chamber of Deputies.
30 JulyAndrés Manuel López Obrador of the PRD led hundreds of thousands in a protest against the election results at Zócalo in Mexico City.
20095 July2009 Mexican legislative election: The PRI won a plurality of seats in the Chamber of Deputies.
20121 July2012 Mexican general election: Enrique Peña Nieto of the PRI won the presidency with 39% of the vote. The PRI won a plurality of seats in the Chamber of Deputies.
201719 September2017 Puebla earthquake: struck at 13:14 CDT on 19 September 2017 with a magnitude of Mw 7.1 and strong shaking for about 20 seconds. Its epicenter was about 55 km (34 mi) south of the city of Puebla. The earthquake caused damage in the Mexican states of Puebla and Morelos and in the Greater Mexico City area. 370 people were killed by the earthquake and related building collapses, including 228 in Mexico City, and more than 6,000 were injured. Twelve days earlier, the even larger 2017 Chiapas earthquake struck 650 km (400 mi) away, off the coast of the state of Chiapas.
20181 JulyAndrés Manuel López Obrador of Together we will make history (a coalition of MORENA and the Labor Party) is elected 58th president with 53% of the vote. Together we will make history also won majorities in both the Senate and the Chamber of Deputies and 5 governorships.

See also

Cities in Mexico

Further reading

  • George Henry Townsend (1867), "Mexico", A Manual of Dates (2nd ed.), London: Frederick Warne & Co.
  • William Henry Overall, ed. (1870). "Mexico". Dictionary of Chronology. London: William Tegg. hdl:2027/uc2.ark:/13960/t9m32q949.
  • Louis Heilprin (1885). "Mexico". Historical Reference Book...Chronological Dictionary of Universal History. New York: D. Appleton and Company. hdl:2027/wu.89097349187 via Hathi Trust.
  • Charles E. Little (1900), "Mexico", Cyclopedia of Classified Dates, New York: Funk & Wagnalls
  • Benjamin Vincent (1910), "Mexico", Haydn's Dictionary of Dates (25th ed.), London: Ward, Lock & Co.
  • John Fisher (1999), "Monumental Chronology", Mexico, Rough Guides (4th ed.), London, p. 601+, OL 24935876M


  1. La verdadera historia de los 'Niños Héroes de Chapultepec' en México [The true story of the "Boy Heroes of Chapultepec" in Mexico] (in Spanish), Notimerica, 12 September 2017, retrieved 6 May 2019
  2. "¿Qué pasó el 20 de noviembre de 1910?" [What happened on 20 November 1910?], Milenio Digital (in Spanish), 20 November 2019