Timeline of Polish history

This is a timeline of Polish history, comprising important legal and territorial changes and political events in Poland and its predecessor states. To read about the background to these events, see History of Poland. See also the list of Polish monarchs and list of Prime Ministers of Poland.

Centuries: 5th · 6th · 7th · 8th · 9th · 10th · 11th · 12th · 13th · 14th · 15th · 16th · 17th · 18th · 19th · 20th · 21st · See also

5th century

450First Slavic settlements (to 500)

10th century

910Early stage of the Piast (Giecz-Gniezno area tribe) expansion (to 930)
966April 14Baptism of Poland
992May 25Death of Mieszko I
1000MarchCongress of Gniezno

11th century

1018 January 30Signing of the Peace of Bautzen (Budziszyn) with the Holy Roman Emperor
Bolesław I's intervention in the Kievan succession crisis
1025April 18Coronation of Bolesław I Chrobry
June 17Death of Bolesław I Chrobry the Brave
December 25Coronation of Mieszko II Lambert
1032Death of Duke Bezprym
1034May 10Death of Mieszko II Lambert
1034–39Pagan uprisings against Christianization
1058November 28Death of Casimir I the Restorer
1076December 26Coronation of Bolesław II the Bold

12th century

1102June 4Death of Władysław I Herman
1138October 28Death of Bolesław III Wrymouth; birth of Casimir II the Just
1173January 5Death of Bolesław IV the Curly
1182The first Sejm
1194May 5Death of Casimir II

13th century

1202March 13Death of Mieszko III the Old, High Duke of Poland
1211May 16Death of Mieszko IV Tanglefoot
1226March 26Issuance of Golden Bull of Rimini
1227November 24Assassination of Leszek I the White
1231November 3Death of Władysław III Spindleshanks
1238March 19Death of Henry I the Bearded
1241First Mongol invasion of Poland
April 9Death of Henry II the Pious
1247August 31Death of Konrad I of Masovia
1264September 8Issuance of Statute of Kalisz
1279December 7Death of Bolesław V the Chaste
1288 September 30Death of Leszek II the Black
Władysław I Łokietek (the Elbow-high) inherits the lands of Poland
1290June 23Death of Henryk IV Probus
1295 June 26Coronation of Przemysł II
Coat of arms of Poland adopted by the King
1296February 8Assassination of Przemysł II
1300AugustCoronation of Wenceslaus II

14th century

1305June 21Death of Wenceslaus II
1306August 4Assassination of Wenceslaus III
1308Teutonic takeover of Danzig
1311Rebellion of wójt Albert begins
1312Rebellion of wójt Albert ends
1320January 20Coronation of Władysław I the Elbow-high
1326Polish–Teutonic War (1326–1332) begins
1332Polish–Teutonic War concludes
1333March 2Death of Władysław I the Elbow-high
April 25Coronation of Casimir III
1335Congress of Visegrád
1339Congress of Visegrád
1343July 8Signing of the Treaty of Kalisz
1347Wiślica Statutes
1364Founding of Jagiellonian University
1370November 5Death of Kazimierz III the Great
November 17Coronation of Louis of Hungary
1374September 17Privilege of Koszyce
1382September 10Death of Louis of Hungary
1384October 16Coronation of Jadwiga
1385August 14Signing of the Union of Krewo
1386March 4Coronation of Władysław II Jagiełło
1399July 17Death of queen Jadwiga

15th century

1401Union of Vilnius and Radom
1409Polish–Lithuanian–Teutonic War begins
1410July 15Battle of Grunwald won by Władysław II Jagiełło
1411February 1Signing of the First Peace of Thorn (Toruń) concludes the Polish–Lithuanian–Teutonic War
1412November 8Signing of the Treaty of Lubowla
1413October 2Signing of the Union of Horodło
1414Hunger War
1422Gollub War begins
September 27Signing of the Treaty of Melno concludes the Gollub War
1424Issuance of Edict of Wieluń
1431Polish–Teutonic War (1431–1435) begins
1432Signing of the Union of Grodno
1434June 1Death of Władysław II Jagiełło
July 25Coronation of Władysław III of Varna
1435Polish–Teutonic War War concludes
1444November 10Death of Władysław III of Varna
1447June 25Coronation of Kazimierz IV Jagiellon
1454Thirteen Years' War begins
Statutes of Nieszawa
1466October 19Signing of the Second Peace of Thorn (Toruń) concludes the Thirteen Years' War
1473Almanach cracoviense ad annum 1474 published
1478War of the Priests begins
1479War of the Priests ends
1492June 7Death of Kazimierz IV Jagiellon
September 23Coronation of Jan I Olbracht
1496Statutes of Piotrków
1499Union of Kraków and Vilnius

16th century

1501June 17Death of Jan I Olbracht
October 3Union of Mielnik
December 12Coronation of Alexander Jagiellon
1505May 3Signing of act of Nihil novi
1506August 19Death of Alexander Jagiellon
1507January 24Coronation of Sigismund I the Old
1513Hortulus Animae, polonice published
1515JulyFirst Congress of Vienna
1519Polish–Teutonic War begins
1521Polish–Teutonic War concludes
1525April 8Signing of the Treaty of Kraków
April 10Prussian Homage
1526Annexation of Duchy of Masovia
1530February 20Coronation of Sigismund II Augustus
1537Chicken War
1543De revolutionibus orbium coelestium published
1548April 1Death of Zygmunt I the Old
1558Livonian War begins
1561November 28Signing of Wilno Pact
1563Northern Seven Years' War begins
1569July 1Signing of the Union of Lublin
1570Signing of Sandomierz Agreement
December 13Signing of the Treaty of Stettin concludes the Northern Seven Years' War
1572July 7Death of Zygmunt II August
1573January 28Signing of the Warsaw Confederation
May 11Election of Henry of Valois
1574February 21Coronation of Henry Valois
June 18Flight of Henry Valois
1575December 9Election of Stephen Báthory
15761 MayCoronation of Stephen Batory and Anna Jagiellon
1579Founding of Vilnius University
1582January 15Signing of the Truce of Jam Zapolski concludes Commonwealth participation in the Livonian War
October 15Adoption of Gregorian calendar
1586December 12Death of Stefan Batory
1587August 19Election of Sigismund III Vasa
December 27Coronation of Sigismund III Waza
1591Kosiński Uprising begins
1593Kosiński Uprising ends
1594Nalyvaiko Uprising begins
1596Nalyvaiko Uprising ends
Transfer of capital from Kraków to Warsaw
Union of Brest concludes

17th century

1605Polish–Muscovite War (1605–18) begins
1606Zebrzydowski Rebellion begins
1618Signing of the Truce of Deulino concludes the Polish–Muscovite War
1620Polish–Ottoman War (1620–21) begins
1621Polish–Ottoman War (1620–21) ends
1625Signing of the Treaty of Kurukove
1629Signing of the Truce of Altmark
1632Election Sejm
Smolensk War begins
April 30Death of Sigismund III Waza
November 8Election of Władysław IV Vasa
1633Polish–Ottoman War (1633–34) begins
February 6Coronation of Władysław IV Vasa
1634Signing of the Treaty of Polanów concludes the Smolensk War
Polish–Ottoman War ends
1635September 12Signing of the Treaty of Sztumska Wieś
1648Khmelnytsky Uprising begins
May 20Death of Władysław IV Waza
November 20Election of John II Casimir Vasa
1649January 19Coronation of John II Casimir Vasa
August 17Signing of the Treaty of Zboriv
1651June 14Kostka-Napierski Uprising begins
June 24Kostka-Napierski Uprising ends
September 28Signing of the Treaty of Bila Tserkva
1654Khmelnytskyi Uprising ends
Russo-Polish War begins
1655Deluge begins
August 18Signing of the Union of Kėdainiai
December 29Tyszowce Confederation formed
1657September 9Signing of the Treaty of Welawa
November 6Signing of the Treaty of Bydgoszcz
1658September 16Signing of the Treaty of Hadiach
1660May 3Signing of the Treaty of Oliva concludes the Deluge
1665Lubomirski's Rokosz begins
1666Lubomirski's Rokosz ends
1667January 30Signing of the Treaty of Andrusovo concludes the Russo-Polish War
1668September 16Abdication of John II Casimir Vasa
1669June 16Election of Michał Korybut Wiśniowiecki
September 29Coronation of Michał Korybut Wiśniowiecki
1672Polish–Ottoman War (1672–76) begins
October 18Signing of the Peace of Buczacz
1673November 10Death of Michael Korybut Wiśniowiecki
1674May 19Election of John III Sobieski
1676February 2Coronation of John III Sobieski
October 17Signing of the Treaty of Żurawno concludes the Polish–Ottoman War
1683September 12Battle of Vienna won under command of John III Sobieski
1686Signing of the Eternal Peace Treaty
1696June 17Death of John III Sobieski
1697June 27Election of Augustus II the Strong
September 15Coronation of Augustus II the Strong
1699Signing of the Treaty of Preobrazhenskoye
January 26Signing of the Treaty of Karlowitz concludes the Great Turkish War

18th century

1704February 16Warsaw Confederation formed
May 20Sandomierz Confederation formed
July 12Election of Stanisław Leszczyński
1705October 4Coronation of Stanisław Leszczyński
1706September 24Signing of the Treaty of Altranstädt
1709July 8Restoration of August II the Strong
1715Tarnogród Confederation begins
1716Tarnogród Confederation ends
1717February 1Silent Sejm
1724December 7Tumult of Thorn
1733War of the Polish Succession begins
February 1Death of August II the Strong
October 5Election of August III the Saxon
1734January 17Coronation of August III the Saxon
November 5Dzików Confederation formed
1736Pacification Sejm
1738November 18Treaty of Vienna concludes the War of the Polish Succession
1763October 5Death of August III
1764Convocation Sejm
September 7Election of Stanisław August Poniatowski
November 25Coronation of Stanisław August Poniatowski
1767Repnin Sejm begins
March 20Słuck Confederation formed
June 23Radom Confederation formed
Massacre of Uman
February 29Signing of the Bar Confederation
1772First Partition of Poland
1773October 14Creation of Commission of National Education
1788Great Sejm begins
1789December 2Black Procession
1790March 29Signing of Polish–Prussian alliance
1791April 18Free Royal Cities Act
May 3Adoption of Constitution of 3 May
1792Polish–Russian War
May 14Signing of Targowica Confederation
May 29Great Sejm ends
1793Second Partition of Poland
Grodno Sejm
1794March 24Kościuszko Uprising begins
March 24Kościuszko's proclamation
May 7Issuance of Proclamation of Połaniec
August 20Greater Poland Uprising begins
1795Third Partition of Poland
November 25Abdication of Stanisław August Poniatowski

19th century

1806November 3Greater Poland Uprising begins.
The Town of Łódź became a part of the Napoleonic Duchy of Warsaw.
1807March 19Beginning of the Siege of Danzig.
May 24End the Siege of Danzig.
July 9The second Treaty of Tilsit was signed.
Białystok was captured by the Russian Empire.
1809October 14Signing of the Treaty of Schönbrunn.
1815June 9Congress of Vienna concludes.
October 18Free City of Kraków proclaimed.
November 27Adoption of Constitution of the Kingdom of Poland.
1812July 3The forces of Napoleon invaded Białystok.
1813JanuarySiege of Danzig occurred.
1814Prussia captured Gdańsk.
1815The Republic of Krakow was established.
1820JanuaryKraków Town Hall was demolished excluding the tower.
1824The Lodka settlement was founded.
1825December 1Death of Alexander I of Russia.
182924 MayCoronation of Nicholas I of Russia.
1830November 29November Uprising begins.
1831Russian forces occupied Kraków.
1832Handelsakademie was founded.
1834Białystok prevented schools from teaching in the Polish language.
1846February 19Kraków Uprising begins.
March 4Kraków Uprising ended.
November 16Free City of Kraków incorporated into the Austrian Empire.
1848Greater Poland Uprising.
1850July 18Kraków fire of 1850 began.
1863January 22January Uprising begins.
1864March 2Abolition of serfdom in Congress Poland.
1873The School of Fine Arts and Academy of Learning became active.
1879The National Museum of Kraków was founded.
1881Great Synagogue was constructed in Łódź.
1884Alexander Nevsky Cathedral was constructed.
1888Karl Scheibler's Chapel was constructed.
1892Izrael Poznański factory was constructed.
1898The Volunteer Fire Department was founded.

20th century

1908September 26Bezdany raid near Vilna on a Russian imperial train
1916November 5Signing of the Act of 5th November between Germany and Austria
1917July 9Oath crisis by the departing Polish Legions led by Józef Piłsudski
1918March 3Signing of the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk with the Soviet Russia
November 11Poland regains independence with the formation of the Second Polish Republic following the Armistice of 11 November 1918

The Second Polish Republic (1918–39)

1918 November 1Polish–Ukrainian War begins, ends in 1919
November 11Polish Independence Day, Warsaw is free from German troops of the Ober Ost
December 27Greater Poland Uprising begins, ends in 1919
1919 January 23–30Polish–Czechoslovak War erupts following border disagreements
January 26Legislative election to the Sejm
February 14Polish–Soviet War begins
February 16Greater Poland Uprising ends
February 20Adoption of Small Constitution
April 22Proclamation to the inhabitants of the former Grand Duchy of Lithuania about Międzymorze
June 28Treaty of Versailles (Articles 87–93) and Little Treaty ratify Poland as a sovereign state internationally
August 16First Silesian Uprising begins; Silesian Uprisings continue until 1921
August 22Sejny Uprising after imperial Germany turned over administration to Lithuanian delegates
1920 February 10Poland's Wedding to the Sea in Puck
April 21Signing of Treaty of Warsaw
July 5–16Spa Conference in Belgium
August 12–25Miracle of the Vistula during the Bolshevik invasion
August 19Second Silesian Uprising begins
September 1Polish–Lithuanian War continues over the Vilnius and Suwałki Regions
October 6Żeligowski's Mutiny resulting in the creation of the Republic of Central Lithuania
1921 February 19Signing of the Franco-Polish alliance
March 3Polish–Romanian alliance signed in Bucharest
March 17Adoption of March Constitution
March 18Signing of the Peace of Riga with Lenin concludes the Polish-Soviet War
March 20Upper Silesia plebiscite rigged
May 2Third Silesian Uprising begins
1922 November 5–12Legislative election
December 9Gabriel Narutowicz becomes President
December 16Assassination of Gabriel Narutowicz
December 22Stanisław Wojciechowski becomes President
1923November 6Krakow riot
1924January 11Władysław Grabski's monetary reform with Bank of Poland acting as an issuing bank
1925December 1Signing of the Locarno Treaties
1926 May 12–14May Coup
June 4Ignacy Mościcki becomes President
1928 March 4–11Legislative election
Piłsudski's Nonpartisan Bloc for Cooperation with the Government election campaign
1930November 16Legislative election
1932July 25Signing of the Soviet–Polish Non-Aggression Pact
1934January 26Signing of the German–Polish declaration of non-aggression
1935 April 23Adoption of Apr Constitution
May 12Death of Józef Piłsudski
September 15Legislative election
1938 April 1Territorial changes of Polish Voivodeships
OctoberAnnexation of Zaolzie
November 6Legislative election
1939April 2Suicide former Prime Minister of Walery Sławek
August 23Signing of the Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact
August 25Signing of the Polish–British Common Defence Pact
August 29Peking Plan begins, Polish destroyers moved to British ports
August 31Gleiwitz incident, pretext for the invasion

Occupation of Poland (1939–45)

1939 September 1German Invasion of Poland begins; Bombing of Wieluń
September 2Massacre in Torzeniec village
September 3Bloody Sunday in Bydgoszcz
September 8German Massacre in Ciepielów of Polish POW
September 13Bombing of Frampol, up to 90% of the town destroyed
September 17Soviet invasion of Poland
September 18Orzeł incident, ORP submarine escapes to the United Kingdom
September 18The Fall of Warsaw
October 1General Bolesław Wieniawa-Długoszowski elected President
October 6Poland completely occupied
November 58Sonderaktion Krakau operation against university professors
1940March 5Authorization of Katyń massacre
May 16Authorization of German AB-Aktion in Poland
1941June 30 – July 29Lviv pogroms
July 2Massacre of Lwów professors
July 10Jedwabne pogrom
August 17Signing of the Sikorski–Mayski agreement in London
October 12Stanisławów Ghetto Bloody Sunday massacre
1942March 17Bełżec extermination camp begins secretive Operation Reinhard
May 16Sobibór extermination camp starts mass gassing operations
July 22Treblinka extermination camp becomes ready for the Grossaktion Warsaw deportations
1943March 26Operation Arsenal, first major operation by the Szare Szeregi
April 19Warsaw Ghetto Uprising begins
May 16Warsaw Ghetto Uprising ends
July 4Death of Polish military leader Władysław Sikorski
July 11Bloody Sunday, the peak of Massacres of Poles in Volhynia and Eastern Galicia
July 11–12Zagaje massacre
December 1Tehran Conference concludes in the Soviet embassy in Tehran
1944 January 29Koniuchy massacre by Soviet partisans
February 28Huta Pieniacka massacre by Ukrainian Grenadier Division of the Waffen-SS
June 20Glinciszki massacre by Lithuanian Auxiliary Police
July 22Proclamation of the PKWN Manifesto by Soviet-backed Polish Committee of National Liberation
July 25Operation Most III begins on the German V-2 rocket
AugustWola massacre in the opening phase of the Warsaw Uprising
August 1Warsaw Uprising begins
October 2Warsaw Uprising ends
1945January 26Przyszowice massacre
February 11Yalta Conference concludes
MarchPawłokoma massacre
March 17Poland's Wedding to the Sea in Mrzeżyno
March 18Poland's Wedding to the Sea in Kołobrzeg

Communist takeover, Polish People's Republic

1945 May 8End of World War II in Europe
June 18–21Trial of the Sixteen Polish Underground leaders in Moscow
July 10–25Augustów roundup of anti-Communist partisans
August 2Potsdam Conference concludes between the Soviet Union, the United Kingdom, and the United States
August 11Kraków pogrom with one dead victim
1946June 30People's referendum
July 4Kielce pogrom
1947January 19Legislative election rigged, 100,000 ORMO men deployed to intimidate voters
February 19Adoption of Small Constitution of 1947
April 28Operation Vistula begins
November 24Auschwitz trial begins in Kraków
1950July 6Signing of the Treaty of Zgorzelec
1951July 31Trial of the Generals who served in the anti-Nazi resistance during World War II
1952July 22Adoption of Constitution of the People's Republic of Poland
October 26First Legislative election by the one-party rule
1955May 14Signing of the Warsaw Pact
1956March 12Death of Bolesław Bierut
June 28Poznań 1956 protests
October 21Polish October, return of Władysław Gomułka
1957Legislative election
1961Legislative election
1965Legislative election
Letter of Reconciliation of the Polish Bishops to the German Bishops
1968MarchPolitical crisis
August 20End of Prague Spring with the invasion of Czechoslovakia
1970December 7Signing of Treaty of Warsaw; Warschauer Kniefall

rowspan ="2" valigin="top" 1973 September, last speech of chile military prasident salvador allende

December 141970 protests begin
1978October 16Election of Pope John Paul II
1980Gdańsk Agreement
March 14LOT Polish Airlines Flight 007
August 1721 demands of MKS
1981May 28Death of Primate Poland Stefan Wyszyński
1981December 13Martial law begins
1983Solidarity leader Lech Wałęsa receives the Nobel Peace Prize.
July 22Martial law ends
1984Father Jerzy Popiełuszko murdered by Polish secret police.
1989April 4Signing of the Round Table Agreement
April 7April Novelization
June 4Parliamentary election
July 19Lech Walesa becomes President
August 24Tadeusz Mazowiecki becomes first non-communist prime minister in the Eastern Bloc
December 31The People's Republic of Poland becomes the Republic of Poland

Democratic Republic of Poland

1990 May 27Local elections
November 14Signing of German–Polish Border Treaty
November 25Presidential election
December 22Lech Wałęsa becomes President
1991June 27Mława riot after Romani youth kills pedestrian in a hit-and-run
July 1Dissolution of Warsaw Pact
October 27Parliamentary election
1992October 17Adoption of Small Constitution
December 21Signing of Central European Free Trade Agreement
1993September 14Lufthansa Flight 2904
September 19Parliamentary election
1994May 2Poland bus disaster of 1994
June 19Local elections
1995NovemberPresidential election
December 23Aleksander Kwaśniewski becomes President
1997April 2Adoption of Constitution
September 21Parliamentary election
1998October 11Local elections
1999January 116 new voivodeships created in Polish local government reforms
1999March 12Accession of Poland to NATO
2000October 8Presidential election

21st century

2001September 23Parliamentary election
October 27Local elections
2003April 16Signing of the Treaty of Accession
JuneEuropean Union membership referendum
20041 MayAccession of Poland to the European Union
June 13European Parliament election
2005April 2Death of Pope John Paul II
September 25Parliamentary election
OctoberPresidential election
December 23Lech Kaczyński becomes President
2006January 28Katowice Trade Hall roof collapse
NovemberLocal elections
2007October 21Parliamentary election
2010April 10Polish Air Force Tu-154 crash killing Polish President Lech Kaczyński
2010July 4Bronisław Komorowski elected president.
2011August 5Suicide of Andrzej Lepper
2011October 9Parliamentary election
2012March 3A train crash near Szczekociny, Poland, kills 16 people.
2014April 27Canonization of Pope John Paul II
2014May 25Death of Wojciech Jaruzelski
2015MayPresidential election
2015August 6Andrzej Duda becomes President

See also

Cities in Poland


    • Library of Congress, A Country Study: Poland, Chronology of Important Events: online

    Further reading

    • Thomas Bartlett (1841). "Poland". New Tablet of Memory; or, Chronicle of Remarkable Events. London: Thomas Kelly.
    • J. Willoughby Rosse (1859). "Poland". Index of Dates ... Facts in the Chronology and History of the World. London: H.G. Bohn. hdl:2027/hvd.32044098621048 via Hathi Trust.
    • William Henry Overall, ed. (1870). "Poland". Dictionary of Chronology. London: William Tegg. hdl:2027/uc2.ark:/13960/t9m32q949.
    • George Henry Townsend (1877), "Poland", Manual of Dates (5th ed.), London: Frederick Warne & Co., hdl:2027/wu.89097349427 via Hathi Trust
    • Louis Heilprin (1885). "Poland". Historical Reference Book...Chronological Dictionary of Universal History. New York: D. Appleton and Company. hdl:2027/wu.89097349187 via Hathi Trust.
    • Benjamin Vincent (1910), "Poland", Haydn's Dictionary of Dates (25th ed.), London: Ward, Lock & Co., hdl:2027/loc.ark:/13960/t89g6g776 via Hathi Trust
    • Piotr Wróbel (1998). "Chronology". Historical Dictionary of Poland 1945-1996. Fitzroy Dearborn. ISBN 978-1-135-92694-6.
    • "Poland". Political Chronology of Europe. Europa Publications. 2003. pp. 183–191. ISBN 978-1-135-35687-3.
    • Harold B. Segel (2003). "Chronology of Major Political Events, 1944-2002: Poland". Columbia Guide to the Literatures of Eastern Europe Since 1945. Columbia University Press. ISBN 978-0-231-11404-2.
    • David Turnock (2006). "Chronology: Poland". The Economy of East Central Europe, 1815-1989: Stages of Transformation in a Peripheral Region. Routledge. p. 437+. ISBN 978-1-134-67876-1.
    • Darius von Güttner-Sporzyński (2014). "The Chronology of Polish History c. 920–1230". Poland, Holy War, and the Piast Monarchy, 1100-1230. Brepols. p. 231+. ISBN 978-2-503-54794-7.