Timeline of Portuguese history

This is a timeline of Portuguese history, comprising important legal and territorial changes and political events in Portugal and its predecessor states. To read about the background to these events, see History of Portugal.

Centuries: 3rd BC · 2nd BC · 1st BC · 3rd · 5th · 6th · 8th · 9th · 10th · 11th · 12th · 13th · 14th · 15th · 16th · 17th · 18th · 19th · 20th · 21st

3rd century BC

218 to 201 BCThe Second Punic War would bring the Roman Republic's influence to Iberia. The Roman conquest of the Iberian Peninsula begins.

2nd century BC

197 BCThe Iberian Peninsula is divided into Hispania Ulterior (which will include all of Portugal) and Hispania Citerior.
155 BCResistance to the Roman conquest by the Lusitanians starts in the Lusitanian War. Punicus leads the Lusitanians resistance, while Manilius and Calpurnius Piso are the local praetors.[1]
After their first victory, the Lusitanians ally themselves with the Vettones and lay siege to a Phoenician settlement, the Blastophoenicians, who are subjects of Rome. Punicus is killed during this siege and is succeeded by Caesarus.[1]
Mummius is sent to Rome and fights Caesarus.[1]
153 BCThe Lusitanians on the other side of the Tagus were led by Caucenus and join the resistance, invading the Cunei, who were subject to Rome, and capturing Conistorgis.[1]
The Lusitanians proceed to raid North Africa, laying siege to a city named Ocile. Mummius follows them into Africa, where he wins against the Lusitanians. With this victory, Mummius returns to Rome and is awarded a triumph.[1]
152 BCMummius is succeeded by Marcus Atilius, who fights the Lusitanians and takes their largest city, Oxthracae. The neighboring tribes (including the Vettones) are terrified by Marcus' successes and surrender.[1]
During winter, the Lusitanians rebel again, besieging some Roman subjects. Servius Galba, the successor of Atilius, rushes to rescue them but is defeated while trying to pursue the fleeing Lusitanian forces. Galba takes refuge in a settlement called Carmone. He then reassembles his forces and winters in Conistorgis.[1]
151 BCLucullus was wintering in Turditania. When he discovers that Lusitanians were nearby, he starts by attacking the nearby Lusitanians, then those crossing the straits near Gades and then sets off to invade Lusitania. Galba joins in the invasion of Lusitania.[1]
150 BCThe Lusitanians send ambassadors to Galba to renew the treaty they made with Atilius in 152 BC. Galba pretends to accepts a truce and promises them fertile land, but proceeds to slaughter the Lusitanians who come to receive land. A few Lusitanians escape, namely, Viriathus.[1]
148 BC The Lusitanians attack Turdetania. Gaius Vetilius is sent to deal with the raid. Vetilius wins against the Lusitanians, who ask for peace terms. Viriathus convinces the Lusitanans to flee instead of surrendering and becomes the Lusitanian leader. Velitius follows Viriathus, but is killed and the remaining Roman army flees to Carpessus.[1]
146 BC Viriathus raids Carpetania until Gaius Plautius Hypsaeus fights him. Gaius is defeated and Viriathus raids the country without check.[1]
145 BC Quintus Fabius Maximus Aemilianus is sent by Rome to fight the Lusitanians.[1]
144 BC Maximus attacks Viriathus and manages to put him into flight and capture two of his cities. Maximus pursues Viriathus into a place called Baecor, killing many of his men and failing to capture Viriathus. Maximus winters in Córdoba and then leaves to Rome, to be succeeded by Quintus Pompeius Aulus.[1]
143 BC Viriathus managed to persuade several Celtic tribes (Arevaci, Titii, and Belli) to resist the Romans, leading to the Numantine War. Quintus winters at Córdoba in the middle of Autumn and sends Caius Marcius, a Hispanic from Italica, to fight Viriathus.[1]
142 BC Fabius Maximus Servilianus succeeds Quintus. While fighting Viriathus, Maximus is attacked by Curius and Apuleius. Curius is killed in battle and Maximus succeeds in capturing the Lusitanian cities of Escadia, Gemella, and Obolcola. While following Viriathus, Maximus' army rested in Erisana. Viriathus manages to infiltrate the town and, in defeating Maximus' armies, asks for the end of the war.[1]
140 BC Fabius Maximus Caepius succeeds Maximus, who wants to break the peace terms. The Senate first only allows Caepius to fight Viriathus secretly, but then decides to declare war against Viriathus. Caepius took the town of Arsa and wins a battle over Viriathus (who flees) in Carpetania. As Viriathus flees, Caepius turns against the Vettones and Callaici.[1]
Viriathus sends his most trusted friends Audax, Ditalcus and Minurus to negotiate peace terms with Caepio. They are bribed by Caepius to kill Viriathus and do.[1]
After the death of Viriathus, Tautalus is elected to lead the Lusitanians. They attempt to raid Saguntum, but fail. On crossing the river Baetis on their return, they are defeated by Caepio and accept to become Rome's subjects. This marks the end of the Lusitanian War.[1]

1st century BC

80 to 72 BCThe Sertorian War takes place, with Quintus Sertorius, a Roman general, rebelling against Rome with the support of the Lusitanians.
27 BCAugustus replaces the old Hispania Ulterior and Citerior division with a new one: Lusitania (Center and South of modern Portugal and some territory of Modern Spain, namely the capital of Lusitania, Mérida), Baetica (only territories in Modern Spain, mostly around Seville), and Tarraconensis (everything else, including the North of Portugal).

3rd century

293Diocletian reorganizes the provinces of Hispania, creating some new ones. Of interest, Gallaecia is split from the Tarraconensis province. Gallaecia includes the North of Portugal (starting with Portus Cale/Oporto) and extending to the North of Spain (Galicia). Bracara Augusta (Braga) is the administrative center of Conventus Bracarensis, one of the three conventus of Gallaecia.

5th century

409In the context of the Migration Period, the Kingdom of the Suebi is established with King Hermeric as its leader and Braga as its capital. The Kingdom includes Gallaecia and varying other parts of Portugal. During the same time, the Visigothic Kingdom expands from its original settlement in Southern France, coming to occupy most of the Iberian Peninsula that was not occupied by the Suebi.

6th century

552Emperor Justinian I, of the Byzantine Empire, establishes the province of Spania. In its greatest extent, Spania would include parts of modern-day Algarve.
585King Liuvigild of the Visigothic Kingdom (capital in Toletum), an Arian, conquers the Suevi Kingdom, thus controlling most of the Iberian Peninsula (and all of Portugal).

8th century

711The Umayyad conquest of Hispania begins with Tariq ibn Ziyad crossing the Gibraltar strait and entering the Visigothic Kingdom. King Roderic of the Visigoths dies in the Battle of Guadalete. By 716, most of the Iberian Peninsula is under Islamic rule.
718 or 722Following the Battle of Covadonga, the Visigothic nobleman Pelagius of Asturias founds the Kingdom of Asturias. He begins the Astur-Leonese dynasty.
740Alfonso I of Asturias conquers Galicia.
756Abd al-Rahman I proclaims the Emirate of Córdoba.

9th century

868Vímara Peres was created count of Portugal by Alfonso III of Asturias, king of Asturias, after conquering from the Emirate of Córdoba the Atlantic coast between the Minho and Douro rivers.
873Vímara died. He was succeeded as count of Portugal by his son Lucídio Vimaranes.

10th century

909Alfonso III of Asturias is deposed by his sons yet also proclaimed Emperor.
910Alfonso III of Asturias dies and his kingdom is divided among his sons into the dependent kingdoms of Astúrias, León and Galicia.
Ordoño II becomes King of Galicia with the support of the Count of Portugal.
911Count Hermenegildo Guterres of Coimbra, dies and his son Arias Mendes becomes Count of Coimbra.
912Abd al-Rahman III becomes the Umayyad Emir of Córdoba.
913An expedition commanded by Ordoño II, then vassal king of Galicia, into Muslim territory takes Évora from the Muslims.
914Ordoño II of Galicia, becomes King of León, after the death of his brother García I of León.
The capital city of the Kingdom of Asturias is moved from Oviedo to León, from now on Kingdom of León.
916Ordoño II of León is defeated by the Emir Abd al-Rahman III in Valdejunquera.
918Battle of Talavera where Muslims under Abd al-Rahman III defeat the Christians.
Pope John X recognizes the orthodoxy and legitimacy of the Visigothic Liturgy maintained in the Mozarabic rite.
924Fruela II becomes King of León.
925Sancho Ordonhes, son of Ordoño II of León, becomes vassal king of Galicia until 929.
Alfonso IV becomes King of León.
Ramiro II, son of Ordoño II of León, was the first to bear the title King of Portuguese Land.
926Ramiro II takes residency in the city of Viseu.
Mendo I Gonçalves, son of Count Gonzalo Betotez of Galicia) marries Mumadona Dias (daughter of count Diogo Fernandes and Onega) and becomes Count of Portugal.
The Umayyad Emir Abd al-Rahman III, faced with the threat of invasion by the Fatimids, proclaims himself Caliph of Córdoba. Under the reign of Abd al-Rahman III Muslim Al-Andalus reaches its greatest height before its slow decline over the next four centuries.
928Gonçalo Moniz, grandson of Count Arias Mendes of Coimbra, becomes Count of Coimbra.
929Abd al-Rahman III proclaims himself Caliph in Córdoba and transforms the Emirate of Córdoba into an independent caliphate no longer under even theoretical control from Baghdad.
930Ramiro II leaves his residency in Viseu.
931Ramiro II becomes King of León.
938First document where the word Portugal is written in its present form.
946The county of Castile becomes independent.
950Countess Mumadona Dias of Portugal divides amongst her sons her the vast domains, upon the death of her husband Count Mendo I Gonçalves.
Gonçalo I Mendes, son of Mumadona Dias and Mendo I Gonçalves, becomes Count of Portugal.
Ordoño III becomes King of León.
953Big Moorish incursion in Galicia.
955Ordoño III of León attacks Lisbon.
956Sancho I becomes King of León.
958Sancho I of León is deposed.
Ordoño IV becomes King of León.
959Countess Mumadona Dias donates vast estates to the Monastery of St. Mamede in Guimarães.
960Sancho I of León is reinstated as King of León.
961Al-Hakam II becomes Umayyad Caliph of Córdoba.
962Count Gonçalo I Mendes of Portugal rebels against Sancho I of León.
966Count Gonçalo Moniz of Coimbra rebels against Sancho I of León.
Vikings raid Galicia and kill the bishop of Santiago de Compostela in battle, but his successor St. Rudesind rallies the local forces and kills the Viking King Gundered.
967Ramiro III becomes King of León.
968Countess Mumadona Dias dies.
971Another minor Viking raid in Galicia.
976Caliph Al-Hakam II dies, and Al-Mansur Ibn Abi Aamir takes over in the name of his protégé Hisham II, becoming a military dictator usurping caliphal powers and launching a big number of offensive campaigns against the Christians.
981Count Gonçalo Moniz of Coimbra dies.
982Bermudo II becomes King of León, having been acclaimed by the Counts of Galicia and anointed in Santiago de Compostela.
987Al-Mansur Ibn Abi Aamir lays waste to the now Christian Coimbra.
Al-Mansur Ibn Abi Aamir seizes the castles north of the Douro River, and arrives at the city of Santiago de Compostela. The city had been evacuated and Al-Mansur burns it to the ground and destroys the Church of Santiago.
Count Gonçalo I Mendes takes the personal title Magnus Dux Portucalensium (Grand-Duke of Portucale) and rebels against King Bermudo II of León, being defeated.
999Alfonso V becomes King of León.
Mendo II Gonçalves, son (or grandson?) of Gonçalo I Mendes and Tuta, becomes Count of Portugal.

11th century

1002Al-Mansur Ibn Abi Aamir dies in the village of Salem.
1003Moors lay waste to the city of León.
1008Vikings raid Galicia, killing Count Mendo II Gonçalves of Portucal.
Alvito Nunes, of a collateral line but also descent of Vímara Peres, married to Countess Tudadomna, becomes Count of Portucal.
Hisham II, Umayyad Caliph of Córdoba, is deposed in a popular uprising led by Muhammad II al-Mahdi.
Mohammed II al-Mahdi becomes Umayyad Caliph of Córdoba.
1009Sulaiman al-Mustain becomes Umayyad Caliph of Córdoba, after deposing Mohammed II.
The Taifa (independent Moorish kingdom) of Badajoz becomes independent of the Caliph of Córdoba and governs the territory between Coimbra and North Alentejo.
1010Hisham II is restored as Umayyad Caliph of Córdoba by slave troops of the Caliphate under al-Wahdid.
1012Sulaiman al-Mustain is restored as Umayyad Caliph of Córdoba by the Berber armies.
1013Caliphate of Córdoba begins to break up. Berber troops take Córdoba with much plundering and destruction and kill the deposed Hisham II. Many Taifas (independent Moorish kingdoms) begin to spring up.
1016Norman invaders ascend the Minho river and destroy Tuy in Galicia.
1017Nuno I Alvites, son of Alvito Nunes and Tudadomna, becomes Count of Portugal. He marries Ilduara Mendes, daughter of Mendo II Gonçalves and Tuta.
1018The Taifa of the Algarve becomes independent.
1021Abd-ar-Rahman IV becomes Umayyad Caliph of Córdoba.
1022Abd-ar-Rahman V becomes Umayyad Caliph of Córdoba.
The Taifa (independent Moorish kingdom) of Lisbon emerges. It will be annexed by the Taifa of Badajoz.
1023Muhammad III becomes Umayyad Caliph of Córdoba.
1025Abu al-Qasim Muhammad ibn Abbad, Abbadid Emir of Seville, captures two castles at Alafões to the north-west of Viseu.
1027Hisham III becomes Umayyad Caliph of Córdoba.
1028Mendo III Nunes, son of Nuno I Alvites and Ilduara Mendes, becomes Count of Portugal.
7 AugustAlfonso V, king of Asturias and León, lays siege to the Muslim town of Viseu but is killed by a bolt from the walls.
Bermudo III, becomes King of León.
1031Sancho III of Navarre declares war on Bermudo III of León. Navarre, sometimes assisted by Galician rebels and Normans, ravages the lands around Lugo in Galicia.
The Moorish Caliphate of Córdoba falls.
1033The Taifa (independent Moorish kingdom) of Mértola becomes independent.
1034The Leonese destroy a raiding force under Ismail ibn Abbad of Seville. Ismail ibn Abbad flees to Lisbon.
Gonçalo Trastemires – a Portuguese frontiersman – captures Montemor castle on the Mondego river.
Sancho the Great of Navarre had incorporated Aragon, Sobrarbe, Barcelona, as well as Asturias, León and Castile, and he proclaims himself Rex Hispaniarum ("King of all Spains").
1035Sancho III of Navarre, Aragon and Castile dies and distributes his lands among his three sons; Castile and Aragon become kingdoms.
Bermudo III of León defeats the Moors in César, in the Aveiro region.
1037Ferdinand of Castile, son of Sancho III of Navarre, acquires the Kingdom of León in the Battle of Tamarón. The first Castilian king, Ferdinand I, defeats and kills his father-in-law, Bermudo III of León, thus inheriting his kingdom. With Bermudo III's death, the Astur-Leonese dynasty ends and is replaced by the Jiménez dynasty.
1039Ferdinand I of Castille-León proclaims himself Emperor of all Hispania.
1040The Taifa of Silves becomes independent.
1044Abbad III al-Mu'tamid, son of the Abbadid Emir of Seville Abbad II al-Mu'tadid, retakes Mértola, since 1033 an independent Taifa.
1050Count Mendo III Nunes of Portugal is killed in battle sometime during this period.
Nuno II Mendes, son of Count Mendo III Nunes, becomes Count of Portugal.
1051The Taifa of the Algarve is annexed by the Taifa of Seville.
1056The Almoravides (al-Murabitun) Dynasty begins its rise to power. Taking the name "those who line up in defence of the faith", this is a group of fundamentalist Berber Muslims who would rule North Africa and Islamic Iberia until 1147.
1057Ferdinand I of Castille-León conquers Lamego to the Moors.
1058Emir Al-Muzaffar al-Aftas (Abu Bekr Muhammad al-Mudaffar – Modafar I of Badajoz, Aftid dynasty) pays the Christians to leave Badajoz, but not before Viseu being conquered by Ferdinand I of Castile-León.
1060Council (Ecumenical Synod) of Santiago de Compostela. (to 1063)
1063Ferdinand I of Castile-León divides his kingdom among his sons. Galicia is allotted to his son Garcia.
The Taifa of Silves is annexed by the Taifa of Seville.
1064Ferdinand I of León-Castile besieges Muslim Coimbra from 20 January until 9 July . The Muslim governor who surrendered is allowed to leave with his family, but 5,000 inhabitants are taken captive, and all Muslims are forced out of Portuguese territory across the Mondego river.
The Mozarabic (Christian) general Sisnando Davides, who led the siege of Coimbra, becomes Count of Coimbra.
The Hispanic calendar[clarification needed] is adopted.
1065Independence of the Kingdom of Galicia and Portugal is proclaimed under the rule of Garcia II of Galicia.
1070Count Nuno II Mendes of Portugal rises against King Garcia II of Galicia.
1071Garcia II of Galicia became the first to use the title King of Portugal, when he defeated, in the Battle of Pedroso (near Braga), Count Nuno II Mendes, last count of Portugal of the Vímara Peres House.
1072Loss of independence of the Kingdom of Galicia and Portugal, forcibly reannexed by Garcia's brother king Alfonso VI of Castile. From that time on Galicia remained part of the Kingdoms of Castile and León, although under differing degrees of self-government. Even if it did not last for very long, the Kingdom set the stage for future Portuguese independence under Henry, Count of Portugal.
1077Alfonso VI of Castile and León proclaimes himself Emperor of all Spains.
1080Coimbra is again a Diocese.
Count Sisnando Davides of Coimbra takes part in the invasion of Granada.
1085The Order of Cluny is established in Portugal. (to 1096)
1086Several Muslim Emirs (namely Abbad III al-Mu'tamid) ask the Almoravids leader Yusuf ibn Tashfin for help against Alfonso VI of Castile. In this year Yusuf ibn Tashfin passed the straits to Algeciras and inflicted a severe defeat on the Christians at the Battle of az-Zallaqah (North of Badajoz). He was debarred from following up his victory by trouble in North Africa which he had to settle in person.
Raymond of Burgundy, son of William I, Count of Burgundy, comes to Iberia for the 1st time to fight against the Moors, bringing with him his younger cousin Henry of Burgundy, grandson of Robert I, Duke of Burgundy.
1090Almoravid Yusuf ibn Tashfin return to Iberia and conquers all the Taifas.
Raymond of Burgundy and Henry of Burgundy come to Iberia for the 2nd time.
1091Count Sisnando Davides of Coimbra dies.
Alfonso VI of Castile gives her daughter Urraca of Castile in marriage to Raymond of Burgundy together with the fiefdom of Galicia.
The Taifa of Mértola falls to the Almoravids.
1093Raymond of Burgundy and Henry of Burgundy sign a treaty whereby Henry promises to recognize Raymond as king upon the death of Alfonso VI of Castile, receiving in exchange the Kingdom of Toledo or of Portugal.
1094Alfonso VI of Castile grants Raymond of Burgundy the government of Portugal and Coimbra.
Henry of Burgundy marries Alfonso VI of Castile's illegitimate daughter Teresa of León.
Almoravid Sir ibn Abi Bakr takes Badajoz and Lisbon. Fall of the Taifa of Badajoz.
1095Establishment of the 2nd County of Portugal (Condado Portucalense), by Count Henry of Burgundy.
The Almoravids take Santarém.
1097Yusuf ibn Tashfin assumes the title of Amir al Muslimin (Prince of the Muslims).

12th century

1102Diego Gemírez, Bishop of Santiago de Compostela, uses force to carry off the relics of St. Victor [pt] and St. Fructuosus of Dumes from Braga – recently reinstated as a Metropolitan See.
1103In the absence of Henry, Count of Portugal in Rome or Jerusalem, Theresa, Countess of Portugal, aided by Soeiro Mendes, governs Portugal.
1105The Almohads, founded by Ibn Tumart, began as a religious movement to rid Islam of impurities. Most specifically, the Almohades were opposed to anthropomorphisms which had slipped into Iberian Islam. Ibn Tumart's successor, Abd al-Mu'min, turned the movement against non-Muslims, specifically Jews and Christians. Sweeping across North Africa and into Muslim Iberia, the Almohads initiate riots and persecutions of both Muslims and non-Muslims. In some towns Jews and Christians are given the choice of conversion, exile, or death.
1107Count Raymond of Burgundy dies. The Kingdom of Galicia passes on to his son Alfonso Raimúndez.
11091 JulyAlfonso VI of Castile and León dies. Urraca of Castile, Count Raymond of Burgundy's widow, is his only surviving legitimate child and marries King Alfonso I of Aragon.
25 JulyAfonso Henriques, son of Henry, Count of Portugal, is born in the city of Guimarães.
1110Henry, Count of Portugal unsuccessfully besieges King Alfonso I of Aragon in Penafiel.
Urraca of Castile distances herself from her husband Alfonso I of Aragon accusing him of being abusive and infertile.
Henry, Count of Portugal makes common party with Alfonso I of Aragon against Urraca of Castile.
1111Almoravids led by Sir ibn Abi Bakr occupy Lisbon and Santarém in the west . These cities were occupied by the Almoravids in 1094–95 this suggests a fluctuating border in Portugal.
Conference of Palencia, where Urraca of Castile divides her estates with Henry, Count of Portugal and his wife and her sister Theresa.
Urraca of Castile makes peace with her husband Alfonso I of Aragon, even though they remain separated.
Henry, Count of Portugal, believing Urraca of Castile has betrayed him, besieges her and her husband Alfonso I of Aragon in Sahagún, aided by Urraca's son Alfonso Raimúndez.
Henry, Count of Portugal grants city rights and privileges to Coimbra and captures Santarém from the Moors.
Alfonso Raimúndez, Raymond of Burgundy and Urraca of Castile's son, is proclaimed King of Castile and León as Alfonso VII. This is not recognized.
1112Henry, Count of Portugal dies. His son Afonso Henriques inherits the County of Portugal, but, being too young, it's his mother, Theresa, Countess of Portugal, that governs the county after her husband's death with the title of Regina (Queen). Santarém recaptured by the Moors.
1114The marriage between Urraca of Castile and Alfonso I of Aragon is annulled.
The Taifa of Beja and Évora becomes independent.
1116The armies of Theresa, Countess of Portugal battle against the armies of Urraca of Castile.
1117Almoravids under Emir Ali ibn Yusuf himself take Coimbra, but abandon the city after a few days.
1120Afonso Henriques takes sides with the Bishop of Braga against his mother Theresa, Countess of Portugal and her lover, the Count Fernando Peres de Trava of Galicia
The armies of Theresa, Countess of Portugal battle against the armies of Urraca of Castile.
1121Alfonso Raimúndez comes into Portugal in a mission of sovereignty with his mother Urraca of Castile. Their armies capture Theresa, Countess of Portugal at Lanhoso, that accepts to go free and hold the County of Portugal as a fief of the Kingdom of León.
1122Afonso Henriques, aged 14, makes himself a Knight on his own account in the Cathedral of Zamora.
1126Urraca of Castile dies. Her son Alfonso Raimúndez finally becomes King Alfonso VII of Castile and León.
1127Theresa, Countess of Portugal donates Vimieiro to the Order of Cluny
The Kingdom of León invades Portugal and besieges Guimarães. The Portuguese Knight Egas Moniz de Ribadouro manages to make King Alfonso VII of Castile and León accept promises' of Portuguese fielty.
1128Theresa, Countess of Portugal donates Soure to the Knights Templar.
24 JulyCount Afonso Henriques defeats his mother, Theresa, Countess of Portugal, in the Battle of São Mamede (near Guimarães) and becomes sole ruler (Dux – Duke) after demands for independence from the county's people, church and nobles.
11296 AprilAfonso Henriques proclaims himself Prince of Portugal.
1130Prince Afonso Henriques invades Galicia.
Prince Afonso Henriques' mother, Theresa, Countess of Portugal, dies in Galicia.
The Knights Hospitaller install themselves in Portugal.
1135Prince Afonso Henriques conquers Leiria from the Moors.
King Alfonso VII of Castile and León is proclaimed Imperator totius Hispaniae.
1137Battle of Arcos de Valdevez
Peace treaty of Tui, whereby Prince Afonso Henriques acknowledges himself as vassal to King Alfonso VII of Castile and León, through the possession of Astorga.
Prince Afonso I of Portugal tries and fails to conquer Lisbon from the Moors.
The Moors retake Leiria.
1139King Afonso I of Portugal assembles the first assembly of the estates-general of Portugal at Lamego, where he was given the Crown from the Bishop of Braga, to confirm the independence.
King Afonso I of Portugal retakes Leiria from the Moors.
25 JulyIndependence of Portugal from the Kingdom of León declared after the Battle of Ourique against the Almoravids led by Ali ibn Yusuf: Prince Afonso Henriques becomes Afonso I, King of Portugal.
1140The Knights Hospitaller receive lands and privileges from King Afonso I of Portugal.
Portuguese victory in the Battle of Valdevez against Leonese and Castilian forces.
King Afonso I of Portugal tries and fails to conquer Lisbon from the Moors.
The Moors retake Leiria.
1142King Afonso I of Portugal retakes Leiria from the Moors and the town receives its foral (compilation of feudal rights) to stimulate the colonisation of the area.
1143Treaty of Zamora: Alfonso VII of León and Castille recognizes the Kingdom of Portugal in the presence of King Afonso I of Portugal, witnessed by the papal representative, the Cardinal Guido de Vico, at the Cathedral of Zamora. Both kings promise durable peace between their kingdoms.
King Afonso I of Portugal declares himself vassal to Pope Innocent II, placing the Kingdom of Portugal and himself under the protection of Saint Peter and the Holy See.
1144The Muridun ("Disciples") under Abul-Qasim Ahmad ibn al-Husayn al-Qasi rebel in the Algarve. Ibn al-Mundhir takes Silves in his name and the governor of Beja, Sidray ibn Wazir, also supports him. Ibn al-Mundhir and Sidray ibn Wazir kill the garrison of Monchique castle, and 70 men take Mértola by surprise (12 Aug). Soon after the Andalusian governor of Niebla, Yusuf ibn Ahmad al-Bitruji declares for the Muridun. The Almoravid Yahya ibn Ali ibn Ghaniya drives the Muridun back from Seville, and subsequently Sidray ibn Wazir splits off from the other Muridun.
The Taifa of Mértola and of Silves again become independent.
The Order of Cistercians installs itself in Portugal, at Tarouca.
1145The Taifa of Badajoz again becomes independent and conquers the Taifa of Mértola.
1146The Taifa of Mértola gains independence from Badajoz.
King Afonso I of Portugal marries Mafalda of Savoy, daughter of Amadeus III, Count of Savoy and Maurienne.
1147The towns of Almada and Palmela, just south of Lisbon, are taken from the Moors.
King Afonso I of Portugal orders the construction of the church and monastery of Church of São Vicente de Fora (St. Vincent outside the Walls), in Lisbon, in honour of St. Vincent the Deacon.
15 MarchKing Afonso I of Portugal takes Santarém in a surprise attack.
19 MayA fleet of almost 200 ships of crusaders (Second Crusade) leaves from Dartmouth in England, consisting of Flemish, Frisian, Norman, English, Scottish, and some German crusaders. The fleet was commanded by Arnold III of Aerschot (nephew of Godfrey of Louvain) Christian of Ghistelles, Henry Glanville (constable of Suffolk), Simon of Dover, Andrew of London, and Saher of Archelle.
16 JuneThe crusaders fleet arrives at the northern city of Porto, and are convinced by the bishop, Pedro II Pitões, to continue to Lisbon.
1 JulyThe Siege of Lisbon begins, after the armies of King Afonso I of Portugal were joined by the crusaders.
21 OctoberThe Moorish rulers of Lisbon agree to surrender to King Afonso I of Portugal, basically due to the hunger that was felt inside the city walls. The terms of surrender indicated that the Muslim garrison of the city would be allowed to flee.
25 OctoberThe city of Lisbon opens its doors to the Christian armies. As soon as the Christians enter the city the terms of surrender were broken. Many Muslims were killed, and the city was thoroughly plundered before King Afonso I of Portugal finally was able to stop the onslaught.
1148Some of the crusaders that had helped King Afonso I of Portugal conquer Lisbon settle in the newly captured city, and Gilbert of Hastings is elected bishop of the renovated Diocese of Lisbon, but most of the crusaders' fleet continues to the east.
1149A new Berber dynasty, the Almohad, led by Emir Abd al-Mu'min al-Kumi conquers North Africa to the Almoravids and soon invades the Iberian Peninsula.
1150The Taifas of Badajoz and of Beja and Évora are taken by the Almohads.
1151King Afonso I of Portugal tries and fails to take Alcácer do Sal from the Moors.
The Taifa of Mértola is taken by the Almohads.
1152The Cistercians build the Monastery of St. John in Tarouca.
1153The Cistercians build the Monastery of Alcobaça.
1154Sancho, son of King Afonso I of Portugal and future King of Portugal is born.
1155The Taifa of Silves is taken by the Almohads.
1158King Afonso I of Portugal conquers Alcácer do Sal from the Moors.
1159The Castle of Cera (in Tomar) is donated to the Knights Templar.
Évora and Beja, in the southern province of Alentejo, are taken from the Moors.
1160The city of Tomar is founded by Gualdim Pais.
1161Évora, Beja and Alcácer do Sal are retaken by the Moors.
1162King Afonso I of Portugal retakes Beja from the Moors.
1163The Almohad Caliph Abd al-Mu'min al-Kumi dies and is succeeded by Abu Ya'qub Yusuf I.
1165The Portuguese armies, led by Gerald the Fearless, retake Évora from the Moors.
Negotiations between Portugal and León result in the marriage of Princess Urraca of Portugal, King Afonso I's daughter, with King Ferdinand II of León.
1166The Portuguese armies take Serpa and Moura (in Alentejo) from the Moors.
1168Portuguese frontiersman Gerald the Fearless goes into the territory of Badajoz.
1169King Afonso I of Portugal grants the Knights Templar one third of all they conquer to the Moors in Alentejo.
Gerald the Fearless seizes Badajoz from the Almohads.
King Afonso I of Portugal is wounded by a fall from his horse in Badajoz, and is captured by the competing forces of King Ferdinand II of León. As ransom King Afonso I was obliged to surrender almost all the conquests he had made in Galicia in the previous years as well as Badajoz, that the Leonese gave back to the Almohads as a vassal territory.
1170The Almohads transfer their capital to Seville.
1174The Crown of Aragon recognizes Portugal as independent.
1175Beja recaptured by Almohads.
1179Pope Alexander III, in the Papal bull Manifestis Probatum, recognizes Afonso I as King and Portugal as an independent country with the right to conquer lands from the Moors. With this papal blessing, Portugal was at last secured as a country and safe from any Leonese or Castilian attempts of annexation.
King Ferdinand II of León repudiates his wife, Urraca of Portugal, King Afonso I's daughter.
1184The Portuguese defeat the Almohads at Santarém.
Yusuf I, Almohad Caliph, dies and is succeeded by Abu Yusuf Ya'qub al-Mansur.
1185Sancho I of Portugal becomes King of Portugal.
Sancho I of Portugal founds several new towns and villages and takes great care in populating remote areas in the northern Christian regions of Portugal, notably with Flemings and Burgundians. (to 1212)
6 DecemberKing Afonso I of Portugal dies.
1199The Almohad Caliph Abu Yusuf Ya'qub al-Mansur dies and is succeeded by Muhammad an-Nasir.

13th century

1211Afonso II of Portugal becomes king.
1212Culmination of the Reconquista. Christians, amongst them the troops of King Afonso II of Portugal, defeat Almohads (Caliph Muhammad an-Nasir) at the Battle of Las Navas de Tolosa. The Christians had 60–100,000 infantry and 10,000 cavalry, and had troops from Western Europe, Castile, Navarre, Aragon, León and Portugal, Military Orders (Knights Templar, Knights Hospitaller, Santiago, Cavatrava), and urban Militias.
1213Abu Ya'qub Yusuf II becomes Almohad Caliph.
1217The town of Alcácer do Sal is conquered to the Moors.
1223Sancho II of Portugal becomes king.
1236Portugal captures most of the Algarve.
1246Pope Innocent IV declares Sancho II an heretic and orders his removal of the throne.
1247Afonso III of Portugal becomes king; Sancho II is exiled to Toledo.
1254First official reunion of the Cortes, the kingdom's general assembly.
1255The city of Lisbon becomes the capital-city of Portugal.
1272Afonso III conquers Faro from the Moors, thus removing all Muslim communities from Portuguese soil and ending the Portuguese Reconquista.
1276John XXI becomes the first and only Portuguese Pope (died 1277).
1279Dinis of Portugal becomes king.
12901 MarchCreation of the Estudo Geral (General Study) in Coimbra, the first Portuguese University, with the Faculties of Arts, Canons, Laws and Medicine, and later confirmed by the Pope Nicholas IV.[2]
1297Dinis signs the Treaty of Alcanizes with Ferdinand IV of Castile to define the borders between Portugal and Castile.

14th century

1308First Portuguese commercial treaty, signed with England.
The General Study is transferred to Coimbra.[2]
1319–1324 Civil War between D. Dinis and D. Afonso IV (Sotto Mayor Pizarro 1997, p. 190, Vol. I)
1325Afonso IV of Portugal becomes king.
1341Portugal raids the Canary Islands.
1355Inês de Castro is killed by royal order; begins civil war between Afonso IV and his heir Pedro.
1357Pedro I of Portugal becomes king; Inês de Castro is removed from her grave and crowned Queen of Portugal.
1367Fernando I of Portugal becomes king.
1383Civil war and political anarchy: 1383-1385 Crisis. (to 1385)
1385AprilJoão I of Portugal acclaimed king by the Portuguese; Castilians do not accept this claim.
14 AugustBattle of Aljubarrota: João I defeats the Castilians and secures the throne.
13869 MayTreaty of Windsor, an alliance between England and Portugal, the oldest Portuguese diplomatic agreement and the oldest diplomatic alliance in the world still in force.[3] As a result, in 1387, Joao I marries, Phillipa, daughter of John of Gaunt, third son of King Edward III of England
1394Henry the Navigator, son of king João I of Portugal, is born.

15th century

1415João I conquers the city of Ceuta in northern Africa.
1419Madeira Islands discovered by João Gonçalves Zarco and Tristão Vaz Teixeira.
1427Azores Islands discovered by Diogo Silves.
1433Duarte of Portugal becomes king.
1434Gil Eanes crosses the Bojador Cape: exploration of the African coast begins.
1438Afonso V of Portugal becomes king.
1456Discovery of Cape Verde islands. (Settled 1462.)
1470Discovery of São Tomé island.
1471Discovery of Príncipe island.
1481João II of Portugal becomes king.
1483João II executes Fernando, the third Duke of Braganza, and Diogo, the Duke of Viseu, putting an end to high nobility conspiracies.
1484Diogo Cão discovers the Congo river.
1491Bartolomeu Dias becomes the first European to cross the Cape of Good Hope.
1494The Treaty of Tordesilhas signed between Spain and Portugal, dividing the colonisable world in two halves.
1495Manuel I of Portugal becomes king.
1498Vasco da Gama reaches India through navigation around Africa.
1500Diogo Dias discovered an island they named after St Lawrence after the saint on whose feast day they had first sighted the island later known as Madagascar.
Manuel I orders expulsion or conversion of the Portuguese Jews.
Gaspar Corte-Real made his first voyage to Newfoundland, formerly known as Terras Corte-Real.[4][5]
22 AprilPedro Álvares Cabral discovers Brazil.

16th century

1502Miguel Corte-Real set out for New England in search of his brother, Gaspar.
João da Nova discovered Ascension Island.
Fernão de Noronha discovered the island which still bears his name.
1503On his return from the East, Estêvão da Gama discovered Saint Helena Island.
1505Francisco de Almeida "the Great" appointed 1st Viceroy of India, arriving in Cochin in the same year at the head of the 7th Portuguese Indian Armada.
1506Tristão da Cunha discovered the island that bears his name. Portuguese sailors landed on Madagascar.
The Lisbon Massacre.
1509 The Gulf of Bengal crossed by Diogo Lopes de Sequeira. On the crossing he also reached Malacca.
Francisco de Almeida becomes the first Portuguese to arrive in Bombay by sea, seeking to avenge the death of his son.
3 February At the naval Battle of Diu, Francisco de Almeida inflicts a decisive victory on the Mamlûk Burji Sultanate of Egypt, the Ottoman Empire, the Zamorin of Calicut, and the Sultan of Gujarat, ridding the Indian Ocean of Egyptians and Ottomans and giving Portugal a monopoly of the sea route to Indian for almost 150 years.
1510Conquest of Goa by Afonso de Albuquerque, Governor of India.
1511Conquest of Malacca by Afonso de Albuquerque.
1512António de Abreu reaches Timor island and the Banda Islands, Ambon Island and Seram. Francisco Serrão reaches the Maluku Islands.
1513The first European trading ship to touch the coasts of China, under Jorge Álvares and Rafael Perestrello later in the same year.
1515Afonso de Albuquerque captures the Kingdom of Hormuz.
1517Fernão Pires de Andrade and Tomé Pires were chosen by Manuel I of Portugal to sail to China to formally open relations between the Portuguese Empire and the Ming Dynasty during the reign of the Zhengde Emperor.
1521João III of Portugal becomes king.
António Correia captures Bahrain, which is under Portuguese rule until 1602.
1526Jorge de Meneses reaches New Guinea for the first time.
1537After moving back and forth between Lisbon and Coimbra in the last two centuries, the General Study is definitely established in the latter.[2]
1543Portuguese explorers Fernão Mendes Pinto, Francisco Zeimoto and António Mota are the first Europeans to land in Japan.
1557Macau given to Portugal by the Emperor of China as a reward for services rendered against the pirates who infested the South China Sea.
Sebastião of Portugal becomes king.
1568King Sebastião of Portugal comes of age and takes control of government.
1569Plague epidemic in Portugal. 60,000 people die in Lisbon alone.
Nagasaki is opened to Portuguese traders.
1570Luís de Camões returns to Lisbon from the Orient.
Goa, in Portuguese India, is attacked by a coalition of Indian forces, but these are defeated by Portuguese Vice-Roy Luís de Ataíde, Count of Atouguia.
1572The first edition of the epic poem The Lusiads is published.[6]
1578Portuguese troops utterly defeated in Africa, in the battle of Alcácer Quibir; king Sebastião disappears in the battle never to be seen again.
Cardinal Henrique I of Portugal becomes king.
1579Cortes in Lisbon.
1580Cortes in Almeirim.
King Cardinal Henrique I of Portugal dies.
Invasion of Portugal by a Spanish army commanded by Fernando Álvarez de Toledo, Duke of Alba.
Battle of Alcântara between Portuguese and Spanish forces.
The Fortress of St. Julian, in Lisbon, surrenders to the Spanish.
Anthony of Portugal, the Prior of Crato, is acclaimed King of Portugal in Santarém.
Death of Luís de Camões, Portugal's national poet.[7]
Beginning of the Cortes (General Assembly of the Kingdom) of Tomar.
1581Philip II of Spain is acclaimed in the Cortes of Tomar as King Philip I of Portugal in a personal union of the Crowns. Portugal loses de facto independence to Spain.
Anthony of Portugal, the Prior of Crato, takes refuge in England.
The Azores refuse to recognize Philip I of Portugal as King.
1582The Spanish Fleet of Santa Cruz defeats the Portuguese-French Fleet of Strozzi in the Azores.
Introduction of the Gregorian Calendar in Portugal.
1583Cortes in Lisbon.
King Philip I of Portugal departs for Madrid and leaves the government of Portugal with Portuguese trustees.
The Azores are submitted.
Francis Drake attacks the Portuguese colony of Brazil.
1589Anthony of Portugal, the Prior of Crato, attacks Lisbon with English aid, but with no success.
1595Anthony of Portugal, the Prior of Crato, dies in Paris.
1598Philip III of Spain becomes Philip II of Portugal.

17th century

1621Philip IV of Spain becomes Philip III of Portugal.
16401 DecemberA small group of conspirators storms the Palace in Lisbon and deposes the Vicereine of Portugal, Margaret of Savoy. The Duke of Bragança, head of the senior family of the Portuguese nobility (and descended from a bastard of João I), accepts the throne as Dom João IV of Portugal, despite deep personal reluctance, by popular acclaim and at the urging of his wife. His entire reign will be dominated by the struggle to maintain independence from Spain. Francisco de Lucena, secretary to the governing council of Portugal for the past 36 years and thus the most experienced bureaucrat in the country, smoothly changes his loyalties and becomes chief minister of the restored monarchy.
1641The Portuguese Inquisition attempts to derail the national restoration by giving its support to a counter-revolution mounted by a duke, a marquis, three earls and an archbishop. The plot fails, quelled by Francisco de Lucena, who has the ringleaders executed, but it initiates a 28-year-long war against Spain punctuated by frequent internal threats to the stability of the new regime. Meanwhile, the Dutch renew their attack on Angola and capture the most extensive Portuguese slaving grounds in Africa, including the Angolan port of Luanda. The Portuguese garrison flees upriver while trying to decide whether to declare continuing loyalty to the Habsburgs, accept Dutch rule or declare for João IV. They choose the House of Bragança and appeal to the Portuguese colony of Brazil for help in fending off African and Dutch attacks on their enclave. Salvador de Sá, leader of Rio de Janeiro, persuaded by the Jesuits in Brazil, also declares for King João and responds to the Angolan appeal.
1644Elvas withstands a nine-day siege by Spanish troops.
1648The Portuguese from Brazil under Salvador de Sá land in Angola, expel the Dutch and restore the African colony to Portugal.
1654Anglo-Portuguese treaty between João IV and Oliver Cromwell signed at Westminster. João agrees to prevent the molestation of the traders of the English Protector; they are allowed to use their own bible and bury their dead according to Protestant rites on Catholic soil. The Portuguese in Brazil drive the Dutch out of the great plantation colonies of the north-east, re-establishing the territorial integrity of Portugal's South American empire.
1656Death of João IV after a reign of 15 years. His Queen now reigns as Regent for their son, Afonso VI of Portugal. She seeks an accommodation with Spain. Portugal loses control of Colombo in Portuguese Ceylon when it is captured by the Dutch.
1659The Treaty of the Pyrenees ends Spain's long war with France, and Spanish troops are freed once more to suppress the Portuguese ‘rebellion’. The Spaniards besiege Monção and are driven off by the Countess of Castelo Melhor.
1660On the restoration of Charles II in Britain, the Queen-Regent re-negotiates the treaty of 1654. Portugal is allowed to recruit soldiers and horses in England for the fight against Spain; and to seek out 4,000 fighting men in Scotland and Ireland and charter 24 English ships to carry them. The expeditionary force is to be issued with English weapons on arrival in Portugal and guaranteed religious freedom of worship.
1661Catarina da Bragança, sister of Afonso VI, marries Charles II of Great Britain on 31 May. She brings to London a dowry of 2,000,000 gold pieces, the practice of drinking afternoon tea, and England is given colonial toe-holds in the Portuguese Empire at Tangier and Bombay. Servicing the wedding debt burdens the Portuguese exchequer for the next half-century, and this marriage with a Protestant monarch is deeply unpopular with that section of the Portuguese nobility which favours alliance with France.
1662In a palace coup d’etat in Lisbon a restive younger faction of the nobility, supported by the young Afonso VI, overthrows the Queen Regent and installs the 26-year-old Count of Castelo Melhor as ‘dictator’ to prosecute the war with Spain. The adolescent king is married to a French princess and the young dictator models his government on the royal absolutism of the Bourbon dynasty. Opposition to this pro-French absolutism (from the King's sister the Queen of England, and his younger brother Prince Pedro) is swept aside, and Castelo Melhor initiates the final, successful phase of the Portuguese war of restoration with the aid of the Franco-German Marshal Schomberg, who brilliantly commands an international mercenary army against the Spanish forces.
166517 JunePortugal is victorious at the decisive Battle of Montes Claros, in which António Luís de Menezes defeats the Spanish army under the Prince of Parma; Spain ceases to make war, but peace will not be signed for another three years.
1667Castelo Melhor and his Francophile party are overthrown in a new palace revolution. Prince Pedro, leader of the Anglophile party, becomes Regent for Afonso VI, who is declared incapable of governing and removed to the Azores. The French alliance is rejected, though Pedro shores up his political position by marrying his brother's estranged Queen. Castelo Melhor flees into exile (ironically, to England).
1668Peace treaty with Spain ends nearly 30 years of war. Portugal keeps all his possessions and territory with the exception of Ceuta in Morocco, which is ceded to Spain. Portugal remains economically weak, however, agriculturally undeveloped and dependent on British grain and trade goods generally, especially woven cloth. The Count of Ericeira, economic adviser to the Prince Regent, advocates the development of a native textile industry modelled on Flemish lines. ‘Factories’ are established at Covilhã with easy access to flocks of sheep and clean mountain water, but are highly unpopular with both town consumers and traditional weavers. Meanwhile, Portuguese attempts to develop a silk industry are fiercely resisted by the French, who wish to monopolize that market.
1683Death of Afonso VI. Pedro II of Portugal becomes king.
1690Suicide of Luís de Meneses, Count of Ericeira.
1692Great drought disrupts Portuguese silk production.
1697Discovery of gold in the interior of São Paulo province, Brazil.
1700Brazil now producing 50,000 ounces of gold per year.

18th century

1703Sir John Methuen negotiates a Military Treaty with Portugal on 16 May, giving Britain an entry to Portugal at a time when the Bourbon dynastic alliance of France and Spain appears to threaten English access to the Continent. This is followed on 27 December by the commercial Methuen Treaty, signed to stimulate trade with Britain. This (which lasts until 1810) opens up new markets for Portuguese wine but helps to destroy the native textile industry by letting in British cloth at preferential rates. The fashion for Portuguese wine in Britain (which has banned the import of French wine due to the War of the Spanish Succession, which will last until 1714) makes the wine trade so profitable and competitive that over the next 40 years inferior wines, often adulterated and artificially coloured are passed off as the genuine article – giving 'port' a bad name.
1705Brazil is now producing 600,000 ounces of gold per year. For the second time in its history, Portugal controls one of the greatest gold-producing sources in the world.
1706João V of Portugal becomes king. He presides over a great flowering of Portuguese art and culture underpinned by the fabulous wealth provided by Brazilian gold. Social and economic reform are neglected for the next 40 years, and the pious King indulges in a penchant for fabulously expensive building. The Portuguese royal family is now the wealthiest in Europe and João V even considers moving his throne and court to Rio de Janeiro. The taxation of the Brazilian trade brings in an enormous personal revenue to the monarch and he is able to construct an absolutist regime similar to that of the French Kings, concentrating on pomp and ceremony at court. There is however no attention to the impoverished national agriculture, inadequate transport, neglected merchant navy and minimal industrial development of the country since corn and cloth can easily be exported, foreign ships can be hired and ‘every problem in Portugal can be solved by the King's gift of a little basket of gold coins bearing his effigy’. Meanwhile, the Brazilian gold rush continues and civil war breaks out between the mining camps of Portuguese immigrants lately come to the north of the country and the Paulistas of southern Brazil who discovered the gold in the first place.
1716 As a result of Portugal's political importance and the extensive global jurisdiction of the Metropolitan Archdiocese of Lisbon, Pope Clement XI grants the titular Archbishop the title of Patriarchate of Lisbon and the privilege of wearing a Triple Tiara. Later, the Pope agrees to made the Patriarchate a cardinal at the first consistory following his appointment. Tomás de Almeida is appointed 1st Patriarch of Lisbon, becoming a cardinal in 1737.
1717Beginning of construction of the great palace-monastery of Mafra, which João V vowed on the birth of his heir, and which he intends as a rival to the Escorial. The elegance of the suites and courtyards are matched by the costliness of the furnishings in more than 1,000 rooms. The scale of the buildings and formal gardens is stupendous in relation to the impoverished countryside around it. However the roped gangs of forced labourers and the military regiment which controls them provides local employment throughout a generation, particularly in the servicing of the 7,000 carts and wagons and feeding of draught animals.
1732Disaster at Elvas: lightning strikes the gunpowder magazine in the castle. The explosion and fire kill 1500 people and destroy 823 houses.
1735Completion of the palace-monastery at Mafra.
1742João V orders the construction in Rome of the Capela de São João Baptista for installation in the Igreja de São Roque to honour his patron saint and to requite the Pope, whom he has persuaded to confer a patriarchate on Lisbon. For its size, this is reckoned the most expensive building ever constructed. Designed by the papal architect Vanvitelli, and using the most costly materials available including ivory, agate, porphyry and lapis lazuli, the chapel is erected in the Vatican in order that the Pope may celebrate Mass in it before it is dismantled and shipped to Portugal.
1750Death of João V. His son José I of Portugal becomes king. His powerful chief minister, Sebastião de Melo, Marquis of Pombal, embarks on a programme of reform to drag Portugal into the 18th century.
1752Building of the Rococo palace of Queluz.
1755The Great earthquake of Portugal is the most shattering natural phenomenon of the Age of Enlightenment. Striking at 9.30 am on All Saints’ Day (1 November), it destroys much of Lisbon and many towns in parts of the Alentejo and Algarve (Faro, Lagos and Albufeira are devastated). In Lisbon, three major shocks within ten minutes, a host of rapidly spreading fires touched off by the candles of a hundred church altars, and a vast tsunami that engulfs the seafront, leave 40,000 dead out of a total population of 270,000. The Alfama district of the old city is largely untouched owing to its situation on a rocky massif, as is Belém. The Customs House is flooded and the India House and the English Factory destroyed, so that no trade can legitimately be conducted. The King proves himself able in crisis management and his illegitimate half-brothers, the royal dukes, organize defence, security, the burying of the dead and the continuance of religious observance. The disaster is described by Voltaire in Candide. Rebuilding begins immediately under the vigorous direction of Pombal, who now consolidates his position as Portugal's enlightened despot and leading statesman. It is decided to reconstruct Lisbon as the finest city in Europe, on the grid plan already adopted in the leading cities of Spanish America.
175913 JanuaryThe Duke of Aveiro together with members of the Távora family are executed for high-treason and attempted regicide by orders of the Marquis of Pombal.
1762Spanish invasion of Portugal stopped with the help of Great Britain. (to 1763)
1777Maria I of Portugal becomes Queen regnant. The King consort is her husband and uncle, Pedro III of Portugal. Pombal is dismissed.
1792João assumes royal responsibilities due to the declining mental health of his mother, Maria I of Portugal.
1799João officially becomes Prince Regent

19th century

1807Napoleon Bonaparte, Emperor of the French, invades Portugal and the Portuguese Royal Family is transferred to the colony of Brazil, where it becomes the center of the Portuguese Empire.
1808Insurrection against Napoleon's general, Junot and landing of Arthur Wellesley (later Duke of Wellington) to defeat the French at the Battle of Vimeiro. Beginning of the Peninsular War. Subsequent French attack in 1810 led by Masséna repulsed at the Lines of Torres Vedras.
1815The colony of Brazil is elevated to the status of kingdom. Portugal changes the official name from Kingdom of Portugal and the Algarves to United Kingdom of Portugal, Brazil and the Algarves.
1816João VI of Portugal becomes king. Portugal is governed by a Regency council headed by Marshal Beresford, head of the Portuguese army in the Peninsular War.
1820Liberal Revolution of 1820 against the British-led Regency of William Carr Beresford begins in Porto on 24 August. The Regency's troops decline to act against their countrymen and on 15 September declare for King, Cortes and Constitution. A provisional government is established on 1 October to oversee elections to the Cortes.
1821The national assembly opens on 26 January and on 9 March adopts a liberal parliamentary constitution (ratified 1822), inspired by the recent liberal advances in Spain, notably the 1812 Constitution of Cadiz. Metropolitan Portugal demands the return of João VI to Lisbon. João VI advises his son, Pedro, to declare the independence of Brazil and become its emperor, to ensure its continued rule by the Bragança dynasty. João VI lands in Portugal on 4 July, but only after consenting to the restrictions on his power proposed by the Cortes and agreeing to accept the new constitution, to which he swears allegiance on 1 October. But his wife Queen Carlota Joaquina and younger son Dom Miguel refuse to do so and become the focus of a reactionary movement.
1822Portugal's first constitution ratified. Brazil declares independence. Pedro becomes Emperor Pedro I of Brazil. Military coup against the parliamentarians. Fearing a move by France against democratic Portugal, or a civil war, Brigadier Saldanha, a grandson of the Marquis of Pombal, raises a small army and expels the ‘constitutional extremists’ from Lisbon. He proposes instead a compromise constitution in which the powers of the crown will be partially restored to the King. (This is the first of Saldanha's seven coups d'état in his career).
1823In May a 'Regency of Portugal' is established by the expelled traditionalists who had opposed the constitution at Valladolid, under the presidency of the Patriarch of Lisbon and becomes a centre for plotting to put Dom Miguel on the throne.
1824At the end of April Miguel attempts a coup d'etat but is defeated with British aid and goes into exile in Vienna.
1826Death of João VI, 10 March. The country is split between liberals and absolutists. Emperor Pedro I of Brazil becomes king Pedro IV of Portugal but abdicates in favour of his daughter Maria II of Portugal, naming his sister as Regent and inviting all parties swear to accept a new constitution, drawn up by Pedro on 23 April and somewhat less liberal than that of 1820, based upon the Brazilian constitution. Pedro's constitution (the Charter of 1826) assigns authority to the crown to moderate between the legislative, executive and judicial powers of the state and proposes a House of Lords of 72 aristocrats and 19 bishops. Miguel (in Vienna) makes a show of agreement.
1827In July Pedro names his brother Dom Miguel as Lieutenant and Regent of the Kingdom. Miguel leaves Vienna and visits Paris and London on his way to Portugal.
1828Dom Miguel arrives in Lisbon in February and though he makes a show of abiding by the constitution, after various moves against the constitutional forces he usurps the throne and abolishes parliament and the constitution, re-instituting the mediaeval Cortes and claiming to be 'Absolute King' (proclaimed 4 July). Many of the liberal parliamentarians are imprisoned, executed or driven into exile. All Portuguese territories apart from Terceira in the Azores declare for Miguel, but he is recognized as King only by Mexico and the USA. Beginning of civil war, known as the Liberal Wars.
1831Emperor Pedro I of Brazil abdicates in favour of his son Pedro II of Brazil and sets out to regain Portugal for his daughter.
1832Pedro's expeditionary force of Portuguese exiles and foreign mercenaries gathers in Terceira, regains the Azores, then sails for Portugal. Pedro is supported by Britain and France and the Portuguese intelligentsia, including the politically ambitious soldiers Saldanha and Sá da Bandeira. 9 July: Pedro lands at Pampelido north of Porto, where he is closely besieged by some 13,000 Miguelites across the River Douro. His defending force, the city garrison being commanded by Sá da Bandeira, includes an international brigade with a British contingent under Charles Shaw and Colonel George Lloyd Hodges. The city suffers cholera, starvation and bombardment.
1833Miguel's navy is defeated by Pedro's Admiral Charles Napier at the fourth Battle of Cape St Vincent. The Duke of Terceira defeats Miguel's army at Almada and occupies Lisbon.
183416 MayThe Duke of Terceira wins the Battle of Asseiceira. Miguel capitulates at EvoraMonte on 26 May. End of the civil war: Miguel is exiled to Genoa, where he renounces his capitulation. For many years he plots his return, but is never able to put it into effect. After six years of bitter and destructive war the country is once again bankrupt and beholden to foreign creditors, and the constitutional radicals turn their anger against the landowners and ecclesiastical institutions that had supported Miguel. The crown lands (a quarter of the national territory) are taken over by the state to help pay the national debt.
24 SeptemberDeath of Dom Pedro. Maria II of Portugal becomes queen in her own right. Dissolution of the monasteries – over 300 monastic communities are abolished – however the sale of church and crown lands does not revitalise Portugal in the way that had been anticipated.
1835Revolutionary fervour is rekindled by an urban uprising and a military coup d’etat. The national Guard sides with the insurgents and approved the call for Sá da Bandeira to lead the nation and bring back the constitution of 1822. Queen Maria is forced to swear allegiance to the 1822 constitution but the moderate leader, Saldanha, reaches an accommodation with Sá da Bandeira and a modest programme of modernisation can begin.
1839An unsettled period of many short-lived governments ends temporarily with the stable coalition led by the Conde do Bonfim, which remains in power for two years.
1843Queen Maria II marries Prince Ferdinand of Saxe-Coburg-Gotha, who rules with her as Dom Fernando II, the thirtieth King of Portugal. He commissions the German architect Baron Eschwege to begin the building of the Pena Palace at Sintra.
1846The Revolution of Maria da Fonte, a ‘peasants’ revolt’ inaugurates the last phase of the Revolution, starting as an uprising of the peasants of the Minho, largely led by women (their movement is named after the semi-mythical ‘Maria da Fonte’) against land enclosures and new land taxes demanded by the Costa Cabral government to finance its grandiose public works. They make common cause with the clergy and call for the return of the exiled Miguel as their saviour. Martial law is declared but soldiers refuse to fire on their kin. Fall of the Costa Cabral government and substitution of a government of national reconciliation in Lisbon. Autumn: A revolutionary government is proclaimed in Porto with Sá da Bandeira at its head. He opens negotiations with Britain, whence Costa Cabral has fled into exile, and settles terms for his return to take responsibility for the national debt. Civil war between the supporters of Queen Maria and the radical constitutionalists. The Count of Bonfim, for the Porto junta, is defeated by Saldanha at the siege of Torres Vedras and exiled to Angola.
1847Convention of Gramido brings the civil war to an end. Return of the political exiles from Angola.
1848Costa Cabral returns as prime minister.
1851Another coup d’etat by Saldanha. He ejects Costa Cabral, appoints himself prime minister and rules reasonably progressively from the house of lords for a full five-year term. Thus a proper parliamentary regime is finally established, with a two-party system and a bourgeois monarchy. Portugal enters its Age of Regeneration, with an old-fashioned cavalry officer in charge. The government embarks on an elaborate programme of public works to modernize the country, beginning with the establishment of a modern post office and a programme of road-building: in the entire country there is less than 200 km of all-weather road surface, and the government uses road taxes to finance 200 km of new road per year.
1853Pedro V of Portugal becomes king.
1856Opening of Portugal's first railway line (between Lisbon and Carregado).
1861Luis I of Portugal becomes king.
18671 JulyAfter the legislation of 1852 regarding political crimes, the Penal and Prison Reform abolishes the death penalty for all civilian crimes.[8]
1869The government of Sá da Bandeira formally abolishes slavery in all Portuguese territories.
1870A financial crisis in the wake of European recession brings the fall of the government and yet another coup d’etat by the aged Duque de Saldanha.
1891Republican insurrection in Porto. It is violently put down by the authorities, who afterwards institute a tight press censorship. Opponents of the government are accused of anarchism and exiled to the colonies.
1889Carlos I of Portugal becomes king.

20th century

1906João Franco is appointed as Prime Minister of Portugal.
Big strike of the typographers.
Foundation of the Escola Superior Colonial (Superior Colonial School)
1907João Franco establishes a Dictatorship within the framework of the Monarchy.
Student's strike at the University of Coimbra.
1908Manuel II of Portugal, King Carlos's youngest son, becomes king.
The Portuguese Republican Party manages to elect all its candidates in the local elections of Lisbon.
28 JanuaryFailed Republican revolutionary attempt. The conspirators are arrested.
1 February1 February, King Carlos I of Portugal and his son and heir, prince Luis Filipe, Duke of Braganza, are killed in the Regicide of Lisbon by Alfredo Luís da Costa and Manuel Buiça, republicans of the Carbonária (the Portuguese section of the Carbonari).
1909King Manuel II of Portugal goes on a personal trip to Madrid, London and Paris.
The Portuguese Republican Party's Conference takes place in Setúbal, where the motion to accelerate the revolutionary movement to establish the Republic is approved.
In Lisbon a demonstration with more than 100,000 persons protests against the political and economical situation of the Monarchy.
1910 4 October Beginning of the Republican Revolution.
5 October The Portuguese Republic is officially proclaimed in Lisbon. End of the Monarchy. Teófilo Braga is the president of the Provisional Government.
The last King of Portugal, Manuel II of Portugal, and the Portuguese Royal Family embark in Ericeira for exile in England.
1911 28 May Constituent National Assembly election, the Democratic Party wins a majority of 229 of the 234 seats.
24 August Indirect presidential election. Manuel de Arriaga wins in the 1st round.
3 September João Pinheiro Chagas is appointed prime-minister.
13 November Augusto de Vasconcelos is appointed prime-minister.
1912 16 June Duarte Leite is appointed prime-minister.
8 July The royalist attack on Chaves, led by Henrique Mitchell de Paiva Couceiro, fails to reinstate the Monarchy.
23 September Augusto de Vasconcelos becomes interim prime-minister.
1913 9 January Afonso Costa is appointed prime-minister.
16 November Legislative election, the Democratic Party wins a plurality of 68 of the 153 seats in the Chamber of Deputies and 24 of the 71 seats in the Senate.
1914 9 February Bernardino Luís Machado Guimarães is appointed prime-minister.
12 December Victor Hugo de Azevedo Coutinho is appointed prime-minister.
1915 28 January Pimenta de Castro is appointed prime-minister.
14 May A revolt brings the end of Pimenta de Castro's government. A Constitutional Junta is formed.
15 May João Pinheiro Chagas is appointed prime-minister for a second time, but he did not take office.
17 May José de Castro is appointed prime-minister.
29 May Indirect presidential election to select someone to complete Manuel de Arriaga's term. Teófilo Braga wins in the 1st round.
6 August Indirect presidential election. Bernardino Luís Machado Guimarães wins in the 3rd round.
13 June Legislative election, the Democratic Party wins a majority of 106 of the 163 seats in the Chamber of Deputies and 45 of the 69 seats in the Senate.
29 November Afonso Costa is appointed prime-minister a second time.
1916 16 March António José de Almeida is appointed prime-minister.
7 August The Portuguese Parliament accepts the participation of Portugal in the first world war, following the invitation of the British government to join the allied forces
19172 February The first members of the Portuguese Expeditionary Corps arrive in France.
25 April Afonso Costa is appointed prime-minister a third time.
7 October José Norton de Matos is appointed prime-minister.
25 October Afonso Costa is appointed prime-minister a fourth time.
17 November José Norton de Matos becomes interim prime-minister.
5 - 8 December The December 1917 coup d'état marks the beginning of Sidónio Pais' rise to power. He leads the Military Junta.
1918 28 April Sidónio Pais (National Republican Party) wins the 1918 Portuguese general election. He ran unopposed.
11 November The Armistice of 11 November 1918 marks the end of World War I.
14 December Sidónio Pais is assassinated in the Rossio railway station. João do Canto e Castro succeeds Pais in leading the government.
16 December Indirect presidential election. João do Canto e Castro wins in the 2nd round.
23 December João Tamagnini Barbosa is appointed prime-minister.
191915 January The Monarchy of the North is proclaimed in Porto, and the restoration of the Portuguese monarchy lasts for about a month before being crushed by republican forces.
22 January The Monarchy is proclaimed in Lisbon, in the Assault of Monsanto.
24 January The Monarchic forces in Monsanto surrender, leading to the resignation of João Tamagnini two days later.
27 January José Relvas is appointed prime-minister.
30 March Domingos Leite Pereira is appointed prime-minister.
11 May Legislative election, the Democratic Party wins a majority of 86 of the 163 seats in the Chamber of Deputies and 36 of the 71 seats in the Senate.
30 June Alfredo de Sá Cardoso is appointed prime-minister.
6 December Indirect presidential election. António José de Almeida wins in the 3rd round.in the 3rd round.
1920 15 January Francisco José Fernandes Costa is appointed prime minister. He did not take office and Alfredo de Sá Cardoso is re-appointed prime-minister.
21 January Domingos Leite Pereira is appointed prime-minister a second time.
8 March António Maria Baptista is appointed prime-minister.
6 June José Ramos Preto is appointed prime-minister, after António Maria Baptista suddenly dies.
26 June António Maria da Silva is appointed prime-minister.
19 July António Granjo is appointed prime-minister.
20 November Álvaro de Castro is appointed prime-minister.
30 November Liberato Pinto is appointed prime-minister.
1921 2 March Bernardino Luís Machado Guimarães is appointed prime-minister a second time.
6 MarchThe Portuguese Communist Party was founded from the ranks of the Portuguese Maximalist Federation as the Portuguese Section of the Communist International.
23 May Tomé de Barros Queirós is appointed prime-minister.
10 July Legislative election, the Republican Liberal Party wins a plurality of 79 of the 163 seats in the Chamber of Deputies and 32 of the 71 seats in the Senate.
6 August Indirect presidential election. Manuel Teixeira Gomes wins in the 3rd round.
30 August António Granjo is appointed prime-minister a second time.
19 October In the Bloody Night, then-head of Government António Granjo (Republican Liberal Party) is killed, along with other politician associates of his. Manuel Maria Coelho is appointed prime-minister.
5 November Carlos Maia Pinto is appointed prime-minister.
16 December Francisco Cunha Leal is appointed prime-minister.
1922 29 January Legislative election, the Democratic Party wins a plurality of 74 of the 163 seats in the Chamber of Deputies and 37 of the 70 seats in the Senate.
7 February António Maria da Silva is appointed prime-minister a second time.
1923 15 November António Ginestal Machado is appointed prime-minister.
18 December Álvaro de Castro is appointed prime-minister a second time.
1924 7 July Alfredo Rodrigues Gaspar is appointed prime-minister.
22 November José Domingues dos Santos is appointed prime-minister.
1925 15 February Vitorino Guimarães is appointed prime-minister.
5 March First failed coup attempt by Filomeno da Câmara.
18 April Second failed coup attempt by Filomena da Câmara, now with the aid of Raul Esteves.
1 July António Maria da Silva is appointed prime-minister a third time.
19 July Failed coup attempt by Mendes Cabeçadas.
1 August Domingos Leite Pereira is appointed prime-minister a third time.
8 November Legislative election, the Democratic Party wins a majority of 83 of the 163 seats in the Chamber of Deputies and 39 of the 65 seats in the Senate.
11 DecemberIndirect presidential election. Bernardino Machado is elected President of the Republic for the 2nd time.
18 December António Maria da Silva is appointed prime-minister a fourth time.
1926 27 MayThe General Manuel de Oliveira Gomes da Costa arrives at Braga with the purpose of initiating a Coup d'état.
The Republican Government and Prime Minister António Maria da Silva, knowing of the forthcoming coup, try to organize resistance believing the uprising can be defeated.
28 MayA Military coup d'état (henceforth known as the 28th May 1926 coup d'état) begins in Braga led by Gomes da Costa. Believing to have failed, Gomes da Costa announces his surrender.
29 MayThe Portuguese Communist Party interrupts its 2nd Congress due to the political and military situation.
The Confederação Geral do Trabalho (national trade union center) declares its neutrality in the military confrontations.
The Military Coup spreads to the rest of the country, by influence of Mendes Cabeçadas, Sinel de Cordes and Óscar Carmona, and establishes the Ditadura Nacional (National Dictatorship) against the democratic but unstable 1st Republic.
The Government of Prime Minister António Maria da Silva resigns.
30 MayThe General Gomes da Costa is acclaimed in Porto.
The President of the Republic, Bernardino Machado, resigns.
José Mendes Cabeçadas Júnior becomes Prime Minister and President of the Republic.
3 JuneAntónio de Oliveira Salazar becomes Minister of Finance, he resigns 16 days after nomination.
The Congress of the Republic of Portugal (National Assembly) is dissolved by dictatorial decree.
All heads of Municipalities are substituted.
The Carbonária (the Portuguese section of the Carbonari) is banned.
All Political parties are banned.
17 JuneGeneral Gomes da Costa provokes a military coup.
19 JuneGeneral Gomes da Costa becomes Prime Minister.
22 JuneCensorship is instituted.
29 JuneGeneral Gomes da Costa becomes President of the Republic.
9 JulyGeneral Gomes da Costa is obliged to step down and goes into exile.
General António Óscar de Fragoso Carmona, of the conservative military wing, becomes Prime Minister.
15 SeptemberFailed military coup.
18 SeptemberFailed military coup.
29 NovemberGeneral António Óscar Carmona becomes President of the Republic.
16 DecemberThe Police of Information of Lisbon, a Political Police, is created.
1927The Confederação Geral do Trabalho (national trade union center) is dissolved.
FebruaryFailed Republican coup attempt against the Ditadura Nacional in Porto (2 to 7) and Lisbon (7 to 9).
26 MarchThe Police of Information of Porto, a Political Police, is created.
17 MayMinimum School years are reduced from the 6th to the 4th grade; in all levels of non-university schooling students are divided by sex.
AugustFailed right wing military coup.
1 DecemberStudents demonstrate in Lisbon against the Ditadura Nacional.
1928General António Óscar de Fragoso Carmona remains President of the Republic.
Acordo Missionário (Missionary Agreement) between the Catholic Church and the Portuguese Republic, giving special status to the action of the Catholic Church in Portugal's colonies.
Failed Republican revolutionary attempt against the Ditadura Nacional.
The Portuguese Communist Party's Main Office is closed.
FebruaryThe Comissão de Propaganda da Ditadura (Commission for the Propaganda of the Dictatorship) is created.
17 MarchThe Police of Information of Porto and Lisbon are fused.
18 AprilGeneral José Vicente de Freitas becomes Prime Minister.
26 AprilAntónio de Oliveira Salazar becomes Minister of Finance for the 2nd time.
20 July Failed Republican coup attempt against the Ditadura Nacional.
1929Catholic religious institutes are again permitted in Portugal.
The Portuguese Communist Party is reorganized under Bento Gonçalves. Adapting the Party to its new illegal status, the reorganization creates a net of clandestine cells to avoid the wave of detentions.
8 JulyArtur Ivens Ferraz becomes Prime Minister.
1930The Acto Colonial (Colonial Act) is published, defining the status of Portuguese colonies (Angola, Cabinda, Cape Verde, Portuguese Guinea, São Tomé and Príncipe, Mozambique, Portuguese India, Portuguese Timor and Macau).
The fundamental principles of the new regime are present by António de Oliveira Salazar in the 4th anniversary of the 28 May Revolution.
21 JanuaryDomingos da Costa e Oliveira becomes Prime Minister.
4 April A Republican coup attempt against the Ditadura Nacional starts in Madeira. It would then expand to Azores and Portuguese Guinea, before dying out on 2 May 1931.
1931 26 August Failed Republican coup attempt against the Ditadura Nacional in Lisbon. There would be no remaining coup attempts during the Ditadura Nacional.
19325 JulyAntónio de Oliveira Salazar becomes Prime Minister.
1933A new Constitution is approved in a false referendum, defining Portugal as a Corporative, Single Party and Multi-continental country (in Europe, Africa, Asia and Oceania).
A fascist-leaning right-wing Dictatorial regime entitled Estado Novo is installed.
The Single Party União Nacional (National Union) is created.
The Estatuto do Trabalho Nacional (Code of National Labour) is published, prohibiting all free trade unions.
A Political Police, the PVDE (Polícia de Vigilância e de Defesa do Estado; State Defense and Vigilance Police) is created.
Censorship, particularly of the Mass media, is systematic and generalized.
1935The Portuguese Communist Party's Secretary General Bento Gonçalves participates in the 7th Congress of the Comintern. Soon after returning to Portugal he is arrested by the Political Police PVDE.
1936The concentration camp for political prisoners of Tarrafal is created in the colony of Portuguese Cape Verde, under direct control of the political police PVDE.
The political police PVDE focuses its action against Communism and the underground Portuguese Communist Party. During this pre-World War II period, several Italian Fascist and German Nazi advisors came to Portugal, to help the PVDE adopt a model similar to the Gestapo.
19 MayCreation of the Mocidade Portuguesa (Portuguese Youth), a compulsory paramilitary youth organization similar to the Hitler Youth.
JulyBeginning of the Spanish Civil War; Portugal promptly supports Nationalist Spain under General Francisco Franco and sends military aid (the Battalion of the Viriatos) in their fight against the Spanish Republicans.
1937DecemberThe female section of the Mocidade Portuguesa is created.
1939The Iberian Neutrality Pact is put forward by Salazar to Francisco Franco.
1942Salazar meets with Spanish dictator Francisco Franco.
The Portuguese Communist Party's Secretary General Bento Gonçalves dies in the concentration camp of Tarrafal.
1945The Political Police PVDE is reorganized and renamed PIDE (Polícia Internacional de Defesa do Estado; International Police for the Defense of the State).
8 OctoberThe MUD (Movimento de Unidade Democrática – Movement of Democratic Unity) is created with official permission.
1948JanuaryThe MUD is banished.
1949The President António Óscar Carmona meets with Spanish dictator Francisco Franco.
Spanish dictator Francisco Franco receives a Doctorate honoris causa by the University of Coimbra.
In the (forged) Presidential elections, General Norton de Matos, backed by the oppositionist illegal organization MUD tries and fail to win the Presidency of the Republic.
4 AprilPortugal is a founding member of NATO.
For the first time, a Portuguese citizen is awarded with the Nobel Prize: Egas Moniz, with the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine.[9]
1951António de Oliveira Salazar becomes Provisional President of the Republic due to the death of President António Óscar de Fragoso Carmona.
Francisco Higino Craveiro Lopes becomes President of the Republic.
The Portuguese government overhauls the entire colonial system in an attempt to curb criticism on Portuguese Colonialism, all Portugal's colonies were renamed Portuguese Overseas Provinces.
1954The Dadra and Nagar Haveli Portuguese enclave, dependent of Daman, is occupied by India.
1956Amílcar Cabral founds the PAIGC (Partido Africano da Independência da Guiné e Cabo Verde, African Party for the Independence of Guinea and Cape Verde).
DecemberThe MPLA, Movimento Popular de Libertação de Angola (Popular Movement for the Liberation of Angola), is founded by Agostinho Neto.
1957Frente Nacional de Libertação de Angola (National Front for the Liberation of Angola), is founded as União das Populações do Norte de Angola (Union of the Populations of Northern Angola).
7 MarchFirst live event of the Portuguese National Television and the beginning of the regular broadcasting.[10] It was opened by the famous and former BBC war reporter, Fernando Pessa.[11]
1958Américo Thomaz becomes President of the Republic.
1959Pijiguiti Massacre – Portuguese soldiers open fire on protesting dockworkers in Bissau (Portuguese Guinea), killing 50.
1960JanuaryA group of ten Portuguese Communist Party members escaped from the high-security prison in Peniche. Among the escapees was Álvaro Cunhal.
4 JanuaryPortugal is one of the founding member of the EFTA – European Free Trade Association.
1961The Prime Minister António de Oliveira Salazar takes on himself the office of Minister of National Defense and reorganizes the Government to face the war in Africa.
4 FebruaryThe Portuguese Colonial War starts in Portuguese Angola with the attacks to the Prison, Police headquarters and Radio central in Luanda.
15 MarchAttacks in northern Angola by the UPA (União do Povo Angolano; Union of the Angolan People), against Portuguese colonists and African populations, provoking hundreds of deaths.
12 DecemberThe Indian army conquers Portuguese Goa.
19 DecemberThe Indian army conquers Portuguese Daman and Diu.
1962The PAIGC Guerrilla warfare against the Portuguese begins with an abortive attack on Praia.
24 MarchThe Academic Crisis of '62 culminates in a huge student demonstration in Lisbon brutally repressed by the shock police, which caused hundreds of students to be seriously injured.
25 JuneThe FRELIMO – Frente de Libertação de Moçambique (Mozambican Liberation Front) is founded in Dar es Salaam (Tanzania).
1963The FLEC (Frente para a Libertação do Enclave de Cabinda; Front for the Liberation of the Enclave of Cabinda) is founded.
JanuaryAmílcar Cabral and PAIGC declare full-scale war against the Portuguese in Portuguese Guinea.
1964The FRELIMO controls most of Northern Portuguese Mozambique.
FebruaryThe first Party Congress of the PAIGC takes place at liberated Cassaca, in which both the political and military arms of the PAIGC were assessed and reorganised, with a regular army (The People's Army) to supplement the guerilla forces (The People's Guerillas).
19656th Congress of the Portuguese Communist Party, one of the most important congresses in the Party's history, after Álvaro Cunhal released the report The Path to Victory – The tasks of the Party in the National and Democratic Revolution, which became an important document in the anti-dictatorship struggle.
1966The UNITA – União Nacional para a Independência Total de Angola (National Union for Total Independence of Angola) is founded by Jonas Savimbi.
6 AugustThe Salazar Bridge is inaugurated in Lisbon above the Tagus river. It is the longest suspension bridge in Europe and a replica (made by the same engineers) of the Golden Gate bridge in San Francisco.
1967By this time the PAIGC had carried out 147 attacks on Portuguese barracks and army encampments, and effectively controlled 2/3 of Portuguese Guinea.
1968Reorganisation of the Government.
Portugal begins a new campaign against the guerillas in Portuguese Guinea with the arrival of the new governor of the colony, General António de Spínola.
25 SeptemberAntónio de Oliveira Salazar leaves the Government due to health problems.
28 SeptemberMarcello das Neves Alves Caetano becomes Prime Minister.
1969The Single Party União Nacional is renamed Acção Nacional Popular (National Popular Action).
The Political Police PIDE is renamed DGS (Direcção Geral de Segurança, Directorate-General of Security).
Beginning of the Primavera Marcelista (Marcelist Springtime), a timid and failed opening of the regime.
1970Portugal invades Conakry, in the Republic of Guinea, 400 amphibious troops attacked the city and freed dozens of Portuguese Prisoners of war kept there by the PAIGC.
27 JulyDeath of António de Oliveira Salazar.
1973JanuaryAmílcar Cabral, leader of the PAIGC, is assassinated in Conakry by a disgruntled former associate under influence of the Portuguese Political Police DGS.
24 SeptemberIndependence of Guinea-Bissau (Portuguese Guinea) is unilaterally declared.
NovemberA United Nations' General Assembly vote recognizes the Independence of Guinea-Bissau, unprecedented as it denounced illegal Portuguese aggression and occupation and was prior to complete control and Portuguese recognition.
1974The Carnation Revolution of 25 April puts an end to five decades of dictatorship.
25 AprilThe Carnation Revolution puts an end to the authoritarian regime of Estado Novo. Prime-minister Marcello Caetano exiled to Brazil
1975Independence is granted to all Portuguese colonies in Africa and independence is promised to Portuguese Timor.
11 MarchA right-wing coup fails: A turn to the left in the revolution happens and major industries and big properties are nationalized by government
2 AugustA meeting takes place in Haga (near Stockholm in Sweden) where the Committee for Friendship and Solidarity with Democracy and Socialism in Portugal is created. This Committee supported democratic trends in Portugal and opposed pro-soviet communist tendencies. In the meeting were present Olof Palme, Harold Wilson, Helmut Schmidt, Bruno Kreisky, Joop den Uyl, Trygve Bratteli, Anker Jørgensen, Yitzhak Rabin, Hans Janitschek, Willy Brandt, James Callaghan, François Mitterrand, Bettino Craxi and Mário Soares.
25 NovemberA coup removes far-left influence in politics
7 DecemberEast Timor (Portuguese Timor) is violently annexed by Indonesia
19762 Aprila new Constitution is approved. The Constitutional Assembly disestablishes itself.
25 Aprilthe Constitution of 1976 enters into force.
19 NovemberJaime Ornelas Camacho becomes the first President of the Regional Government of Madeira.
19804 DecemberPrime minister Francisco Sá Carneiro and the Minister of Defence Amaro da Costa died in a plane crash, in strange circumstances.
1984Carlos Lopes wins the first Olympic gold medal for Portugal in the Los Angeles '84 marathon
19861 JanuaryPortugal becomes a member of the European Economic Community, today's European Union'
1998Lisbon organizes the World's Fair Expo '98.[12]
28 JuneIn the first Portuguese abortation referendum, the proposal to allow the abortion until 10 weeks of pregnancy is rejected by 50,91% of the voters. This is the first referendum in the History of the Portuguese democracy.
8 OctoberFor the very first time, a Portuguese Language author is awarded with the Nobel Prize of Literature:[13] José Saramago.
8 Novemberin the regionalisation referendum, a proposal to establish, in mainland Portugal, 8 administrative regions and to disestablish the 18 districts, is rejected in the polls: in the first question, the simple institution of the administrative regions is rejected by 60,67% of the voters; in the second question, the proposal to create 8 regions is rejected by 60,62% of the voters. This is the first referendum in the History of Portugal to have more than 1 question.
199920 DecemberMacau, the last overseas Portuguese colony, is returned to China

21st century

20014 MarchHintze Ribeiro bridge disaster: 59 people die in the collapse of an old bridge on the Douro river. Hours after the accident, Jorge Coelho, Minister of Transportation, resigns.
20021 JanuaryPortugal adopts the euro as currency.
200412 June – 4 July2004 European Football Championship is held in Portugal.[14]
200531 DecemberThe 2006 Dakar Rally, the longest and, arguably, the hardest off-road rally in the world starts in Lisbon.[15]
200711 FebruaryIn the second Portuguese abortion referendum, almost 9 years after the first, the proposal to allow the abortion until 10 weeks of pregnancy is now approved by 59,25% of the voters. The law is published in April.[16]
201017 MayThe law that allows the same-sex marriage is approved by the Portuguese President of the Republic, Aníbal Cavaco Silva.[17]
In 2010, the official infant mortality rate was 2.53 per mil, the lowest ever recorded in Portugal (1.6‰ below the UE-27, 2010 average),[18][19] placing the country among the top-5 in the European Union in this particular value of Human Development.
2016 10 July Portuguese national football team wins the 2016 UEFA European Football Championship, in State de France in Paris, France.
2017 13 May Salvador Sobral wins the 62nd edition of the Eurovision Song Contest, with the song Amar Pelos Dois, composed by Luísa Sobral, in Kiev, Ukraine.
2018 8 - 12 May Lisbon hosts the 63rd edition of the Eurovision Song Contest, after Portugal's win in the previews year.


  1. Appian's Roman History, Book VI, Chapter X. https://archive.org/details/appiansromanhist01appi/page/226/mode/2up
  2. "The University of Coimbra". Faculdade de Economia da Universidade de Coimbra. Retrieved 5 January 2013.
  3. "Tratado de paz, amizade e confederação entre D. João I e Eduardo II, rei de Inglaterra, denominado Tratado de Windsor" (in Portuguese). Portuguese National Archives Digital Collection. Archived from the original on March 2008. Retrieved 4 January 2013.
  4. Luís Jorge Semedo de Matos. "Terra Nova, viagens à" (in Portuguese). Instituto Camões. Retrieved 5 January 2013.
  5. "Corte-Real, Gaspar, Portuguese explorer; b. c. 1450–55". 1000–1700 (Volume I). Dictionary of Canadian Biography Online. Retrieved 5 January 2013. The land discovered by Gaspar appears for the first time on the Cantino map (1502) as the “Terra del Rey de Portugall.” Other maps picturing it are those known as Kunstmann II and III (“Terra de Corte Real”).
  6. "Camões and the First Edition of "The Lusiads," 1572". University of Massachusetts, Dartmouth – Portuguese Literary & Cultural Studies. 2011. Retrieved 17 January 2013.
  7. "The Lusiads". World Digital Library. 1800–1882. Retrieved 31 August 2013.
  8. Collecção official de legislação portugueza – Anno de 1867 (PDF) (in Portuguese). Imprensa Nacional – Lisboa. 1 July 1867 (Law). p. 269. Retrieved 5 January 2013. Check date values in: |date= and |year= / |date= mismatch (help)
  9. "The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1949 was divided equally between Walter Rudolf Hess (...) and Antonio Caetano de Abreu Freire Egas Moniz "for his discovery of the therapeutic value of leucotomy in certain psychoses". Nobelprize.org. Retrieved 4 January 2013.
  10. "RTP, Lisboa, Portugal - Television and Cable Broadcasting Stations on Waymarking.com". Waymarking.com. Retrieved 5 January 2013.
  11. "A notoriedade alcançada enquanto repórter de guerra na emissora radiofónica britânica garantiu-lhe o passaporte para abrir a primeira emissão em directo da RTP" (in Portuguese). RTP. Archived from the original on 3 August 2010. Retrieved 5 January 2013.
  12. "Parque das Nações". Golisbon.com. Retrieved 5 January 2013.
  13. "Press release – The Nobel Prize for Literature 1998 José Saramago". Nobelprize.org. Retrieved 4 January 2013.
  14. "Greece are crowned kings of Europe". UEFA.com. 5 July 2004. Retrieved 6 January 2013.
  15. "The course – Dakar 2006". Dakar.com. Archived from the original on 4 August 2010. Retrieved 6 January 2013.
  16. "Law Nº 16/2007" (PDF). Diário da República (in Portuguese). 17 April 2007. p. 1.a série–N.º 75. Retrieved 6 January 2013.
  17. "Law Nº9/2010" (PDF). Diário da República (in Portuguese). 31 May 2010. p. 1.ª série – N.º 105. Retrieved 6 January 2013.
  18. "Infant mortality rates". Eurostat. Retrieved 4 January 2013.
  19. "Demographic Statistics – 2010" (PDF). National Institute of Statistics (Portugal). 2012. Retrieved 4 January 2013. ...Between 2005 and 2010 (...) infant mortality fell from 3.5‰ to 2.5‰, the lowest value ever recorded in Portugal. Page 12


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