Timeline of Slovenian history

This is a timeline of Slovenian history, comprising important legal and territorial changes and political events in Slovenia and its predecessor states. To read about the background to these events, see History of Slovenia. See also the list of presidents of Slovenia.

third century BC

250 BCThe Celtic La Tène culture comes to the territories of modern Slovenia, replacing the Hallstatt culture.
221 BCThe border of the Roman Republic arrives at the Julian Alps.

second century BC

181 BCThe Roman foundation of Aquileia marks the beginning of a gradual conquering of the territories of modern Slovenia by the Romans.
178 BCRomans conquer Histria. Subsequently, in 129 BC, they subjugated the Taurisci people and in 115 BC the Carni people.

first century BC

48 BCNoricans take the side of Julius Caesar (c. 100-44 BC) in the civil war against Pompey (106-48 BC).
16 BCNoricans, having joined with the Pannonians in invading Histria, are defeated by Publius Silius, proconsul of Illyricum.
12 BCThe army of Romans, led by Tiberius (42-37 BC, reigned 14–37), starts conquering Pannonia.
9 BCPannonia is subdued and incorporated with Illyricum, the frontier of which was thus extended as far as the Danube.

first century

7Pannonians, with the Dalmatians and other Illyrian tribes, revolt, and are overcome by Tiberius and Germanicus (15 BC-19 AD), after a hard-fought campaign which lasted for two years.
9The Roman Empire finally conquers Pannonia (which includes the biggest part of present-day Slovenia). Roman legions stay in Poetovio (modern Ptuj).
40The Noricum Kingdom is ultimately incorporated to the Roman Empire by the Roman caesar Claudius (10 BC-54 AD, reigned 41–54). Noricum includes Carinthia and most of Styria. Hence, the entire territory of modern Slovenia is within the borders of the Roman Empire.
46Celeia (modern Celje) gets its municipal rights under the name municipium Claudia Celeia.

second century

103Roman caesar Trajan (53–117, reigned 98–117) moves the Legio XIII Gemina to the north border in Karnunt (Carnuntum) (today Deutsch Altenburg in Lower Austria) in Pannonia along the Danube River.

third century

290Noricum is divided under Roman Emperor Diocletian (245–313, reigned 284–305) into Noricum Ripense (along the Danube) and Noricum Mediterraneum (the southern mountainous district).

fourth century

320Celeia is incorporated with Aquileia (Oglej) under Roman Emperor Constantine I. (272–337, reigned 307–337).

fifth century

sixth century

550The first wave of Slavic settlement, originating from Moravia, reaches the Eastern Alps region and the western margin of the Pannonian plain.
568Lombards leave the territories of modern Slovenia and the borderlands of Pannonia, moving into Italy.
585The second and most important wave of Slavic settlement takes place. Slavs and Avars settle in Eastern Alps (Julian Alps, Karavanke), eventually occupying an area more than twice the size of today's Slovenia. Slavic settlement is proven by the decline of dioceses in the Eastern Alpine region in second half of the sixth century, as well as in the change of population, the material culture and the linguistic identity of the area.

seventh century

610Avars attempt to invade Italy. After their power is weakened, a relatively independent March of Slavs (Marca Vinedorum) appears.
623Uprising of Slavs led by Samo1 against Avars. Samo's Tribal Union is formed.
631The Battle of Wogastisburg (probably Forchheim) between Samo's army and Austrasian forces, led by Merovingian king Dagobert I of the Franks (603–639, reigned 629–639).
658Samo's death. The Tribal Union declines, but a part of the March of Slavs maintains independence and becomes known in historical sources under the name of Carantania. The center of Karantania was Zollfeld, north of modern Klagenfurt.

eighth century

745Karantania loses its independence and becomes a margraviate and tantamount part of the semifeudal Frankish empire later under the rule of king Charlemagne (742–814, reigned 771–814) due to pressing danger of Avar tribes from the east.
796The Slavic duke of Carniola, Vojnomir, aids the Carolingian duke Eric of Friuli against the Avars.
The Synod ad ripas Danuvii convoked by Charlemagne's son Pepin and presided over by Paulinus II of Aquileia establishes the Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Salzburg detaching it from the northernmost territory of the Patriarchate of Aquileia. The synod focuses on the evangelization of the Slavs.
798Salzburg is raised to the rank of an archdiocese

ninth century

811The southern boundary of the archdiocese of Salzburg is moved south to the Drava river at the expense of the Patriarchate of Aquileia.
840The Balaton Principality emerges in Pannonia.
843Karantania passes into the hands of Louis the German (804–876).
871The earliest written record of the ancient Karantanian ritual of installing dukes Conversio Bagoariorum et Carantanorum, where is written: ... illi eum ducem fecerunt... (they were made dukes).
876The principality of Prince Kocelj (Balaton Principality) loses its independence.
887Arnulf of Carinthia (850–899) a grandson of Louis the German assumes his title of King of the East Franks and becomes the first Duke of Carinthia.
894Great Moravia probably loses a part of its territory – present-day Western Hungary- to Arnulf of Carinthia, who failed to conquer Great Moravia in 892, 893, 894/895 and 899.
895Accord between Arnulf of Carinthia and the Bohemian Duke Bořivoj (reigned 870–895), Bohemia is freed from the danger of invasion.
896Finno-Ugric Magyars, led by Árpád, settle in the Pannonian plain. The centre of their settlement becomes the region around the Theiss River (Hungary).
899Arnulf of Carinthia dies.

10th century

906Invading Magyars destroy the weakened empire of Great Moravia.
907Slovene territory is settled by Magyars.
952The Great Carantania. (to 1180)
955German king Otto I (912–973, reigned 936–973) defeats the Magyars at the Battle of Lechfeld near Augsburg, halting their advance in Central Europe.
976The March of Austria is established. Carantania becomes a duchy in its own right, including Styria and today's East Tirol
1000Carinthia, Styria and Carniola provinces emerge on the territory of Carantania.
The Freising Manuscripts, the first Latin-script continuous text in a Slavic language and the oldest document in Slovene, are written.

11th century

12th century

1112The first record mentions Ljubljana by its modern name (by its German name Castrum Laibach). (to 1125)
1122The first mention of Celje in the early Middle Ages under the name of Cylie in Admont's Chronicle. (to 1137)
1164The first mention of Maribor as Castrum Marchburch.

13th century

1269The Carantanian dynasty becomes extinct.
1274Bohemian king Ottokar II. (reigned as a king 1253–1278) a candidate for the German throne refuses to appear or to restore the provinces of Austria, Styria, Carinthia and Carniola, which he has seized.
1282The rule of Habsburg dukes over most Slovene lands begins.

14th century

1335The Duchy of Carinthia is bestowed by Louis the Bavarian on the dukes of Austria.

15th century

1414The Habsburg Duke Ernest the Iron (1377–1424) thrones according to the ancient Karantanian ritual of installing dukes on the Duke's Stone and he addresses again as an archduke.
1451Celje acquires town rights by orders from Frederick II, the Count of Celje.
1461Ljubljana becomes the seat of a diocese.
1473The city walls and a defensive moat are built in Celje.

16th century

1511Ljubljana is devastated by an earthquake.
1532The Siege of Maribor ends in a defensive victory.
1550Primož Trubar publishes the first books in Slovene, Catechismus and Abecedarium.
1566The region of Prekmurje is occupied by Ottomans during the Siege of Szigetvar.
1583Jurij Dalmatin translates to Slovene and publishes the Bible.
1593The Battle of Sisak restores the balance of power and brings the expansion of the Ottoman Empire into the Slovene Lands to a halt.

17th century

16225 MayAn earthquake occurs near Ljubljana. It measures about 5 on the Moment magnitude scale or 4.9 on the Richter scale,[1]
1688The Prekmurje region is occupied by Austrians.
1693The scholarly society Academia operosorum Labacensis is established in Ljubljana.

18th century

1701The Philharmonic Society (Academia philharmonicorum) is established in Ljubljana.

19th century

1809Lower Carinthia incorporates to France as Duchy of Carinthia was divided into two parts, Upper or Western Carinthia and Lower or Eastern.
1813Lower Carinthia is re-conquered.
1821Congress of Laibach takes place in Ljubljana.
1838First works, tracings on Slovene territory of a railway route ViennaTrieste in a so-called "Southern Railway" (Južna železnica) begin.
1845First works on the "Southern Railway" between Celje and Ljubljana begin,
184627 AprilFirst locomotive of the "Southern Railway" comes to Celje.
18 MayTrial run of the first train on the "Southern Railway" to Celje is performed.
2 JuneThe "Southern Railway" to Celje is open for public.
1848The United Slovenia (Zedinjena Slovenija), the first Slovene political programme rises.
18 AprilThe Ljubljana railway station is finished.
1849The Duchy of Carinthia is created as a separate crownland.
18 AugustFirst locomotive arrives at Ljubljana railway station.
16 SeptemberFirst train of the "Southern Railway" arrives in Ljubljana.
19 September"Southern Railway" to Ljubljana is ceremonially opened.
185014 MayEmperor Francis Joseph lays the foundation stone of Trieste railway station.
1851Hermagoras Society (Mohorjeva družba), the first Slovene publisher, is established in Klagenfurt and publishes books in Slovene.
185718 JulyThe "Carinthian railway" between Maribor and Klagenfurt is being built.
27 JulyThe "Southern Railway" is completed and opened.
186212 NovemberThe railway line of the "Carintnhian railway" on the route Maribor – Vuzenica is built.
186331 MayThe "Carinthian railway" is built
1864The Kozler brothers establish the Pivovarna Union (The Union Brewery).
186917 MayRally at Vižmarje near Ljubljana gathers around 30,000 people where programme of the United Slovenia is demanded.
1889JulyStrike of coal miners in the Central Sava Valley in Zagorje and Trbovlje.
1890The railway line on the route RadgonaLjutomer is built.
1 MayLabour Day is celebrated first time.
1891The railway line on the route Ljubljana – Kamnik is built.
The railway line on the route Celje – Velenje is built.
1894First public power station in Škofja Loka is built.
The railway line on the route Ljubljana – Novo Mesto is built.
1895People's loan bank (Ljudska posojilnica) is founded by Catholic middle class.
Ljubljana earthquake
1896The National hall (Narodni dom) is built in Celje.
1898The railway line on the route Ljubljana – Kočevje is built.
1899The railway line on the route Velenje – Dravograd is built.
1899The Maribor National Hall is built.
1900Liberal middle class founds the first Slovene bank, The Credit bank of Ljubljana (Ljubljanska kreditna banka).

20th century

1902First telephone is mounted in Celje.
1907Electricity is used in a lead mine in Mežica.
The Celje hall (Celjski dom) is built in Celje.
1908The "Karavanken railway" is built.
1912The Preporod (Rebirth), a juvenile movement is established. Many members have political connections with the pro-Serb organization Young Bosnia (Mlada Bosna).
A hydroelectric station in Završnica (2500 kW) is being built. (to 1915)
1913Celje is electrified. Westen's dishes factory uses electricity in industry.
12 AprilIvan Cankar in Ljubljana gives a speech Slovenes and Yugoslavs for the socialist society Vzajemnost (Mutuality) about Slovenes to unite politically but not culturally with other South Slavs and Yugoslavism.
1914The railway on the route Novo Mesto – Karlovac begins to run.
28 JuneAustrian Archduke Franc Ferdinand an heir to the Austrian throne and his wife Countess Sophie are killed in Sarajevo, Bosnia at the hands of a pro-Serb nationalist assassin (a Bosnian Serb student Gavrilo Princip, a member of the Young Bosnia) – World War I begins.
1915The Soča River front. In 11 Soča offensives Italians captured just Gorizia (Gorica) and a few frontier sites. On these battlefields many Slovenes in Austro-Hungarian army died (for example at the Battle of Doberdò). (to 1918)
191730 MayMay Declaration of Slovene, Croatian and Serb representatives in the Vienna parliament signed by Anton Korošec about arrangement of a unified common state of Slovenes, Croats, and Serbs living within the Habsburg monarchy.
20 JulyThe Corfu Declaration is signed between the Yugoslav committee (Jugoslovanski odbor) and the Serb government and becomes the basis for the formation of the Yugoslav state.
24 OctoberThe Battle of Kobarid between Austrian forces, reinforced by German units and the Italian army. The Italian army withdraws to the Piave River, where they blocked the enemy before the arrive of the military assistance of the British and French. (to 9 November)
1918Nitrogen factory (Tovarna dušika) in Ruše is built.
A hydroelectric station Fala on the Drave river (31.150 kW) is built.
6 OctoberState of Slovenes, Croats and Serbs is established in Zagreb. It becomes the political representative body of South Slavs in Austria-Hungary.
29 OctoberState of Slovenes, Croats and Serbs breaks off all relations with Austria-Hungary and proclaims a short-lived State of Slovenes, Croats and Serbs. Slovenia joins a new state with an independent State authority. The state is not recognized internationally.
1 NovemberGeneral Rudolf Maister takes over the authority of the Maribor garrison.
3 NovemberAustria-Hungary surrenders.
18 NovemberGermany surrenders. World War I ends.
1 DecemberThe State of Slovenes, Croats and Serbs joins with the Kingdom of Serbia and the Kingdom of Montenegro to form the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes (SHS). Today it is believed that this was a great historical fault although at that time this was probably the only sensible decision because Italy according to the London Pact with the victorious Entente forces from 1915 without bias occupied Primorska, Istria (Istra) and Zadar in Dalmatia and Serbia was pressing for unification.
1919The University of Ljubljana (Univerza v Ljubljani) is established.
18 JanuaryThe Paris Peace Conference begins. Woodrow Wilson gives his "14 Points" address. The ninth and the 10th are crucial for Slovenes within former Austro-Hungarian borders.
28 JuneThe Treaty of Versailles is signed between Germany and victorious three Entente powers.
10 SeptemberThe Treaty of Saint-Germain with republic of Austria. It confirms the break of Austria-Hungary. Its territory comes down to newly formed countries Austria, Hungary, Czechoslovakia, Poland, Romania, and the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes. South Tyrol with its German population and Trentino fall to Italy.
1920The "Kulturbund" – a cultural and educational organization of German national minority is established. Later becomes the nazi organization, which operates in Yugoslavia as a fifth column.
4 JuneThe Treaty of Trianon with Hungary Burgenland (Gradiščansko) falls to Austria and Transmuraland (Prekmurje) to the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes.
13 JulyCroatian National hall in Pula and Slovene national hall in Trieste are burned down by Italian fascists.
14 AugustA security agreement is signed between Czechoslovakia and the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes.
10 OctoberCarinthian Plebiscite.
12 NovemberThe Treaty of Rapallo between Italy and the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes, where Slovenia loses almost the whole province of Primorska, which is incorporated back again after the 2nd World War. Italy also gets the whole Istria together with the Trieste region (Tržaško).
192128 JuneSt. Vitus Day Constitution (Vidovdanska ustava) is adopted. It legalizes a monarchal regulation and centralism in a new state and also the supremacy of the court and the Serb politics linked with it.
JulyAn allied treaty for insurance of a situation in East Europe, attained in the Paris Peace Conference, is made by Romania and the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes. This alliance supplements the security agreement between Czechoslovakia and the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes and gets the name “Little Entente”.
1922Julian March (Julijska krajina) is incorporated to Italy.
1923MarchPrefect of Julian March interdicts Slovene and Croatian language at the administration.
192515 OctoberItalian king issues a decree, which interdicts Slovene and Croatian language also at courts of justice.
1927Founding of the TIGR at Goriško, Slovene anti-fascist organisation, first such European organization and a secret youth organization Borba (The fight) at the Trieste region.
19296 JanuaryThe king Alexander I. with a coup d'état dissolves the parliament and establishes the 6 January Dictatorship. He abolishes the St. Vitus Day constitution, freedom of the press and the pooling rights.
3 OctoberThe king Alexander I renames the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes as the Kingdom of Yugoslavia. All political parties are prohibited.
1930Italian fascists discover some TIGR's cells and five members of TIGR (other sources of Borba) are killed at Bazovica.
19319 MayTo hide a dictatorship the king Alexander I. initiates the bestowal constitution, which introduces the two-chamber parliament.
193316 FebruaryThe Little Entente formed between Romania, the Kingdom of Yugoslavia and Czechoslovakia.
19349 FebruaryThe Balkan Entente formed between Romania, the Kingdom of Yugoslavia, Greece and Turkey.
9 OctoberThe king Alexander I. Karađorđević, who reigned since 1921, is assassinated in Marseille together with a French foreign minister Louis Barthou by Croatian extremist nationalists.
1935Milan Stojadinović becomes prime minister. His government begins to drop Yugoslavia's traditional leaning toward France and starts to connect economically and politically with Germany and Italy.
1937The National Academy of Sciences and Arts is established in Ljubljana.
1938Some members of TIGR plan an attempt on Italian Fascist leader Benito Mussolini's life, when he visits Kobarid.
13 MarchAdolf Hitler annexes Austria to the Nazi Germany. Slovenes in Austrian Carinthia practically become German citizens.
DecemberDragiša Cvetković becomes prime minister. He signs an agreement with the leader of Croatian opposition Vladko Maček allowing for the foundation of the Banovina of Croatia as the sole autonomous political and territorial unit in the Kingdom of Yugoslavia. This agreement does not solve the national problem since it just distributes the authority among Serbs and Croats.
19416 AprilGerman, Italian and Hungarian occupying forces occupy Slovenia and divide it into three parts.
11 AprilGerman army occupies the Central Sava Valley, where important pits, heavy industry and traffic crossroads lie.
17 AprilRoyal Yugoslav army signs its surrender in Belgrade.
19 AprilA Nazi politician and SS chief leader Heinrich Himmler visits Celje and among other he inspects the prison of the Stari pisker ("Old pot").
26 AprilAn anti-fascist organization, the Liberation Front of Slovene nation (Osvobodilna fronta Slovenskega naroda) (OF) is established in Ljubljana. It is active on all Slovene ethnical territory, as well in Carinthia, Primorska region in the Venetian province and Slovene Rába region (Slovene Slovensko Porabje, Hungarian Szlovén-vidék or Rába-vidék).
8 MayA decision about the organization of the OF in the Central Sava Valley in Trbovlje, Zagorje and Hrastnik is adopted.
JulyArmed resistance begins.
1 AugustThe first Slovene Partisan unit in the Central Sava Valley, the Revirje company (Revirska četa) is established at the Čemšeniška Alpine meadow. 70 fighters were counted.
12 DecemberA battle between German policemen and Slovene partisans near the village of Rovte.
19431 MarchDolomiti Declaration.
16 SeptemberThe supreme plenum of OF proclaims the association of Slovene maritime province (Slovensko primorje) to Slovenia.
29 NovemberSecond session of AVNOJ in Jajce.
19452 MayTroops of Yugoslav 4th Army together with Slovene 9th Corpus NOV, New Zealand units and Italian resistance liberate Trieste.
5 MayFirst postwar Slovene national government is named and elected by the SNOS (Slovene National Liberation Council) at the Bratina Hall in Ajdovščina.
8 MayBritish 8th Army together with Slovene partisan troops and motorized detachment of Yugoslav 4th Army arrives to Carinthia and Klagenfurt.
9 MayGeneral Alexander Löhr Commander of German Army Group E near Topolšica, Slovenia signs unconditional capitulation of German occupation troops. World War II in Slovenia ends.
25 MayForced repatriation of Slovene military and civilians from Viktring, Austria to various postwar execution sites including the Kočevski Rog massacre and the Teharje camp.
12 JuneTrieste stops being under the administration of Yugoslav army.
194710 February21 countries sign the Paris peace conference with Italy.
15 SeptemberFree Territory of Trieste (STO – Svobodno tržaško ozemlje) is established in Ljubljana.
194818 MarchSoviet Union calls back all its specialists from Yugoslavia. The Communist Party of the Soviet Union accuses the Communist Party of Yugoslavia of not being democratic, that it leans toward imperial powers, that returns to capitalism, and that it diverts from Marxism. The Informbiro begins. Economic blockade and a threat of military intervention follow.
1954Free Territory of Trieste expires after the London Memorandum is signed between the US, Great Britain, Italy and Yugoslavia. Trieste becomes Italian. Slovenia gets the north of Istria.
1955Informbiro ends. Josip Broz Tito and Nikita Khrushchev sign the Belgrade declaration, which also recognizes a Yugoslav form of socialism.
1978The "South railway" is electrified.
19804 MayTito dies at the Ljubljana University Medical Centre.
199022 AprilMilan Kučan wins the presidential election, which is still held within the SFR Yugoslavia.
23 DecemberA referendum on independence is held. 88.5% of the eligible electorate (and 94.8% of the participating electorate) votes for independence from Yugoslavia.[2][3]
199125 JuneSlovenia becomes an independent state by adopting and approving relevant official documents.
26 JuneSlovenia ceremonially declares its independence from SFR Yugoslavia.
Slovenia removes Yugoslav border signs and marks its own. The Yugoslav People's Army sends 2,000 soldiers from barracks across Slovenia to reclaim all border checkpoints and the Ten-Day War starts.[4]
27 JuneThe Yugoslav People's Army takes over border posts, but most of their soldiers are blocked within barracks and have their water and electricity supplies cut off.
1 JulyGermany unilaterally recognizes Slovenia as an independent state.
7 JulyThe Brioni Agreement between Slovenia and the SFR Yugoslavia is signed, under political patronage of the European Economic Community (EEC). The Ten-Day War ends[4] and the Yugoslav People's Army is given three months to leave the territory of the Republic of Slovenia. In all, fewer than a hundred people lost their lives in the clashes, mostl of whom were Yugoslav People Army's soldiers and personnel.
26 OctoberLast troops of the Yugoslav People's Army leave Slovenia.[4]
23 DecemberIndependent Slovenia gets a new, democratic constitution.
199215 JanuaryAll members of the European Economic Community recognize Slovenia as a state.
24 MarchSlovenia becomes a member of the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe.
7 AprilThe United States recognize Slovenia as a sovereign state.
22 MaySlovenia becomes a member of the United Nations.
6 DecemberThe first presidential election in the independent Slovenia is held and Milan Kučan becomes the first president of Slovenia.
199314 MaySlovenia joins the Council of Europe.
199723 NovemberThe second presidential election is held, with Milan Kučan securing his second mandate.
19981 JanuarySlovenia becomes a non-permanent member of the UN Security Council.

21st century

200231 MarchMost recent national census is conducted.[5]
6 OctoberThe European Commission announces that Slovenia, together with nine other countries (Cyprus, the Czech Republic, Estonia, Hungary, Latvia, Lithuania, Malta, Poland, and Slovakia), has met the criteria to join the European Union, which would see its membership expand from 15 member states to 25.
21 NovemberDuring the Prague (Czech Republic) NATO summit, Slovenia is invited to start talks in order to join the alliance, together with six other countries (Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, Slovakia, Romania, and Bulgaria.
1 DecemberJanez Drnovšek wins the third presidential election and becomes the second president of Slovenia.
200323 MarchReferenda on joining the EU and NATO are held and both initiatives are successful.
200429 MarchSlovenia, together with six former Warsaw Pact countries of Bulgaria, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, Romania and Slovakia, joins NATO.
1 MaySlovenia enters the European Union along with Cyprus, the Czech Republic, Estonia, Hungary, Latvia, Lithuania, Malta, Poland and Slovakia. The Slovenian tolar becomes part of the European Exchange Rate Mechanism, in preparation for eventual adoption of the euro.
20051 JanuarySlovenia takes over the rotating presidency of the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe.
200625 SeptemberSlovenia takes over the rotating presidency of the IAEA.
20071 JanuarySlovenia adopts the euro as its legal tender currency, and begins issuing its own euro coins.
11 NovemberDanilo Türk wins the fourth presidential election and becomes the third president of Slovenia.
21 DecemberSlovenia joins the Schengen Area.
20081 JanuarySlovenia takes over the rotating presidency of the European Union as the first among the new member states.
200918 JulySlovenia takes over the rotating presidency of the Council of Europe.
201021 JulySlovenia becomes a member of the OECD.
20122 DecemberBorut Pahor wins the fifth presidential election, and becomes the fourth President of Slovenia.
201712 NovemberBorut Pahor wins the sixth presidential election, and becomes the second president to win a second mandate.
20211 JulySlovenia will take over the rotating presidency of the European Union for the second time.

See also


  1. "5 May 1622". European Archive of Historical Earthquake Data. Retrieved 15 May 2015.
  2. Flores Juberías, Carlos (November 2005). "Some legal (and political) considerations about the legal framework for referendum in Montenegro, in the light of European experiences and standards". Legal Aspects for Referendum in Montenegro in the Context of International Law and Practice (PDF). Foundation Open Society Institute, Representative Office Montenegro. p. 74. Archived from the original (PDF) on 26 April 2012.
  3. "Volitve" [Elections]. Statistični letopis 2011 [Statistical Yearbook 2011]. Statistical Yearbook 2011. 15. Statistical Office of the Republic of Slovenia. 2011. p. 108. ISSN 1318-5403.
  4. "About the Slovenian Military Forces: History". Slovenian Armed Forces, Ministry of Defence. Retrieved 3 February 2011.
  5. http://www.stat.si/popis2002/en/kaj_je_popis.html