Timeline of discovery of Solar System planets and their moons


The timeline of discovery of Solar System planets and their natural satellites charts the progress of the discovery of new bodies over history. Each object is listed in chronological order of its discovery (multiple dates occur when the moments of imaging, observation, and publication differ), identified through its various designations (including temporary and permanent schemes), and the discoverer(s) listed. Historically the naming of moons did not always match the times of their discovery. Traditionally, the discoverer enjoys the privilege of naming the new object; however, some neglected to do so (E. E. Barnard stated he would "defer any suggestions as to a name" [for Amalthea] "until a later paper"[1] but never got around to picking one from the numerous suggestions he received) or actively declined (S. B. Nicholson stated "Many have asked what the new satellites [Lysithea and Carme] are to be named. They will be known only by the numbers X and XI, written in Roman numerals, and usually prefixed by the letter J to identify them with Jupiter."[2]). The issue arose nearly as soon as planetary satellites were discovered: Galileo referred to the four main satellites of Jupiter using numbers while the names suggested by his rival Simon Marius gradually gained universal acceptance. The International Astronomical Union (IAU) eventually started officially approving names in the late 1970s.

Key info


In the following tables, planetary satellites are indicated in bold type (e.g. Moon) while planets and dwarf planets, which directly circle the Sun, are in italic type (e.g. Earth). The Sun itself is indicated in roman type. The tables are sorted by publication/announcement date. Dates are annotated with the following symbols:

  • i: for date of first imaging (photography, etc.);
  • o: for date of first human visual observation, either through telescope or on photographic plate;
  • p: for date of announcement or publication.

In a few cases, the date is uncertain and is then marked "(?)".

* Note: Moons marked by an asterisk (*) had complicated discoveries. Some took years to be confirmed, and in several cases were actually lost and rediscovered. Others were found in Voyager photographs years after they were taken.

Color legend

The planets and their natural satellites are marked in the following colors:

Designations
  • Other designations are synonyms or periphrases sometimes encountered for the object.
  • Permanent designations (of planetary satellites) are explained here.
  • Temporary designations are explained here.

Prehistorically discovered


Prehistory
Name Image Other designation Notes
Sun
Star In the geocentric model, developed in Ancient Greece, then standardized by Ptolemy in the 2nd century, the Earth was believed to be at the center of the cosmos. Seven planets were placed in orbit around it in an order of increasing distance from the Earth, as established by the Greek Stoics: the Moon, Mercury, Venus, the Sun, Mars, Jupiter and Saturn. This list included two objects, the Sun and the Moon, which are now known not to be planets.

In the 5th century BCE the Greek philosophers Philolaus and Hicetas speculated separately that the Earth was a sphere revolving daily around some mystical “central fire” that regulated the universe. Anaxagoras proposed that the Sun is a star around 450 BCE. In the 3rd century BCE, Aristarchus of Samos extended this idea by proposing that the Earth and other planets moved around a definite central object, which he believed to be the Sun though this was not widely accepted until the 17th century and not proven conclusively until the 19th.[3]

Earth
3rd planet Earth is the third planet from the Sun and the subject of historical misconception for centuries.[4][5] Earth was never formally 'discovered' because it was never an unrecognized entity by humans. However, its shared identity with other bodies as a "planet" is a historically recent discovery.

The Earth's position in the Solar System was correctly described in the heliocentric model proposed by Aristarchus of Samos.[6]

Mercury
1st planet The inner and outer planets, Mercury and Venus, Mars, Jupiter and Saturn, were identified by ancient Babylonian astronomers in the 2nd millennium BC.[7] They were also identified by Aristarchus of Samos, and later in Nicolaus Copernicus' heliocentric system[8] (De Revolutionibus Orbium Coelestium, 1543)
Venus
2nd planet
Mars
4th planet
Jupiter
5th planet
Saturn
6th planet
Moon
Earth I In the Copernican system, the Moon was considered to be no longer a planet but a natural satellite of the Earth, and was originally thought to be the only body in that system whose revolution was not centered on the Sun.

17th century


17th century
Date Name Image Permanent designation Discoverer(s) and notes
1610s
o: January 7, 1610
p: March 13, 1610
Ganymede
Jupiter III Galileo[9][10] discovered the Galilean moons. These satellites were the first celestial objects that were confirmed to orbit an object other than the Sun or Earth. Galileo saw Io and Europa as a single point of light on January 7, 1610; they were seen as separate bodies the following night.[11]
Callisto
Jupiter IV
o: January 8, 1610
p: March 13, 1610
Io
Jupiter I
Europa
Jupiter II
1650s
o: March 25, 1655
p: March 5, 1656
Titan
Saturn VI
Saturn II (1673–1684), Saturn IV (1686–1789)
Huygens[12] first "published" his discovery as an anagram, sent out on 13 June 1655; later published in pamphlet form as De Saturni luna Observatio Nova and in full in Systema Saturnium[13] (July 1659).
1670s
o: October 25, 1671
p: 1673
Iapetus
Saturn VIII
Saturn III (1673–1684), Saturn V (1686–1789), Saturn VII (1789–1848)
Cassini[14]
o: December 23, 1672
p: 1673
Rhea
Saturn V
Saturn I (1673–1684), Saturn III (1686–1789)
1680s
o: March 21, 1684
p: April 22, 1686
Tethys
Saturn III
Saturn I (1686–1789)
Cassini.[15]

Together with his previous two discoveries, Cassini named these satellites Sidera Lodoicea. In his work Kosmotheôros[16] (published posthumously in 1698), Christiaan Huygens relates "Jupiter you see has his four, and Saturn his five Moons about him, all plac’d in their Orbits."

Dione
Saturn IV
Saturn II (1686–1789)
Date Name Image Permanent designation Discoverer(s) and notes

18th century


18th century
Date Name Image Other/Permanent designation Discoverer(s) and notes
1780s
o: March 13, 1781
p: April 26, 1781
Uranus
7th PlanetHerschel first reported the discovery of Uranus on April 26, 1781, initially believing it to be a comet.[17]
o: January 11, 1787
p: February 15, 1787
Titania
Uranus III Herschel.[18][19] He later reported four more spurious satellites.[20]
Oberon
Uranus IV
o: August 28, 1789[21]
p: November 12, 1789
Enceladus
Saturn II Herschel[22]
o: September 17, 1789
p: November 12, 1789
Mimas
Saturn I
Date Name Image Other/Permanent designation Discoverer(s) and notes

19th century


19th century
Date Name Image Other/Permanent designation Discoverer(s) and notes
1800s
o: January 1, 1801
p: January 24, 1801
Ceres
8th Planet (1801)
Asteroid (1851)
Dwarf planet (2006)
Giuseppe Piazzi. He first announced his discovery on January 24, 1801, in letters to fellow astronomers.[23] The first formal publication was the September 1801 issue of the Monatliche Correspondenz.[24]
1840s
o: September 23, 1846
p: November 13, 1846
Neptune
13th Planet (1846)[lower-alpha 1]
8th Planet (1851)
Galle and Le Verrier[25][26]
o: October 10, 1846
p: November 13, 1846
Triton
Neptune I Lassell[27]
o: September 16, 1848
p: October 7, 1848
Hyperion
Saturn VIIBond, Bond,[28] Lassell[29]
1850s
o: October 24, 1851 Ariel
Uranus I Lassell[30]
Umbriel
Uranus II
1870s
o: August 12, 1877 Deimos
Mars II Hall[31][32][33]
o: August 18, 1877 Phobos
Mars I
1890s
o: September 9, 1892
p: October 4, 1892
Amalthea
Jupiter V Barnard[1][34]
i: August 16, 1898
o: March 17, 1899
Phoebe
Saturn IX Pickering[35][36]
Date Name Image Other/Permanent designation Discoverer(s) and notes
  1. At the time of Neptune's discovery, dwarf planet Ceres and asteroids Pallas, Juno, Vesta, and Astraea were counted as planets.

20th century


1901–1950

Early 20th century
Date Name Image Permanent designation Discoverer(s) and notes
1900s
i: December 3, 1904
p: January 6, 1905
Himalia
(Hestia 1955–1975)
Jupiter VIPerrine[34][37][38]
i: January 2, 1905
p: February 27, 1905
Elara
(Hera 1955–1975)
Jupiter VIIPerrine[34][38][39]
i: January 27, 1908
o: February 28, 1908
p: March 1–6, 1908
Pasiphae
(Poseidon 1955–1975)
Jupiter VIIIMelotte[34][40][41]
1910s
i: July 21, 1914
p: September 17, 1914
Sinope
(Hades 1955–1975)
Jupiter IXNicholson[34][42]
1930s
i: January 23, 1930
o: February 18, 1930
p: March 13, 1930
Pluto
9th Planet (1930)
Dwarf planet (2006)
Tombaugh[43]
i: July 6, 1938
p: August 1938
Lysithea
(Demeter 1955–1975)
Jupiter XNicholson[34][44]
i: July 30, 1938
p: August 1938
Carme
(Pan 1955–1975)
Jupiter XI
1940s
i: February 16, 1948
p: June 1949
Miranda
Uranus VKuiper[34][45]
i: May 1, 1949
p: August 1949
Nereid
Neptune IIKuiper[34][46][47]
Date Name Image Permanent designation Discoverer(s) and notes

1951–2000

Late 20th century
Date Name Temporary Designation Image Permanent Designation Discoverer(s) and notes
1950s
i: September 28, 1951
p: December 1951
Ananke
(Adrastea 1951–1975)
Jupiter XIINicholson[48][49]
1960s
i: December 15, 1966
p: January 3, 1967
Janus*S/1966 S 2
Saturn XDollfus[48][50][51][52][53]
(Dollfus may have seen either Janus or Epimetheus)
i: December 18, 1966
p: January 6, 1967
Epimetheus*S/1980 S 3Saturn XIWalker[48][54]
1970s
i: September 11, 1974
p: September 20, 1974
LedaJupiter XIIIKowal[34][55]
i: September 30, 1975
p: October 3, 1975
Themisto*S/1975 J 1
Jupiter XVIIIKowal[34][56]
(Discovered and then lost)
i: April 13, 1978
o: June 22, 1978
CharonS/1978 P 1
Pluto IChristy[57][58]
i: July 8, 1979
p: November 23, 1979
AdrasteaS/1979 J 1
Jupiter XVJewitt, Danielson, Voyager 2[51][59][60][61][62][63]
1980s
Date Name Temporary designation Image Permanent designation Discoverer(s) and notes
i: February 26, 1980
p: March 6, 1980
Epimetheus*S/1980 S 3
Saturn XI[48][53][64][65][66][67]
(Confirmed by Voyager 1)
i: March 1, 1980
p: March 6, 1980
HeleneS/1980 S 6
Saturn XIILaques, Lecacheux[34][64][65][66][67]
i: April 8, 1980
p: April 10, 1980
TelestoS/1980 S 13
Saturn XIIISmith, Reitsema, Larson, Fountain, Voyager 1[48][67][68]
i: March 5, 1979
p: April 28, 1980
ThebeS/1979 J 2
Jupiter XIVSynnott, Voyager 1[48][60][61]
i: February 19, 1980
p: June 6, 1980
Janus*S/1980 S 1
Saturn X[51][53][65][66][67]
(Confirmed by Voyager 1)
i: March 13, 1980
p: July 31, 1980
CalypsoS/1980 S 25
Saturn XIVPascu, Seidelmann, Baum, Currie[48][66][67]
i:March 4, 1979
p: August 26, 1980
MetisS/1979 J 3
Jupiter XVISynnott, Voyager 1[48][61]
o: October 1980
p: October 31, 1980
PrometheusS/1980 S 27
Saturn XVICollins, Voyager 1[69]
PandoraS/1980 S 26
Saturn XVIICollins, Voyager 1[34][69]
o: October 1980
p: November 13, 1980
AtlasS/1980 S 28
Saturn XVTerrile, Voyager 1[48][70]
i: May 24, 1981
p: May 29, 1981
Larissa*S/1981 N 1
S/1989 N 2
Neptune VIIReitsema, Hubbard, Lebofsky, Tholen, Voyager 2[34][71][72]
i: December 30, 1985
p: January 9, 1986
PuckS/1985 U 1
Uranus XVSynnott, Voyager 2[34][73]
i: January 3, 1986
p: January 16, 1986
JulietS/1986 U 2
Uranus XISynnott, Voyager 2[34][74][75]
PortiaS/1986 U 1
Uranus XII
i: January 9, 1986
p: January 16, 1986
CressidaS/1986 U 3Uranus IX
i: January 13, 1986
p: January 16, 1986
DesdemonaS/1986 U 6
Uranus X
RosalindS/1986 U 4
Uranus XIII
BelindaS/1986 U 5
Uranus XIV
i: January 20, 1986
p: January 27, 1986
CordeliaS/1986 U 7
Uranus VITerrile, Voyager 2[34][76]
OpheliaS/1986 U 8Uranus VII
i: January 23, 1986
p: January 27, 1986
BiancaS/1986 U 9
Uranus VIIISmith, Voyager 2[34][76]
i: June 16, 1989
p: July 7, 1989
ProteusS/1989 N 1
Neptune VIIISynnott, Voyager 2[34][77]
i: July 28, 1989
p: August 2, 1989
DespinaS/1989 N 3
Neptune VSynnott, Voyager 2[34][72]
GalateaS/1989 N 4
Neptune VI
i: September 18, 1989
p: September 29, 1989
ThalassaS/1989 N 5
Neptune IVTerrile, Voyager 2[34][78]
NaiadS/1989 N 6Neptune III
1990s
Date Name Temporary designation Image Permanent designation Discoverer(s) and notes
i: August 22, 1981
p: July 16, 1990
Pan*S/1981 S 13
Saturn XVIIIShowalter, Voyager 2[34][79]
i: August 23, 1981
p: April 14, 1995
Pallene*
(see below)
S/1981 S 14
Saturn XXXIIIGordon, Murray and Beurle[34][80][81]
i: September 6, 1997
p: October 31, 1997
CalibanS/1997 U 1
Uranus XVIGladman, Nicholson, Burns, Kavelaars[34][82]
SycoraxS/1997 U 2
Uranus XVIIGladman, Nicholson, Burns, Kavelaars[82]
i: January 18, 1986
p: May 18, 1999
Perdita*S/1986 U 10
Uranus XXVKarkoschka, Voyager 2[34][83]
i: July 18, 1999
p: July 27, 1999
SetebosS/1999 U 1Uranus XIXKavelaars, Gladman, Holman, Petit, Scholl[34][84]
StephanoS/1999 U 2Uranus XXGladman, Holman, Kavelaars, Petit, Scholl[34][84]
i: July 18, 1999
p: September 4, 1999
ProsperoS/1999 U 3
Uranus XVIIIHolman, Kavelaars, Gladman, Petit, Scholl[34][85]
2000s
Date Name Temporary designation Image Permanent designation Discoverer(s) and notes
i: October 6, 1999
p: July 20, 2000
CallirrhoeS/1999 J 1
Jupiter XVIIScotti, Spahr, McMillan, Larsen, Montani, Gleason, Gehrels[34][86][87]
i: August 7, 2000
p: October 25, 2000
YmirS/2000 S 1Saturn XIXGladman[34][88][89]
PaaliaqS/2000 S 2Saturn XX
i: September 23, 2000
p: October 25, 2000
SiarnaqS/2000 S 3Saturn XXIXGladman, Kavelaars[34][90][91]
TarvosS/2000 S 4
Saturn XXIKavelaars, Gladman[34][90][91]
i: August 7, 2000
p: November 18, 2000
KiviuqS/2000 S 5
Saturn XXIVGladman[34][91][92]
i: September 23, 2000
p: November 18, 2000
IjiraqS/2000 S 6Saturn XXIIKavelaars, Gladman[34][91][92]
i: November 21, 2000
p: November 25, 2000
Themisto*S/2000 J 1
Jupiter XVIIISheppard, Jewitt, Fernández, Magnier (Rediscovered)[34][93][94]
i: September 23, 2000
p: December 7, 2000
ThrymrS/2000 S 7
Saturn XXXGladman, Kavelaars[34][89][95]
SkathiS/2000 S 8Saturn XXVIIKavelaars, Gladman[34][89][95]
MundilfariS/2000 S 9
Saturn XXVGladman, Kavelaars[34][89][95]
ErriapusS/2000 S 10Saturn XXVIIIKavelaars, Gladman[34][91][96]
i: November 9, 2000
p: December 19, 2000
AlbiorixS/2000 S 11Saturn XXVIHolman, Spahr[34][97][98]
i: September 23, 2000
p: December 22, 2000
SuttungrS/2000 S 12Saturn XXIIIGladman, Kavelaars[34][99][100]
Date Name Temporary designation Image Permanent designation Discoverer(s) and notes

21st century


2000s

2000s
Date Name Temporary designation Image Permanent designation Discoverer(s) and notes

i: November 23, 2000
p: January 5, 2001

KalykeS/2000 J 2Jupiter XXIII Sheppard, Jewitt, Fernández, Magnier, Dahm, Evans[34][101][102][103]
IocasteS/2000 J 3Jupiter XXIV
ErinomeS/2000 J 4Jupiter XXV
HarpalykeS/2000 J 5Jupiter XXII
IsonoeS/2000 J 6Jupiter XXVI
PraxidikeS/2000 J 7Jupiter XXVII
i: November 25, 2000
p: January 5, 2001
MegacliteS/2000 J 8Jupiter XIX Sheppard, Jewitt, Fernández, Magnier, Dahm, Evans[34][101][103]
TaygeteS/2000 J 9Jupiter XX
i: November 26, 2000
p: January 5, 2001
ChaldeneS/2000 J 10Jupiter XXI
i: December 5, 2000
p: January 5, 2001
DiaS/2000 J 11Jupiter LIII
Date Name Temporary designation Image Permanent designation Discoverer(s) and notes
i: December 9, 2001
p: May 16, 2002
HermippeS/2001 J 3
Jupiter XXX Sheppard, Jewitt, Kleyna[34][104][105]
EurydomeS/2001 J 4Jupiter XXXII
SpondeS/2001 J 5Jupiter XXXVI
KaleS/2001 J 8Jupiter XXXVII
i: December 10, 2001
p: May 16, 2002
AutonoeS/2001 J 1Jupiter XXVIII
i: December 11, 2001
p: May 16, 2002
ThyoneS/2001 J 2Jupiter XXIX
PasitheeS/2001 J 6Jupiter XXXVIII
EuantheS/2001 J 7Jupiter XXXIII
OrthosieS/2001 J 9Jupiter XXXV
EuporieS/2001 J 10Jupiter XXXIV
AitneS/2001 J 11Jupiter XXXI
i: August 13, 2001
p: September 30, 2002
TrinculoS/2001 U 1Uranus XXIHolman, Kavelaars, Milisavljevic[34][106][107]
i: October 31, 2002
p: December 18, 2002
ArcheS/2002 J 1Jupiter XLIIISheppard, Meech, Hsieh, Tholen, Tonry[34][108][109]
Date Name Temporary designation Image Permanent designation Discoverer(s) and notes
i: July 23, 2002
p: January 13, 2003
SaoS/2002 N 2 Neptune XI Holman, Kavelaars, Grav, Fraser, Milisavljevic[34][110][111]
i: August 10, 2002
p: January 13, 2003
HalimedeS/2002 N 1Neptune IX
i: August 11, 2002
p: January 13, 2003
LaomedeiaS/2002 N 3Neptune XII
i: February 5, 2003
p: March 4, 2003
EukeladeS/2003 J 1Jupiter XLVII Sheppard, Jewitt, Kleyna, Fernández, Hsieh[34][112][113]
(unnamed moon of Jupiter)S/2003 J 2
EuphemeS/2003 J 3Jupiter LX
(unnamed moon of Jupiter)S/2003 J 4
i: February 6, 2003
p: March 4, 2003
EireneS/2003 J 5Jupiter LVII
HelikeS/2003 J 6Jupiter XLV
i: February 8, 2003
p: March 4, 2003
AoedeS/2003 J 7Jupiter XLI
i: February 8, 2003
p: March 6, 2003
HegemoneS/2003 J 8Jupiter XXXIXSheppard, Jewitt, Kleyna, Fernández[34][114][115]
i: February 6, 2003
p: March 7, 2003
(unnamed moons of Jupiter)S/2003 J 9 Sheppard, Jewitt, Kleyna, Fernández[34][116][117]
S/2003 J 10
KallichoreS/2003 J 11Jupiter XLIV
i: February 8, 2003
p: March 7, 2003
(unnamed moon of Jupiter)S/2003 J 12
i: February 9, 2003
p: April 2, 2003
CylleneS/2003 J 13Jupiter XLVIIISheppard, Jewitt, Kleyna[34][118][119]
i: February 8, 2003
p: April 3, 2003
KoreS/2003 J 14Jupiter XLIXSheppard, Jewitt, Kleyna[34][118][120]
i: February 6, 2003
p: April 3, 2003
PhilophrosyneS/2003 J 15 Jupiter LVIIISheppard, Jewitt, Kleyna, Fernández[118][121]
(unnamed moon of Jupiter)S/2003 J 16Gladman, Sheppard, Jewitt, Kleyna, Kavelaars, Petit, Allen[118][122]
i: February 8, 2003
p: April 3, 2003
HerseS/2003 J 17Jupiter LGladman, Sheppard, Jewitt, Kleyna, Kavelaars, Petit, Allen[34][118][123]
i: February 6, 2003
p: April 4, 2003
(unnamed moon of Jupiter)S/2003 J 18Jupiter LVGladman, Kavelaars, Petit, Allen, Sheppard, Jewitt, Kleyna[34][118][124]
i: February 5, 2003
p: April 8, 2003
NarviS/2003 S 1Saturn XXXISheppard, Jewitt, Kleyna[34][118][125]
i: February 6, 2003
p: April 12, 2003
(unnamed moon of Jupiter)S/2003 J 19Jupiter LXIGladman, Sheppard, Jewitt, Kleyna, Kavelaars, Petit, Allen[126][127]
i: February 9, 2003
p: April 14, 2003
CarpoS/2003 J 20Jupiter XLVISheppard, Gladman, Kavelaars, Petit, Allen, Jewitt, Kleyna[34][126][128]
i: February 6, 2003
p: May 29, 2003
MnemeS/2003 J 21Jupiter XLSheppard, Jewitt, Kleyna, Gladman, Kavelaars, Petit, Allen[34][129][130]
i: January 18, 1986
p: September 3, 2003
Perdita*S/1986 U 10Uranus XXVKarkoschka (Recovered by the Hubble Space Telescope)[34][83][131]
i: August 29, 2003
p: September 3, 2003
PsamatheS/2003 N 1Neptune XJewitt, Kleyna, Sheppard, Holman, Kavelaars[34][132][133]
i: August 25, 2003
p: September 25, 2003
MabS/2003 U 1Uranus XXVI Showalter, Lissauer[134]
CupidS/2003 U 2Uranus XXVII
i: August 13, 2001
p: September 30, 2003
Ferdinand*S/2001 U 2
Uranus XXIV2001: Holman, Kavelaars, Milisavljevic;
2003: Sheppard, Jewitt[34][135][136]
i: August 14, 2002
p: September 30, 2003
Neso*S/2002 N 4Neptune XIIIHolman, Kavelaars, Grav, Fraser, Milisavljevic[34][135][137]
i: August 13, 2001
p: October 8, 2003
Francisco*S/2001 U 3Uranus XXIIHolman, Kavelaars, Milisavljevic, Gladman[34][138]
i: August 29, 2003
p: October 9, 2003
MargaretS/2003 U 3Uranus XXIIISheppard, Jewitt, Holman, Kavelaars[34][139][140]
Date Name Temporary designation Image Permanent designation Discoverer(s) and notes
i: February 9, 2003
p: January 24, 2004
Thelxinoe*S/2003 J 22Jupiter XLIISheppard, Jewitt, Kleyna, Gladman, Kavelaars, Petit, Allen[34][141][142]
i: February 6, 2003
p: January 31, 2004
(unnamed moon of Jupiter)S/2003 J 23*
Sheppard, Jewitt, Kleyna, Fernández[143][144]
i: June 1, 2004
p: August 16, 2004
Methone*S/2004 S 1
Saturn XXXII Cassini–Huygens[34][145][146]
PalleneS/2004 S 2
=S/1981 S 14
Saturn XXXIII
i: October 21, 2004
o: October 24, 2004
p: November 8, 2004
PolydeucesS/2004 S 5
Saturn XXXIVCassini–Huygens[34][147]
i:Mar 7, 2003
o:July 27, 2005
i: May 6, 2004
o: December 28, 2004
p: July 29, 2005
Haumea(136108) 2003 EL61Dwarf planet(Ortiz, Aceituno Castro, Santos-Sanz)[34][148] or (Brown, Trujillo, Rabinowitz)[149][150] (see the Controversy over the discovery of Haumea)
Date Name Temporary designation Image Permanent designation Discoverer(s) and notes
i: December 12, 2004
p: May 3, 2005
(unnamed moon of Saturn)S/2004 S 7 Sheppard, Jewitt, Kleyna, Marsden[34][151]
Fornjot S/2004 S 8
Saturn XLII
Farbauti S/2004 S 9Saturn XL
Aegir S/2004 S 10Saturn XXXVI
Bebhionn S/2004 S 11
Saturn XXXVII
(unnamed moons of Saturn) S/2004 S 12
S/2004 S 13
Hati S/2004 S 14Saturn XLIII
Bergelmir S/2004 S 15
Saturn XXXVIII
i: December 13, 2004
p: May 3, 2005
Fenrir S/2004 S 16 Saturn XLI
(unnamed moon of Saturn)S/2004 S 17
Bestla S/2004 S 18Saturn XXXIX
i: May 1, 2005
p: May 6, 2005
DaphnisS/2005 S 1
Saturn XXXVCassini–Huygens[152]
i: October 21, 2003
o: January 5, 2005
p: July 29, 2005
Eris(136199) 2003 UB313
Dwarf planetBrown, Trujillo, Rabinowitz[34][149][153]
o: January 26, 2005
p: July 29, 2005
HiʻiakaS/2005 (136108) 1Haumea IBrown, Trujillo, Rabinowitz[34][154]
i: March 31, 2005
p: July 29, 2005
Makemake(136472) 2005 FY9Dwarf planetBrown, Trujillo, Rabinowitz[149][155]
o: June 30, 2005
p: July 29, 2005
NamakaS/2005 (136108) 2Haumea IIBrown, Trujillo, Rabinowitz[156]
i: September 10, 2005
p: October 3, 2005
DysnomiaS/2005 (136199) 1
Eris IBrown, van Dam, Bouchez, Le Mignant, Campbell, Chin, Conrad, Hartman, Johansson, Lafon, Rabinowitz, Stomski, Summers, Trujillo, Wizinowich[157]
i: May 15, 2005
o: June 15, 2005
p: October 31, 2005
NixS/2005 P 2
Pluto II Weaver, Stern, Mutchler, Steffl, Buie, Merline,
Spencer, Young, Young[158]
HydraS/2005 P 1
Pluto III
Date Name Temporary designation Image Permanent designation Discoverer(s) and notes
i: December 12, 2004
o: March 6, 2006 (?)
p: June 26, 2006
Hyrrokkin S/2004 S 19 Saturn XLIV Sheppard, Jewitt, Kleyna[34][159][160]
i: January 4, 2006
o: March 6, 2006 (?)
p: June 26, 2006
(unnamed moon of Saturn) S/2006 S 1 Sheppard, Jewitt, Kleyna[34][160][161]
Kari S/2006 S 2
Saturn XLV
i: January 5, 2006
o: March 6, 2006 (?)
p: June 26, 2006
(unnamed moon of Saturn) S/2006 S 3
Greip S/2006 S 4Saturn LI
Loge S/2006 S 5Saturn XLVI
Jarnsaxa S/2006 S 6Saturn L
Surtur S/2006 S 7Saturn XLVIII
Skoll S/2006 S 8Saturn XLVII
i: January 5, 2006
o: January 16, 2007 (?)
p: April 13, 2007
Tarqeq S/2007 S 1 Saturn LII Sheppard, Jewitt, Kleyna[34][162][163]
i: January 18, 2007
o: ?
p: May 1, 2007
(unnamed moons of Saturn) S/2007 S 2 Sheppard, Jewitt, Kleyna[163][164]
S/2007 S 3
i: June 2004
o: May 30, 2007
p: July 18, 2007
AntheS/2007 S 4
Saturn XLIXCassini–Huygens[34][165]
i: August 15, 2008
p: March 3, 2009
AegaeonS/2008 S 1
Saturn LIIICassini–Huygens[34][166]
i: July 26, 2009
o: ?
p: November 2, 2009
(unnamed moon of Saturn)S/2009 S 1
Cassini–Huygens[167]
Date Name Temporary designation Image Permanent designation Discoverer(s) and notes

2010s

2010s
Date Name Temporary designation Image Permanent designation Discoverer(s) and notes

i: September 7, 2010
p: June 1, 2011

(unnamed moons of Jupiter)S/2010 J 1Jupiter LIJacobson, Brozović, Gladman and Alexandersen[168]
S/2010 J 2Jupiter LIIVeillet[168]

i: June 28, 2011
p: July 20, 2011

KerberosS/2011 (134340) 1
Pluto IVShowalter[169][170]

i: September 27, 2011
p: January 29, 2012

(unnamed moons of Jupiter)S/2011 J 1Jupiter LXXIISheppard[171]
S/2011 J 2Jupiter LVI

i: June 26, 2012
p: July 11, 2012

StyxS/2012 (134340) 1
Pluto VShowalter[172]

i: 2004
o: July 1, 2013
p: July 15, 2013

Hippocamp*S/2004 N 1
Neptune XIVShowalter et al.[173]

i: April 2015
p: April 26, 2016

(unnamed moon of Makemake)S/2015 (136472) 1Parker et al.[174][175]
i: March 8, 2016
p: June 2, 2017
(unnamed moons of Jupiter)S/2016 J 1Jupiter LIVSheppard et al.[176][177][178][179][180][181][182][183][184][185][186][187]
i: March 23, 2017
p: June 5, 2017
S/2017 J 1Jupiter LIX
i: March 9, 2016
p: July 17, 2018
ValetudoS/2016 J 2Jupiter LXII
i: February 5, 2016
o: March 23, 2017
p: July 17, 2018
(unnamed moons of Jupiter)S/2017 J 2Jupiter LXIII
i: February 5, 2016
o: March 23, 2017
p: July 17, 2018
S/2017 J 3Jupiter LXIV
i: March 23, 2017
p: July 17, 2018
PandiaS/2017 J 4Jupiter LXV
i: March 23, 2017
p: July 17, 2018
(unnamed moons of Jupiter)S/2017 J 5Jupiter LXVI
i: February 24, 2017
o: March 23, 2017
p: July 17, 2018
S/2017 J 6Jupiter LXVII
i: February 24, 2017
o: March 23, 2017
p: July 17, 2018
S/2017 J 7Jupiter LXVIII
i: March 23, 2017
p: July 17, 2018
S/2017 J 8Jupiter LXIX
i: February 24, 2017
o: March 23, 2017
p: July 17, 2018
S/2017 J 9Jupiter LXX
i: March 25, 2017
o: May 11, 2018
p: July 17, 2018
ErsaS/2018 J 1Jupiter LXXI
i: December 12, 2004
p: October 7, 2019
(unnamed moons of Saturn) S/2004 S 20 Saturn LIV Sheppard, Jewitt, Kleyna[188]
S/2004 S 21
S/2004 S 22
S/2004 S 23
S/2004 S 24
S/2004 S 25
S/2004 S 26
S/2004 S 27
S/2004 S 28
S/2004 S 29
S/2004 S 30
i: December 12, 2004
p: October 8, 2019
S/2004 S 31
S/2004 S 32
S/2004 S 33
S/2004 S 34
S/2004 S 35
S/2004 S 36
S/2004 S 37
S/2004 S 38
S/2004 S 39
Date Name Temporary designation Image Permanent designation Discoverer(s) and notes

See also


References


  1. Barnard, Edward Emerson (1892-10-04). "Discovery and observations of a fifth satellite to Jupiter". Astronomical Journal. 12 (11): 81–85. Bibcode:1892AJ.....12...81B. doi:10.1086/101715.
  2. Nicholson, Seth Barnes (April 1939). "The Satellites of Jupiter". Publications of the Astronomical Society of the Pacific. 51 (300): 85–94. Bibcode:1939PASP...51...85N. doi:10.1086/125010.
  3. Stanford SOLAR Center – Ask A Solar Physicist FAQs – Answer
  4. "Aristarchus of Samos". 2018-05-07. Archived from the original on 2018-05-07. Retrieved 2019-01-09.
  5. Lindow, John (2002). "The world was a flat disk, with the Earth in the center and the sea all around. Thus the serpent is about as far away from the center, where men and gods lived" Norse mythology: a guide to the Gods, heroes, rituals, and beliefs. Oxford University Press. p. 253.
  6. Heath, Thomas Little; Aristarchus, of Samos (1913). Aristarchus of Samos, the ancient Copernicus; a history of Greek astronomy to Aristarchus, together with Aristarchus's Treatise on the sizes and distances of the Sun and Moon : a new Greek text with translation and notes. Gerstein - University of Toronto. Oxford : Clarendon Press.
  7. Sachs, Abraham J. (2 May 1974). "Babylonian Observational Astronomy". Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Royal Society of London. 276 (1257): 43–50 [45 & 48–9]. Bibcode:1974RSPTA.276...43S. doi:10.1098/rsta.1974.0008. JSTOR 74273.
  8. Gingerich, O. (1985). "1985JHA....16...37G Page 37". Journal for the History of Astronomy. 16: 37. Bibcode:1985JHA....16...37G. doi:10.1177/002182868501600102.
  9. Galilei, Galileo; Sidereus Nuncius, Thomam Baglionum (Tommaso Baglioni), Venice (March 1610), pp. 17–28 (q.v.)
  10. Drake, Stillman (1981). Galileo at Work. Courier Dover Publications. p. 153. ISBN 978-0-486-49542-2.
  11. Blue, Jennifer (9 November 2009). "Planet and Satellite Names and Discoverers". USGS. Retrieved 13 January 2010.
  12. Huygens, Christiaan; De Saturni luna observatio nova, Adriaan Vlacq, Den Haag, 5 March 1656 (click "Scientific work")
  13. Hugenii, Cristiani (Christiaan Huygens); Systema Saturnium, Adriani Vlacq, Hagæ-Comitis (The Hague), 1659 (p. 47)
  14. Cassini, Giovanni D.; Découverte de deux nouvelles planètes autour de Saturne Archived 2006-05-13 at the Wayback Machine, Sébastien Mabre-Cramoisy, Paris, 1673. Translated as A Discovery of two New Planets about Saturn, made in the Royal Parisian Observatory by Signor Cassini, Fellow of both the Royal Societys, of England and France; English't out of French., Philosophical Transactions, Vol. 8 (1673), pp. 5178–5185
  15. Cassini published these two discoveries on April 22, 1686, according to An Extract of the Journal Des Scavans. of April 22 st. N. 1686. Giving an account of two new Satellites of Saturn, discovered lately by Mr. Cassini at the Royal Observatory at Paris., Philosophical Transactions, Vol. 16 (1686–1692), pp. 79–85
  16. Hugenii, Christiani (Christiaan Huygens); Κοσμοθεωρος (Kosmotheôros), Adrianum (Adriaan) Moetjens, Hagæ-Comitum (The Hague), 1698
  17. Herschel, William; Account of a Comet. By Mr. Herschel, F. R. S.; communicated by Dr. Watson, Jun. of Bath, F. R. S., Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London, Vol. 71, pp. 492–501
  18. Herschel, W. S. (1787). "An Account of the Discovery of Two Satellites Revolving Round the Georgian Planet" (PDF). Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. 77: 125–129. doi:10.1098/rstl.1787.0016. JSTOR 106717.
  19. Herschel, William; On George's Planet and its satellites, Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London, Vol. 78, pp. 364–378, 1788
  20. Herschel, William; On the Discovery of Four Additional Satellites of the Georgium Sidus. The Retrograde Motion of Its Old Satellites Announced; And the Cause of Their Disappearance at Certain Distances from the Planet Explained, Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London, Vol. 88, pp. 47–79, 1798
  21. Jodra, Serge; Les Satellites de Saturne (2004)
  22. Herschel, William; Account of the Discovery of a Sixth and Seventh Satellite of the Planet Saturn; with Remarks on the Construction of its Ring, its Atmosphere, its Rotation on an Axis, and its spheroidical Figure, Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London, Vol. 80, pp. 1–20, 1790 (read 12 November 1789)
  23. Hoskin, Michael (26 June 1992). "Bodes' Law and the Discovery of Ceres". Observatorio Astronomico di Palermo "Giuseppe S. Vaiana". Retrieved 5 July 2007.
  24. Forbes, Eric G. (1971). "Gauss and the Discovery of Ceres". Journal for the History of Astronomy. 2 (3): 195–199. Bibcode:1971JHA.....2..195F. doi:10.1177/002182867100200305.
  25. Airy, George Biddell; Account of some circumstances historically connected with the discovery of the Planet exterior to Uranus, Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, Vol. 7, No. 9 (13 November 1846), pp. 121–152
  26. Account of the Discovery of the Planet of Le Verrier at Berlin, Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, Vol. 7, No. 9 (13 November 1846), pp. 153–157
  27. Lassell, William; Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, Vol. 7, No. 9 (13 November 1846), reported in Account of the Discovery of the Planet of Le Verrier at Berlin, ibid., pp. 153–157
  28. Bond, William C.; Discovery of a new Satellite of Saturn, Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, Vol. 9, No. 1 (10 November 1848), pp. 1–2
  29. Lassell, W.; Discovery of a new Satellite of Saturn, Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, Vol. 8 No. 9 Supplement (undated, some time after 24 September 1848), pp. 195–197
  30. Lassell, W.; Letter from William Lassell, Esq., to the Editor, Astronomical Journal, Vol. 2, No. 33 (1851), p. 70 (signed 11 November 1851)
  31. Christie, William H. M.; The Satellites of Mars, The Observatory, Vol. 1, No. 6 (20 September 1877), pp. 181–185
  32. Hall, Asaph; Observations of the Satellites of Mars (signed 21 September 1877), Astronomische Nachrichten, Vol. 91, No. 2161 (17 October 1877), pp. 11/12–13/14
  33. Hall, Asaph; The Discovery of the Satellites of Mars (signed 28 December 1877), Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, Vol. 38, No. 4 (8 February 1878), pp. 205–209
  34. Gazetteer of Planetary Nomenclature: Planet and Satellite Names and Discoverers
  35. Pickering, Edward C.; A New Satellite of Saturn, Harvard College Observatory Bulletin, No. 49 (17 March 1899), p. 1
  36. Pickering, Edward C.; A New Satellite of Saturn (signed 10 April 1899), Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 9, No. 4 (April 1899), pp. 274–276
  37. Campbell, William W.; Sixth Satellite of Jupiter, Harvard College Observatory Bulletin, No. 173 (6 January 1905), p. 1
    Perrine, Charles D.; Discovery of a Sixth Satellite to Jupiter (signed 30 January 1905), Publications of the Astronomical Society of the Pacific, Vol. 17, No. 100 (10 February 1905), pp. 22–23
    Aitken, Robert G.; Visual Observation of Satellite VI to Jupiter (signed 30 January 1905), Publications of the Astronomical Society of the Pacific, Vol. 17, No. 100 (10 February 1905), pp. 23–24
    Discovery of a Sixth Satellite of Jupiter, Astronomical Journal, Vol. 24, No. 19 (whole No. 571, 28 March 1905), p. 160
  38. Perrine, Charles D.; Orbits of the sixth and seventh satellites of Jupiter (signed 28 May 1905), Astronomische Nachrichten, Vol. 169, No. 4035 (24 July 1905), p. 43/44
  39. Campbell, William W.; A Seventh Satellite of Jupiter, Harvard College Observatory Bulletin, No. 178 (27 February 1905), p. 1
    The Seventh Satellite of Jupiter (signed 30 March 1905), Publications of the Astronomical Society of the Pacific, Vol. 17, No. 101 (10 April 1905), pp. 56–57
  40. Perrine, Charles D.; Recent Observations of the Moving Object near Jupiter, Discovered at Greenwich by Mr. J. Melotte (signed 21 May 1908), Publications of the Astronomical Society of the Pacific, Vol. 20, No. 120 (10 June 1908), p. 184
  41. Cowell, Philip H.; Note on the discovery of a Moving Object near Jupiter (1908 CJ), Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, Vol. 68, No. 5 (13 March 1908), p. 373
  42. Nicholson, Seth B.; Discovery of the Ninth Satellite of Jupiter (signed 17 September 1914), Publications of the Astronomical Society of the Pacific, Vol. 26, No. 155 (October 1914), pp. 197–198
  43. Tombaugh, Clyde W.; The Search for the Ninth Planet, Pluto, Astronomical Society of the Pacific Leaflets, Vol. 5, No. 209 (July 1946), pp. 73–80
  44. Nicholson, Seth B.; Two New Satellites of Jupiter (signed August 1938), Publications of the Astronomical Society of the Pacific, Vol. 50, No. 297 (October 1938), pp. 292–293
  45. Kuiper, Gerard P.; The Fifth Satellite of Uranus, Publications of the Astronomical Society of the Pacific, Vol. 61, No. 360 (June 1949), p. 129
  46. Kuiper, Gerard P.; The Second Satellite of Neptune, Publications of the Astronomical Society of the Pacific, Vol. 61, No. 361 (August 1949), pp. 175–176
  47. Vinter Hansen, Julie M.; Object Near Neptune, IAUC 1212 (1 April 1949)
  48. Marsden, Brian G.; GX 1+4; Sats OF JUPITER AND SATURN, IAUC 3872 (30 March 1983)
  49. Nicholson, Seth B.; An Unidentified Object Near Jupiter, Probably a New Satellite, Publications of the Astronomical Society of the Pacific, Vol. 63, No. 375 (December 1951), pp. 297–299
  50. Gingerich, Owen; Probable New Satellite of Saturn, IAUC 1987 (3 January 1967)
    Gingerich, Owen; Saturn X (Janus), IAUC 1995 (1 February 1967)
    Marsden, Brian G.; New Ring and Satellites of Saturn, IAUC 3417 (25 October 1979)
  51. Marsden, Brian G.; Saturn, IAUC 3454 (25 February 1980)
  52. Marsden, Brian G.; 1980 S 2, IAUC 3456 (29 February 1980)
  53. Marsden, Brian G.; Saturn, IAUC 3497 (4 August 1980)
  54. Gingerich, Owen; Possible New Satellite of Saturn, IAUC 1991 (6 January 1967)
  55. Kowal, Charles T.; Thirteenth satellite of Jupiter, Astronomical Journal, Vol. 80, No. 6 (June 1975), pp. 460–464
    Marsden, Brian G.; Probable New Satellite of Jupiter, IAUC 2702 (20 September 1974)
    Marsden, Brian G.; Probable New Satellite of Jupiter, IAUC 2703 (1 October 1974)
    Marsden, Brian G.; Jupiter XIII, IAUC 2711 (24 October 1974)
  56. Marsden, Brian G.; Probable New Satellite of Jupiter, IAUC 2845 (3 October 1975)
    Marsden, Brian G.; Probable New Satellite of Jupiter, IAUC 2855 (23 October 1975)
    Marsden, Brian G.; Probable New Satellite of Jupiter, IAUC 2899 (9 January 1976)
  57. Marsden, Brian G.; 1978 P 1, IAUC 3241 (7 July 1978)
  58. Christy, James W.; Harrington, Robert S.; The satellite of Pluto, Astronomical Journal, Vol. 83, No. 8 (August 1978), pp. 1005–1008
  59. Jewitt, David C., Danielson, G. Edward, Synnott, Stephen P.; Discovery of a new Jupiter satellite, Science, Vol. 206, No. 4421 (23 November 1979), p. 951
  60. Marsden, Brian G.; Satellites of Jupiter, IAUC 3470 (28 April 1980)
  61. Marsden, Brian G.; Satellites of Jupiter, IAUC 3507 (26 August 1980)
  62. Hamilton, Calvin J.; Discovery Image of Adrastea, Views of the Solar System (1995–2007)
  63. Jovian System Data Analysis Program; Voyager 2 Jupiter Image 20630.53 Archived 2004-08-13 at the Wayback Machine, NASA Planetary Data System Rings Node (20 February 1997)
  64. Marsden, Brian G.; Saturn, IAUC 3457 (6 March 1980)
  65. Marsden, Brian G.; Satellites of Saturn, IAUC 3483 (6 June 1980)
  66. Marsden, Brian G.; Satellites of Saturn, IAUC 3496 (31 July 1980)
  67. Marsden, Brian G.; Satellites of Saturn, IAUC 3534 (7 November 1980)
  68. Marsden, Brian G.; Satellites of Saturn, IAUC 3466 (10 April 1980)
  69. Marsden, Brian G.; Satellites of Saturn, IAUC 3532 (31 October 1980)
  70. Marsden, Brian G.; 1980 S 28, IAUC 3539 (13 November 1980)
  71. Marsden, Brian G.; 1981 N 1, IAUC 3608 (29 May 1981)
  72. Marsden, Brian G.; Satellites of Neptune, IAUC 4824 (2 August 1989)
  73. Marsden, Brian G.; Satellites of Uranus and Neptune, IAUC 4159 (9 January 1986)
  74. Marsden, Brian G.; Satellites of Uranus, IAUC 4164 (16 January 1986)
  75. Marsden, Brian G.; Satellites of Uranus, IAUC 4165 (17 January 1986)
  76. Marsden, Brian G.; Satellites and Rings of Uranus, IAUC 4168 (27 January 1986)
  77. Marsden, Brian G.; 1989 N 1, IAUC 4806 (7 July 1989)
  78. Marsden, Brian G.; Neptune, IAUC 4867 (29 September 1989)
  79. Green, Daniel W. E.; Saturn, IAUC 5052 (16 July 1990)
  80. Green, Daniel W. E.; Possible Satellites of Saturn, IAUC 6162 (14 April 1995)
  81. Gordon, Mitchell K.; Murray, Carl D.; and Beurle, Kevin; Further Evidence for the Existence of Additional Small Satellites of Saturn Archived 2004-08-12 at the Wayback Machine, Icarus, Vol. 121, No. 1 (May 1996), pp. 114–125
  82. Marsden, Brian G.; Satellites of Uranus, IAUC 6764 (31 October 1997)
  83. Green, Daniel W. E.; S/1986 U 10, IAUC 7171 (18 May 1999)
  84. Marsden, Brian G.; Probable New Satellites of Uranus, IAUC 7230 (27 July 1999)
  85. Marsden, Brian G.; Probable New Satellites of Uranus, IAUC 7248 (4 September 1999)
  86. Marsden, Brian G.; S/1999 J 1, IAUC 7460 (20 July 2000)
  87. New Outer Satellite of Jupiter Discovered, Joint press release, Minor Planet Center and the Spacewatch Project (2000?)
  88. Marsden, Brian G.; S/2000 S 1 and S/2000 S 2, IAUC 7512 (25 October 2000)
  89. Marsden, Brian G.; S/2000 S 1, S/2000 S 2, S/2000 S 7, S/2000 S 8, S/2000 S 9, MPEC 2000-Y15 (19 December 2000)
  90. Marsden, Brian G.; S/2000 S 3 and S/2000 S 4, IAUC 7513 (25 October 2000)
  91. Marsden, Brian G.; S/2000 S 3, S/2000 S 4, S/2000 S 5, S/2000 S 6, S/2000 S 10, MPEC 2000-Y14 (19 December 2000)
  92. Marsden, Brian G.; S/2000 S 5 and S/2000 S 6, IAUC 7521 (18 November 2000)
  93. Marsden, Brian G.; S/1975 J 1 = S/2000 J 1, IAUC 7525 (25 November 2000)
  94. S/1975 J 1 = S/2000 J 1, S/1999 J 1, MPEC 2000-Y16 (19 December 2000)
  95. Marsden, Brian G.; S/2000 S 7, S/2000 S 8, S/2000 S 9, IAUC 7538 (7 December 2000)
  96. Marsden, Brian G.; S/2000 S 10, IAUC 7539 (7 December 2000)
  97. Green, Daniel W. E.; S/2000 S 11, IAUC 7545 (19 December 2000)
  98. Marsden, Brian G.; S/2000 S 11, MPEC 2000-Y13 (19 December 2000)
  99. Marsden, Brian G.; S/2000 S 12, IAUC 7548 (23 December 2000)
  100. Marsden, Brian G.; S/2000 S 12, MPEC 2000-Y33 (22 December 2000)
  101. Green, Daniel W. E.; Satellites of Jupiter, IAUC 7555 (5 January 2001)
  102. Marsden, Brian G.; S/2000 J 2, S/2000 J 3, S/2000 J 4, S/2000 J 5, S/2000 J 6, MPEC 2001-A28 (5 January 2001)
  103. Marsden, Brian G.; S/2000 J 7, S/2000 J 8, S/2000 J 9, S/2000 J 10, S/2000 J 11, MPEC 2001-A29 (5 January 2001)
  104. Green, Daniel W. E.; Satellites of Jupiter, IAUC 7900 (16 May 2002)
  105. Marsden, Brian G.; Eleven New Satellites of Jupiter, MPEC 2002-J54 (15 May 2002)
  106. Green, Daniel W. E.; S/2001 U 1, IAUC 7980 (30 September 2002)
  107. Marsden, Brian G.; S/2001 U 1, MPEC 2002-S64 (30 September 2002)
  108. Green, Daniel W. E.; S/2002 J 1, IAUC 8035 (18 December 2002)
  109. Marsden, Brian G.; S/2002 J 1, MPEC 2002-Y22 (18 December 2002)
  110. Green, Daniel W. E.; Satellites of Neptune, IAUC 8047 (13 January 2003)
  111. Marsden, Brian G.; S/2002 N 1, 2002 N 2, 2002 N3, MPEC 2003-A75 (13 January 2003)
  112. Green, Daniel W. E.; Satellites of Jupiter, IAUC 8087 (4 March 2003)
  113. Marsden, Brian G.; S/2003 J 1, 2003 J 2, 2003 J 3, 2003 J 4, 2003 J 5, 2003 J 6, 2003 J 7, MPEC 2003-E11 (4 March 2003)
  114. Green, Daniel W. E.; S/2003 J 8, IAUC 8088 (6 March 2003)
  115. Marsden, Brian G.; S/2003 J 8, MPEC 2003-E15 (6 March 2003)
  116. Green, Daniel W. E.; Satellites of Jupiter, IAUC 8089 (7 March 2003)
  117. Marsden, Brian G.; S/2003 J 9, 2003 J 10, 2003 J 11, 2003 J 12; S/2003 J 1, 2003 J 6, MPEC 2003-E29 (7 March 2003)
  118. Green, Daniel W. E.; Satellites of Jupiter and Saturn, IAUC 8116 (11 April 2003)
  119. Marsden, Brian G.; S/2003 J 13, MPEC 2003-G09 (2 April 2003)
  120. Marsden, Brian G.; S/2003 J 14, MPEC 2003-G10 (3 April 2003)
  121. Marsden, Brian G.; S/2003 J 15, MPEC 2003-G17 (3 April 2003)
  122. Marsden, Brian G.; S/2003 J 16, MPEC 2003-G18 (3 April 2003)
  123. Marsden, Brian G.; S/2003 J 17, MPEC 2003-G19 (3 April 2003)
  124. Marsden, Brian G.; S/2003 J 18, MPEC 2003-G20 (4 April 2003)
  125. Marsden, Brian G.; S/2003 S 1, MPEC 2003-G39 (8 April 2003)
  126. Green, Daniel W. E.; S/2003 J 19 and S/2003 J 20, IAUC 8125 (30 April 2003)
  127. Marsden, Brian G.; S/2003 J 19, MPEC 2003-G64 (12 April 2003)
  128. Marsden, Brian G.; S/2003 J 20, MPEC 2003-G67 (14 April 2003)
  129. Green, Daniel W. E.; S/2003 J 21, IAUC 8138 (30 May 2003)
  130. Marsden, Brian G.; S/2003 J 21, MPEC 2003-K45 (29 May 2003)
  131. Green, Daniel W. E.; Satellites of Uranus, IAUC (3 September 2003)
  132. Green, Daniel W. E.; Satellites of Neptune, IAUC 8193 (3 September 2003)
  133. Marsden, Brian G.; S/2003 N 1, MPEC 2003-G64 (3 September 2003)
  134. Green, Daniel W. E.; S/2003 U 1 and S/2003 U 2, IAUC 8209 (25 September 2003)
  135. Green, Daniel W. E.; S/2001 U 2 and S/2002 N 4, IAUC 8213 (1 October 2003)
  136. Marsden, Brian G.; S/2001 U 2, MPEC 2003-S105 (30 September 2003)
  137. Marsden, Brian G.; S/2002 N 4, MPEC 2003-S107 (30 September 2003)
  138. Green, Daniel W. E.; S/2001 U 3, IAUC 8216 (8 October 2003)
  139. Green, Daniel W. E.; S/2003 U 3, IAUC 8217 (9 October 2003)
  140. Marsden, Brian G.; S/2003 U 3, MPEC 2003-T58 (9 October 2003)
  141. Green, Daniel W. E.; S/2003 J 22, IAUC (25 January 2004)
  142. Marsden, Brian G.; S/2003 J 22, MPEC 2004-B41 (24 January 2004)
  143. Green, Daniel W. E.; S/2003 J 23, IAUC 8281 (4 February 2004)
  144. Marsden, Brian G.; S/2003 J 23, MPEC 2004-B81 (31 January 2004)
  145. Martinez, Carolina; Savage, Donald; and Finn, Heidi; Out from the Shadows: Two New Saturnian Moons, JPL Cassini–Huygens News Release 2004-202 (16 August 2004)
  146. Green, Daniel W. E.; S/2004 S 1 and S/2004 S 2, IAUC 8389 (16 August 2004)
  147. Green, Daniel W. E.; Satellites and Rings of Saturn, IAUC 8432 (8 November 2004)
  148. Pablo Santos-Sanz (26 September 2008). "La historia de Ataecina vs Haumea" (in Spanish). infoastro.com. Retrieved 29 September 2008.
  149. Green, Daniel W. E. (29 July 2005). "IAUC 8577".
  150. "Santa et al". NASA Astrobiology Magazine. 10 September 2005. Retrieved 16 October 2008.
  151. Lakdawalla, Emily; Twelve New Moons for Saturn, The Planetary Society, Planetary News: Moon Discoveries (2005)
    Jewitt, David C.; Twelve New Moons for Saturn (3 May 2005)
    Green, Daniel W. E.; New Satellites of Saturn, IAUC 8523 (4 May 2005)
    Marsden, Brian G.; Twelve New Satellites of Saturn, MPEC 2005-J13 (3 May 2005)
  152. Green, Daniel W. E.; S/2005 S 1, IAUC 8524 (6 May 2005)
  153. Brown, Michael E. (2006). "The discovery of 2003 UB313 Eris, the largest known dwarf planet". Retrieved 3 May 2007.
  154. Brown, M. E.; et al. (2005). "Keck Observatory Laser Guide Star Adaptive Optics Discovery and Characterization of a Satellite to the Large Kuiper Belt Object 2003 EL61" (PDF). Astrophysical Journal Letters. 632 (1): L45–L48. Bibcode:2005ApJ...632L..45B. doi:10.1086/497641.
  155. "JPL Small-Body Database Browser: 136472 Makemake (2005 FY9)". NASA Jet Propulsion Laboratory. 2008-04-05. Retrieved 11 June 2008.
  156. Green, Daniel W. E.; S/2005 (2003 EL_61) 2, IAUC 8636 (1 December 2005)
  157. Brown, Michael E. (2006). "Dysnomia, the moon of Eris". Retrieved 1 September 2007.
  158. Green, Daniel W. E.; S/2005 P 1 and S/2005 P 2, IAUC 8625 (31 October 2005) (also as a pdf)
  159. Marsden, Brian G.; S/2004 S 19, MPEC 2006-M44 (26 June 2006)
  160. Green, Daniel W. E.; Satellites of Saturn, IAUC 8727 (30 June 2006)
  161. Marsden, Brian G.; Eight New Satellites of Saturn, MPEC 2006-M45 (26 June 2006)
  162. Marsden, Brian G.; S/2007 S 1, MPEC 2007-G38 (13 April 2007)
  163. Green, Daniel W. E.; S/2007 S 1, S/2007 S 2, and S/2007 S 3, IAUC 8836 (11 May 2007)
  164. Marsden, Brian G.; S/2007 S 2, S/2007 S 3, MPEC 2007-J09 (1 May 2007)
  165. Green, Daniel W. E.; S/2007 S 4, IAUC 8857 (18 July 2007)
  166. Green, Daniel W. E.; S/2008 S 1, IAUC 9023 (03 March 2009)
  167. Green, Daniel W. E.; S/2009 S 1, IAUC 9091 (02 November 2009)
  168. MPEC 2011-L06: S/2010 J 1 AND S/2010 J 2
  169. http://www.cbat.eps.harvard.edu/cbet/cbet002769.txt
  170. NASA – NASA's Hubble Discovers Another Moon Around Pluto
  171. MPEC 2012-B97 : S/2011 J 1 AND S/2011 J 2 2012 Jan. 29 (issued)
  172. Showalter, Mark. Hubble Press Release: Hubble Discovers a Fifth Moon Orbiting Pluto. 11 July 2012.
  173. Kelly Beatty (15 July 2013). "Neptune's Newest Moon". Sky & Telescope. Archived from the original on 16 July 2013. Retrieved 15 July 2013.
  174. "HubbleSite – NewsCenter – Hubble Discovers Moon Orbiting the Dwarf Planet Makemake (04/26/2016) – The Full Story". hubblesite.org. Retrieved 26 April 2016.
  175. Parker, A. H.; Buie, M. W.; Grundy, W. M.; Noll, K. S. (2016-04-25). "Discovery of a Makemakean Moon". The Astrophysical Journal. 825 (1): L9. arXiv:1604.07461. Bibcode:2016ApJ...825L...9P. doi:10.3847/2041-8205/825/1/L9. S2CID 119270442.
  176. "MPEC 2017-L08 : S/2016 J 1". Minor Planet Center. International Astronomical Union. Retrieved 2 June 2017.
  177. "MPEC 2017-L47 : S/2017 J 1". Minor Planet Center. International astronomical Union. Retrieved 5 June 2017.
  178. "MPEC 2018-O09 : S/2016 J 2". Minor Planet Center. International astronomical Union. Retrieved 17 July 2018.
  179. "MPEC 2018-O10 : S/2016 J 2". Minor Planet Center. International astronomical Union. Retrieved 17 July 2018.
  180. "MPEC 2018-O11 : S/2017 J 3". Minor Planet Center. International astronomical Union. Retrieved 17 July 2018.
  181. "MPEC 2018-O12 : S/2017 J 4". Minor Planet Center. International astronomical Union. Retrieved 17 July 2018.
  182. "MPEC 2018-O13 : S/2017 J 5". Minor Planet Center. International astronomical Union. Retrieved 17 July 2018.
  183. "MPEC 2018-O14 : S/2017 J 6". Minor Planet Center. International astronomical Union. Retrieved 17 July 2018.
  184. "MPEC 2018-O15 : S/2017 J 7". Minor Planet Center. International astronomical Union. Retrieved 17 July 2018.
  185. "MPEC 2018-O16 : S/2017 J 8". Minor Planet Center. International astronomical Union. Retrieved 17 July 2018.
  186. "MPEC 2018-O17 : S/2017 J 9". Minor Planet Center. International astronomical Union. Retrieved 17 July 2018.
  187. "MPEC 2018-O18 : S/2018 J 1". Minor Planet Center. International astronomical Union. Retrieved 17 July 2018.
  188. MPEC's 2019-T126 through 2019-T161