Timeline of extinctions in the Holocene


This article is a list of biological species, subspecies, and evolutionary significant units that are known to have become extinct during the Holocene, the current geologic epoch, ordered by their known or approximate date of disappearance from oldest to most recent.

The Holocene is considered to have started with the Holocene glacial retreat around 11650 years Before Present (c. 9700 Before Common Era). It is characterized by a general trend towards global warming, the expansion of anatomically modern humans (Homo sapiens) to all emerged land masses, the appearance of agriculture and animal husbandry, and a reduction in global biodiversity. The latter, dubbed the sixth mass extinction in Earth history, is largely attributed to increased human population and activity, and may have started already during the preceding Pleistocene epoch with the demise of the Pleistocene megafauna.

The following list is incomplete by necessity, since the majority of extinctions are thought to be undocumented, and for many others there isn't a definitive, widely accepted last, or most recent record. According to the species-area theory, the present rate of extinction may be up to 140,000 species per year.[1]

10th millennium BCE


Common name Binomial name Former range Last record Causes
Highland gomphothere Cuvieronius hyodon Northern and central Andes[2] 9790 BCE Hunting?[3]
Macrauchenia Macrauchenia patachonica Southwestern South America 9730-5320 BCE Hunting.[4]
Patagonian panther Panthera onca mesembrina Patagonia 9705-9545 Undetermined.[5]
Toronto subway deer Torontoceros hypnogeos Toronto, Canada 9690-9040 BCE Undetermined.[6]
Western bison Bison occidentalis North America; Eastern Siberia and Japan? 9590-9250 BCE[6] Possibly hybridization with ancient bison resulting in modern American bison.[7]
Dwarf pronghorn Capromeryx minor Western United States and northern Mexico 9580-8860 BCE Undetermined.[8]
Chinese cave hyena Crocuta crocuta ultima East Asia 9550 BCE (confirmed)
5850 BCE (unconfirmed)
Undetermined.[9]
Shrub-ox Euceratherium collinum Southwestern North America 9550 BCE Undetermined.[10]
American mountain deer Odocoileus lucasi Rocky Mountains 9550 BCE Hunting?[11]
Stock's pronghorn Stockoceros sp. Mexico and Southwestern United States 9550 BCE Hunting?[11]
Southeastern giant tortoise Hesperotestudo crassiscutata Southern United States c. 9515 BCE Undetermined.[12]
Sardinian dhole Cynotherium sardous Corsica and Sardinia 9500-9300 BCE Undetermined.[13]
Long-nosed peccary Mylohyus nasutus Eastern United States 9350 BCE
9050-7550 BCE (dubious)[14]
Habitat loss and competition with the American black bear.[11]
Scelidothere Scelidotherium sp. Southern South America 9280-8900 BCE Hunting?[11]
Jefferson's ground sloth Megalonyx jeffersonii North America 9190-8870 BCE Undetermined.[11]
Flat-headed peccary Platygonus compressus North America 9170-9050 BCE[5] Possibly vegetation changes induced by climate change and competition with the American black bear.[11]
Pygmy mammoth Mammuthus exilis Channel Islands of California, United States 9130-9030 BCE Undetermined.[5]
Wilson's tortoise Hesperotestudo wilsoni Southwestern United States c. 9050 BCE Undetermined.[12]
Ryukyu tortoise Manouria oyamai Ryukyu, Japan c. 9050 BCE Undetermined.[12]
Cypriot genet Genetta plesictoides Cyprus 9050 BCE Undetermined.[15]
Miyako roe deer Capreolus tokunagai Miyako Island, Ryukyu, Japan 9050-8050 BCE Undetermined.[15]
Asphalt stork Ciconia maltha Americas 9050-8050 BCE Undetermined.[16]
Miyako long-tailed rat Diplothrix miyakoensis Miyako Island, Ryukyu, Japan 9050-8050 BCE Undetermined.[15]
Merriam's teratorn Teratornis merriami California, United States 9050-8050 BCE Undetermined.[16]

9th millennium BCE


Common name Binomial name Former range Last record Causes
North American short-faced bear Arctodus simus North America 8995-8845 BCE[5] Competition with the grizzly bear.[11]
Mexican horse Equus conversidens North America 8965-8875 BCE[5]
7250-6750 BCE (dubious)[17]
Hunting.[5]
Giant beaver Castoroides ohiensis North America 8960-8840 BCE Undetermined.[5]
Schneider's duck Anas schneideri Converse County, Wyoming, United States 8800-8300 BCE Undetermined.[16]
Large-billed blackbird Euphagus magnirostris North America 8800-8300 BCE Undetermined.[16]
American lion Panthera atrox North America;
Western South America?
8580-8260 BCE Undetermined.[7]
Yukon horse Equus lambei Eastern Beringia 8550 BCE Undetermined.[18]
Argentinian short-faced bear Arctotherium tarijense Argentina[19] 8470-8320 BCE Undetermined.[5]
Stag-moose Cervalces scotti Eastern United States 8430-8130 BCE Undetermined.[7]
Woodland muskox Bootherium bombifrons North America 8420 BCE Undetermined.[8]
Shasta ground sloth Nothrotheriops shastensis Southwestern United States 8350-7550 BCE[7] Hunting.[20]
Giant Cape zebra Equus capensis Southern Africa 8340-3950 BCE Reduction of grasslands after the end of the Last Glacial Period.[21]
Giant pika Ochotona whartoni Northern North America;
Eastern Siberia?
8301-7190 BCE Undetermined.[13]
Vero tapir Tapirus veroensis Southern United States 8200-7660 BCE[7] Hunting.[11]
Harrington's mountain goat Oreamnos harringtoni Southern Rocky Mountains 8100 BCE[7] Hunting.[20]
Little South American horse Hippidion saldiasi[22] Eastern South America[23] 8059 BCE[24] Hunting.[4]
South American palmate-antlered deer Morenelaphus brachyceros Temperate South America 8050-5845 BCE Undetermined.[25]

8th millennium BCE


Common name Binomial name Former range Last record Causes
North American pampathere Holmesina septentrionalis Southeastern United States 7930 BCE Undetermined.[11]
Catonyx Catonyx cuvieri Eastern South America 7830-7430 BCE Undetermined.[5][13]
Panamerican ground sloth Eremotherium laurillardi[26] Southern United States to Brazil 7800-7740 BCE Undetermined.[27]
Pampean giant armadillo Eutatus seguini Northern Argentina and Uruguay[28] 7775-5845 BCE Undetermined.[25]
North American sabertooth Smilodon fatalis Southern North America and northern South America 7615-7305 BCE Prey loss.[11]
South American sabertooth Smilodon populator Eastern South America 7330-7030 BCE[13] Competition with human hunters.[4]
American camel Camelops hesternus Western North America 7250-5330 BCE Hunting.[11]
Scott's horse Equus scotti Western North America 7250-6750 BCE (dubious)[17]
900-720 BCE (dubious)[6]
Hunting?
Chilean scelidodont Scelidodon chiliensis Western South America[29] 7160-6760 BCE Undetermined.[13]
Columbian mammoth Mammuthus columbi Northern Mexico, western and southern United States 7100-6300 BCE[6]
3095-2775 BCE (dubious)
Hunting.[11]
Giant ghost-faced bat Mormoops magna Cuba 7043-6503 BCE Undetermined.[13]
Greater Cuban nesophontes Nesophontes major Cuba 7043-6507 BCE Undetermined.[13]
Cuban pauraque Siphonorhis daiquiri Cuba 7043-6507 BCE Undetermined.[13]

7th millennium BCE


Common name Binomial name Former range Last record Causes
Long-legged llama Hemiauchenia macrocephala North and Central America 6833-6321 BCE Hunting.[11]
Glossothere Glossotherium sp. South America 6810-6650 BCE[13] Hunting.[4]
Lowland gomphothere Notiomastodon platensis South America[2] 6810-6650 BCE[13] Hunting?[11]
Mylodont Mylodon darwini Pampas and Patagonia 6689 BCE[11] Hunting.[4]
Large South American horse Equus neogeus South America[30] 6660-4880[13] Hunting.[4]
Common glyptodont Glyptodon sp. Eastern South America 6660-4880 BCE (confirmed)[13]
5850-4350 BCE (unconfirmed)
2350 BCE (dubious)
Hunting.[4]
Brazilian glyptodont Hoplophorus euphractus Eastern Brazil 6660-4880 BCE Undetermined.[13]
Stout-legged llama Palaeolama mirifica North, Central, and South America 6660-4880 BCE[13] Hunting.[4]
Eastern giant armadillo Propraopus sulcatus Eastern South America[31] 6660-4880 BCE Undetermined.[13]
Giant hartebeest Megalotragus priscus Southern Africa;
Eastern Africa?
6130-3950 BCE Reduction of grasslands after the end of the Last Glacial Period.[21]
Dire wolf Aenocyon dirus North America and western South America 6050-5050 BCE[7] Competition with the gray wolf.[11]
American mastodon Mammut americanum North America 6050-5050 BCE[7] Possibly habitat fragmentation as a result of climate change, and competition with the moose.[11]

6th millennium BCE


Common name Binomial name Former range Last record Causes
Kambuaya's triok Dactylopsila kambuayai New Guinea 5941-5596 BCE Undetermined.[13]
New Guinea greater glider Petauroides ayamaruensis New Guinea 5941-5596 BCE Undetermined.[13]
Bond's springbok Antidorcas bondi Southern Africa 5740-5500 BCE Reduction of grasslands after the end of the Last Glacial Period.[21]
Sardinian giant deer Praemegaceros cazioti Corsica and Sardinia[32] 5550 BCE Undetermined.[33]
Unnamed South African caprine ?Makapania sp. South African mountains 5483-5221 BCE Reduction of grasslands after the end of the Last Glacial Period.[21]
Ibiza rail Rallus eivissensis Ibiza, Spain 5295-4848 BCE Undetermined, but presumably a result of human colonization.[34]
Ancient bison Bison antiquus North America 5271-5131 BCE[35] Possibly hibridization with western bison resulting in modern American bison.[7]
Giant ground sloth Megatherium americanum Temperate South America and the Andes 5270-4310 BCE[36] Hunting.[4]

5th millennium BCE


Common name Binomial name Former range Last record Causes
Irish elk Megaloceros giganteus Europe and southern Siberia 4901-4831 BCE[37]
600-500 BCE (dubious)
Reduction of grasslands after the end of the Last Glacial Period, and possibly hunting.[38]
North African horse Equus algericus Maghreb 4855-4733 BCE Aridification.[21]
Majorcan giant dormouse Hypnomys morpheus Mallorca, Spain 4840-4690 BCE Possibly disease spread by introduced rodents.[39]
Giant glyptodont Doedicurus clavicaudatus South American Pampas 4765-4445 BCE
3023-2809 BCE (dubious)[40]
Undetermined.[36]
Algerian giant deer Megaceroides algericus Northern Maghreb 4691-4059 BCE Possibly habitat fragmentation.[41]
Toxodont Toxodon platensis South America 4650-1450 BCE Undetermined.[13]
North African aurochs Bos primigenius africanus North Africa c. 4000 BCE Aridification. Domestic descendants survive in captivity.[21]
North African zebra Equus mauritanicus North Africa c. 4000 BCE Aridification.[21]

4th millennium BCE


Common name Binomial name Former range Last record Causes
Steppe bison Bison priscus Northern Eurasia and North America 6950-6870 BCE (Eurasia)[42]
3628-3377 BCE (America)[43]
Hunting.[42]
Kauaʻi mole duck Talpanas lippa Kaua'i, Hawaii, United States 3540-3355 BCE Undetermined.[44]
Radofilao's sloth lemur Babakotia radofilai Northern coast of Madagascar 3340-2890 BCE Undetermined.[45]
Smaller Cuban ground sloth Parocnus brownii Cuba 3290-2730 BCE[5] Hunting.[46]
Giant long-horned buffalo Pelorovis antiquus North Africa; south, east, and central Africa (Pleistocene) 3060-2470 BCE Aridification and competition with domestic cattle for water and pastures.[13]
Sardinian shrew Asoriculus similis Sardinia, Italy 3050 BCE Undetermined.[15]
Buka Island mosaic-tailed rat Melomys spechti Buka Island, Papua New Guinea 3050 BCE Undetermined.[15]
Buka Island solomys Solomys spriggsarum Buka Island, Papua New Guinea 3050 BCE Undetermined.[15]
Tilos dwarf elephant Palaeoloxodon tiliensis Tilos, Greece 3040-1840 BCE (confirmed)
c. 1470-1445 BCE (unconfirmed)
Undetermined.[47]
Balearic giant shrew Nesiotites hidalgo Gymnesian Islands, Spain 3030-2690 BCE Possibly disease spread by introduced rodents.[39]

3rd millennium BCE


Common name Binomial name Former range Last record Causes
Balearic cave goat Myotragus balearicus Gymnesian Islands, Spain 2830-2470 BCE Likely vegetation changes related to aridification or human activity.[48][49]
Bennu heron Ardea bennuides Arabian Peninsula 2550 BCE Wetland degradation.[13]
Niue night heron Nycticorax kalavikai Niue 2550-1550 BCE Undetermined.[13]
Hispaniola monkey Antillothrix bernensis Hispaniola 2508-2116 BCE Undetermined.[50]
Small Hispaniola ground sloth Neocnus comes Hispaniola 2483-2399 BCE Undetermined.[5]
Larger Cuban ground sloth Megalocnus rodens Cuba 2280-2240 BCE Undetermined.[51]
Chatham raven Corvus moriorum Chatham Islands, New Zealand 2134-1408 BCE (confirmed)
c. 1350 CE (unconfirmed)
Undetermined.[13]

2nd millennium BCE


Common name Binomial name Former range Last record Causes
New Caledonian terrestrial crocodile Mekosuchus inexpectatus New Caledonia and Isle of Pines 1950-1050 BCE (confirmed)
140-180 CE (unconfirmed)
Hunting.[52]
Sumba Island giant rat Raksasamys tikusbesar Sumba Island, Indonesia 1935-1700 BCE Undetermined.[15]
Indian aurochs Bos primigenius namadicus Indian Subcontinent 1800 BCE Undetermined. Domestic descendants survive in captivity and as feral populations.[53]
Woolly mammoth Mammuthus primigenius Northern Eurasia and North America 7780-7660 BCE (Eurasia)[54]
6390-6270 BCE (America)[6]
3580-3480 BCE (Saint Paul)[55]
1795-1675 BCE (Wrangel)[54]
Hunting.[56]
Short-horned water buffalo Bubalus mephistopheles South, central, and east China[57] 1750-1650 BCE Undetermined.[58]
Puerto Rican ground sloth Acratocnus odontrigonus Puerto Rico 1738-1500 BCE Undetermined.[13]
Christensen's pademelon Thylogale christenseni New Guinea 1738-1385 BCE Undetermined.[13]
New Caledonian giant megapode Sylviornis neocaledoniae Grande Terre and Isle of Pines, New Caledonia 1500 BCE Hunting.[59]
Puerto Rican flower bat Phyllonycteris major Puerto Rico and Antigua c. 1500 BCE Undetermined.[60]
Leeward Islands curlytail Leiocephalus cuneus Antigua and Barbuda c. 1500 BCE Undetermined.[60]
European wild ass Equus hydruntinus Southern Europe and Southwest Asia; Northern Europe (Pleistocene) 1294-1035 BCE (confirmed)
983 BCE - 635 CE (estimated)
Hunting and habitat fragmentation after the end of the Last Glacial Period.[61]
Dune shearwater Puffinus holeae Canary Islands, Spain;
mainland Portugal (Pleistocene)
1159-790 BCE Predation by introduced house mice.[62]
Mona Island tortoise Chelonoidis monensis Mona Island of Puerto Rico c. 1050 BCE Undetermined.[12]
Alor Island giant rat Alormys aplini Alor Island, Indonesia 1050 BCE Undetermined.[15]
Hooijer's giant rat Hooijeromys nusantenggara Lesser Sunda Islands, Indonesia 1050 BCE Undetermined.[15]
Vanuatu terrestrial crocodile Mekosuchus kalpokasi Efate, Vanuatu 1050 BCE Hunting.[52]
Verhoeven's giant tree rat Papagomys theodoverhoeveni Flores, Indonesia 1050 BCE Undetermined.[15]

1st millennium BCE


Common name Binomial name Former range Last record Causes
Noble megapode Megavitiornis altirostris Fiji c. 950 BCE Hunting.[63]
Fiji giant iguana Lapitiguana impensa Fiji c. 950 BCE Hunting.[63]
Fiji terrestrial crocodile Volia athollandersoni Fiji c. 950 BCE Hunting.[63]
Tongan tooth-billed pigeon Didunculus placopedetes Tonga 900-750 BCE Undetermined.[13]
Balsam shrew Crocidura balsamifera Nile gallery forests, Egypt 821-171 BCE Habitat destruction.[13]
Eurasian muskox Ovibos moschatus[64] Northern Eurasia 820-680 BCE Hunting.[42] The same species survived in North America and was reintroduced to Eurasia in the 20th century.[65]
Vanuatu horned turtle ?Meiolania damelipi Vanuatu and Viti Levu, Fiji c. 810 BCE[12] Hunting.[66]
Syrian elephant Elephas maximus asurus Mesopotamia 800-700 BCE Hunting and habitat loss due to agriculture and aridification. However, it's been suggested that it was introduced by humans in the area, which would not make it a valid subspecies.[67]
MacPhee's shrew tenrec Microgale macpheei Southeastern Madagascar 790-410 BCE Aridification.[68]
Jamaican ibis Xenicibis xympithecus Jamaica 787 BCE - 320 CE Undetermined.[13]
Law's diving-goose Chendytes lawi Coastal California and Oregon, United States 770-400 BCE Hunting.[69]
Consumed scrubfowl Megapodius alimentum Tonga and Fiji 760-660 BCE Hunting.[70]
Kaua'i stilt-owl Grallistrix auceps Kaua'i, Hawaii, United States 744-202 BCE Undetermined.[13]
Chatham coot Fulica chathamensis Chatham Islands, New Zealand 701-119 BCE (confirmed)
c. 1350 CE (unconfirmed)
Undetermined.[13]
Large Tongan iguana Brachylophus gibbonsi Tonga 650-570 BCE Hunting.[70]
David's imperial pigeon Ducula david Ouvéa Island, New Caledonia 550-50 BCE Undetermined.[13]
Plate-toothed giant hutia Elasmodontomys obliquus Puerto Rico 511-407 BCE Undetermined.[71]
Lena horse Equus lenensis Northern Siberia 440-280 BCE (confirmed)
701-900 CE (unconfirmed)
Hunting.[42]
Gorilla lemur Archaeoindris fontoynontii Central Madagascar 412-199 BCE[45] Hunting.[72]
Common koala lemur Megaladapis madagascariensis Madagascar 370-40 BCE[45] Hunting.[72]
Corsican giant shrew Asoriculus corsicanus Corsica, France 348 BCE - 283 CE Introduced black rats and human-induced habitat loss.[73]
Sardinian pika Prolagus sardus Corsica and Sardinia 348 BCE - 283 CE (confirmed)[73]
1774 CE (unconfirmed)
Hunting, predation and competition with introduced mammals.[74]
Hensel's field mouse Rhagamys orthodon Corsica and Sardinia 348 BCE - 283 CE Introduced black rats and human-induced habitat loss.[73]
Tyrrhenian vole Tyrrhenicola henseli Corsica and Sardinia 348 BCE - 283 CE Introduced black rats and human-induced habitat loss.[73]
Maui flightless ibis Apteribis brevis Maui, Hawaii, United States 170 BCE - 370 CE Undetermined.[75]
Ancient coua Coua primaeva Madagascar 110 BCE - 130 CE Undetermined.[45]
Buhler's coryphomys Coryphomys buehleri Timor 50 BCE Undetermined.[15]
Timor giant rat Coryphomys musseri Timor 50 BCE Undetermined.[15]
São Miguel scops owl Otus frutuosoi São Miguel Island, Azores, Portugal 49 BCE - 125 CE Introduced predators?[76]

1st millennium CE


1st-5th century

Common name Binomial name Former range Last record Causes
Eyles's harrier Circus teauteensis New Zealand 1-1000 (confirmed)[77]
c. 1280 (unconfirmed)[13]
Undetermined.
South Island goose Cnemiornis calcitrans South Island, New Zealand 1-1000 (confirmed)[77]
c. 1280 (unconfirmed)[13]
Undetermined.
Silphium ?Ferula sp. Cyrenaica coast 54-68 Aridification, overgrazing, and overharvesting.[78]
Powerful goshawk Accipiter efficax New Caledonia 86-428 Undetermined.[13]
Gracile goshawk Accipiter quartus New Caledonia 86-428 Undetermined.[13]
Kanaka pigeon Caloenas canacorum New Caledonia and Tonga 86-428 Undetermined.[13]
Pile-builder megapode Megapodius molistructor New Caledonia and Tonga 86-428 Undetermined.[13]
New Caledonian ground dove Pampusana longitarsus New Caledonia 86-428 Undetermined.[13]
New Caledonian gallinule Porphyrio kukwiedei New Caledonia 86-428 (confirmed)
1860 (unconfirmed)
Undetermined.[13]
Giant fossa Cryptoprocta spelaea Madagascar 210 Undetermined.[79]
Ball-headed sloth lemur Mesopropithecus globiceps Southwestern Madagascar 245-429[45] Hunting and aridification.[72]
Atlas wild ass Equus africanus atlanticus North Africa c. 300 Undetermined. Domestic descendants survive in captivity.[80]
Marquesas cuckoo-dove Macropygia heana Nuku Hiva and Ua Huka, Marquesas Islands 300-1200 Undetermined.[13]
New Ireland forest rat Rattus sanila New Ireland, Papua New Guinea 347-535 Undetermined.[13]
North African elephant Loxodonta africana pharaoensis Northwest Africa 370[81] Hunting and aridification.[82]
Southern Malagasy giant rat Hypogeomys australis Central and southern Madagascar 428-618 Undetermined.[45]
Jamaican monkey Xenothrix mcgregori Jamaica 439-473 (confirmed)
1050 (estimated)
Undetermined.[50]
Oʻahu moa-nalo Thambetochen xanion Oahu, Hawaii, United States 440-639 Undetermined.[13]
Large baboon lemur Hadropithecus stenognathus Central and southern Madagascar 444-772[45] Hunting and aridification.[72]
Chatham duck Pachyanas chathamica Chatham Islands, New Zealand 448-657 (confirmed)
c. 1350 (unconfirmed)
Hunting?[13]
New Caledonian horned turtle Meiolania mackayi New Caledonia c. 450 Hunting.[83]

6th-10th century

Common name Binomial name Former range Last record Causes
Cuban spectacled owl Pulsatrix arredondoi Cuba 530-590 Undetermined.[84]
Malagasy shelduck Alopochen sirabensis Madagascar 530-860 Undetermined.[45]
Monkey-like sloth lemur Mesopropithecus pithecoides Central Madagascar 570-679[45] Hunting and aridification.[72]
Forsyth Major's baboon lemur Archaeolemur majori Madagascar 650-780[45] Hunting and aridification.[72]
Lesser elephant bird Mullerornis modestus Central and southern Madagascar 650-890[45] Hunting and aridification.[72]
Small O'ahu crake Porzana ziegleri Oahu, Hawaii, United States 650-869 Undetermined.[13]
Cayman Islands geocapromys Geocapromys caymanensis Cayman Islands 666-857 Undetermined.[85]
Cayman Islands nesophontes Nesophontes cingulus Cayman Islands 666-857 Undetermined.[85]
Huahine starling Aplonis diluvialis Huahine, Society Islands, French Polynesia 700-1150 Undetermined.[13]
Huahine gull Chroicocephalus utunui Huahine, Society Islands, French Polynesia 700-1150 Undetermined.[13]
Huahine rail Gallirallus storrsolsoni Huahine, Society Islands, French Polynesia 700-1150 Undetermined.[13]
Huahine cuckoo-dove Macropygia arevarevauupa Huahine, Society Islands, French Polynesia 700-1150 Undetermined.[13]
Huahine swamphen Porphyrio mcnabi Huahine, Society Islands, French Polynesia 700-1150 Undetermined.[13]
Southern giant ruffed lemur Pachylemur insignis Southwestern Madagascar 715-985[45] Hunting and aridification.[72]
Cuban cave rail Nesotrochis picapicensis Cuba 760 Undetermined.[84]
Insular cave rat Heteropsomys insulans Puerto Rico 772-870 Undetermined.[71]
Sinoto's lorikeet Vini sinotoi Marquesas and Society Islands, French Polynesia 810-1025 Hunting.[86]
Conquered lorikeet Vini vidivici Marquesas, Society, and Cook Islands 810-1025 Hunting.[86]
Malagasy aardvark Plesiorycteropus madagascariensis Central and southern Madagascar 865-965 Undetermined.[11]
Grandidier's giant tortoise Aldabrachelys grandidieri Madagascar c. 884[12] Hunting and aridification.[72]
Giant aye-aye Daubentonia robusta Southern Madagascar 900-1150 Hunting, expansion of grasses and deforestation caused by domestic cattle and goat grazing.[72]
Giant island deer mouse Peromyscus nesodytes Channel Islands of California, United States c. 950 Possibly habitat loss through overgrazing and erosion.[87]
Grandidier's koala lemur Megaladapis grandidieri Madagascar 980-1170 Hunting and vegetation changes caused by livestock.[72]

2nd millennium CE


11th-12th century

Common name Binomial name Former range Last record Causes
Malagasy dwarf hippopotamus Hippopotamus lemerlei Southwestern Madagascar[88] c. 1000[89] Hunting, competition with, and changes to vegetation caused by livestock.[72]
Malagasy pygmy hippopotamus Hippopotamus madagascariensis Northwestern and central Madagascar[88] c. 1000[90] Hunting, competition with, and changes to vegetation caused by livestock.[72]
Henderson archaic pigeon Bountyphaps obsoleta Henderson Island, Pitcairn 1000-1600 Undetermined.[13]
Henderson imperial pigeon Ducula harrisoni Henderson Island, Pitcairn 1000-1600 Undetermined.[13]
Henderson ground dove Pampusana leonpascoi Henderson Island, Pitcairn 1000-1600 Undetermined.[13]
Puerto Rican nesophontes Nesophontes edithae Puerto Rico 1015-1147 Undetermined.[71]
Lava shearwater Puffinus olsoni Lanzarote and Fuerteventura, Canary Islands 1020-1260 Predation by introduced black rats and cats.[91]
Elephant bird Aepyornis maximus Southern Madagascar 1040-1380 Hunting, competition with, and changes to vegetation caused by livestock.[72]
Nēnē-nui Branta hylobadistes Oahu, Hawaii, United States 1046-1380 Undetermined.[13]
Edwards' baboon lemur Archaeolemur edwardsi Central Madagascar[92] 1047-1280[45] Hunting and changes to vegetation caused by livestock.[72]
Maui Nui moa-nalo Thambetochen chauliodous Molokai and Maui, Hawaii, United States 1057-1375 Undetermined.[13]
Maui stilt-owl Grallistrix erdmani Maui, Hawaii, United States 1057-1440 Undetermined.[13]
New Zealand swan Cygnus sumnerensis New Zealand and the Chatham Islands 1059-1401 Hunting.[13]
Tenerife giant rat Canariomys bravoi Tenerife, Canary Islands, Spain 1100-1300 Hunting.[93]
Abaco tortoise Chelonoidis alburyorum Abaco Islands, Bahamas c. 1170 Undetermined.[12]
Barbuda giant rice rat Megalomys audreyae Barbuda 1173-1385 Undetermined.[13]
Atalaye nesophontes Nesophontes hypomicrus Hispaniola 1175-1295 Undetermined.[94]
New Zealand owlet-nightjar Aegotheles novaezealandiae New Zealand 1183 Predation by introduced polynesian rats.[95]

13th-14th century

Common name Binomial name Former range Last record Causes
Abrupt giant tortoise Aldabrachelys abrupta Madagascar c. 1200[12] Hunting and aridification.[72]
South Island adzebill Aptornis defossor South Island, New Zealand 1234-1445 Undetermined.[77]
St. Michel nesophontes Nesophontes paramicrus Hispaniola 1265-1400 Undetermined.[94]
Lava mouse Malpaisomys insularis Lanzarote and Fuerteventura, Canary Islands 1270 Possibly disease spread by introduced rats.[96]
Mantell's moa Pachyornis geranoides North Island, New Zealand 1278-1415 Hunting.[13]
North Island giant moa Dinornis novaezelandiae North Island, New Zealand 1286-1390 Hunting.[97]
Heavy-footed moa Pachyornis elephantopus Eastern South Island, New Zealand 1294-1438 Hunting.[98]
Western Cuban nesophontes Nesophontes micrus Cuba 1295-1430 Undetermined.[94]
Haitian nesophontes Nesophontes zamicrus Hispaniola 1295-1430 Undetermined.[13]
Upland moa Megalapteryx didinus South Island, New Zealand 1300-1422 Hunting.[98]
Edwards' koala lemur Megaladapis edwardsi Madagascar 1300-1430 Hunting and vegetation changes caused by livestock.[72]
Bush moa Anomalopteryx didiformis New Zealand 1310-1420 Hunting.[98]
Eastern moa Emeus crassus South Island, New Zealand 1320-1350 Hunting.[99]
Haast's eagle Hieraaetus moorei South Island, New Zealand 1320-1350 Hunting?[99]
Southern sloth lemur Palaeopropithecus ingens Southwestern Madagascar 1320-1630 Hunting and vegetation changes caused by livestock.[72]
Hispaniola woodcock Scolopax brachycarpa Hispaniola 1320-1380 Undetermined.[100]
Waitaha penguin Megadyptes waitaha Coastal South Island, New Zealand 1347-1529 Hunting.[101]
Scarlett's shearwater Puffinus spelaeus Western South Island, New Zealand 1350 Predation by polynesian rats.[91]
Great ground dove Pampusana nui French Polynesia and Cook Islands 1390-1470 Undetermined.[13]
Crested moa Pachyornis australis Subalpine South Island, New Zealand 1396-1442 Hunting.[98]

15th-16th century

Common name Binomial name Former range Last record Declared extinct Causes
Tenerife giant lizard Gallotia goliath Tenerife and La Palma, Canary Islands 1400-1500 Hunting.[93]
Kauaʻi finch Telespiza persecutrix Kaua'i and Oahu, Hawaii, United States 1425-1660 Undetermined.[13]
South Island giant moa Dinornis robustus South Island, New Zealand 1451-1952[98]
(1558-1728)[102]
Hunting.[98]
South American wolf Dusicyon avus Southern Cone 1454-1626 Possibly climate change, hunting, and competition with domestic dogs.[103]
Broad-billed moa Euryapteryx curtus North, South, and Stewart Island of New Zealand 1464-1637[98]
(1542-1618)[104]
Hunting.[98]
Finsch's duck Chenonetta finschi New Zealand 1500-1600 2014 (IUCN) Hunting and predation by introduced polynesian rats.[105]
Olson's petrel Bulweria bifax Saint Helena 1502 1988 (IUCN) Hunting and introduced predators?[106]
Vespucci's giant rat Noronhomys vespucii Fernando de Noronha Island, Brazil 1503 2008 (IUCN) Undetermined.[107]
Galápagos giant rat Megaoryzomys curioi Santa Cruz, Galápagos Islands, Ecuador 1520-1950[13] 2008 (IUCN) Possibly introduced predators.[108]
Puerto Rican hutia Isolobodon portoricensis Hispaniola and Gonâve;
Introduced to Puerto Rico, Mona, and U.S. Virgin Islands
1525 (confirmed)
c. 1800 (unconfirmed)
1994-2008 (IUCN) Possibly predation by introduced black rats.[109]
Cayman Islands hutia Capromys sp. Cayman Islands 1525-1625[5]
c. 1700 (estimated)[85]
Possibly hunting, introduced predators, and habitat loss caused by introduced ungulates.[85]
Hispaniolan edible rat Brotomys voratus Hispaniola 1550-1670[5] 1994 (IUCN) Introduced rats.[110]

17th century

Common name Binomial name Former range Last record Declared extinct Causes
Bermuda saw-whet owl Aegolius gradyi Bermuda c. 1600 2014 (IUCN) Undetermined.[111]
Hodgens's waterhen Tribonyx hodgenorum New Zealand 1600-1700 2014 (IUCN) Hunting and predation by Polynesian rats.[112]
Bermuda night heron Nyctanassa carcinocatactes Bermuda 1610 2014 (IUCN) Possibly hunting and introduced predators.[113]
Eurasian aurochs Bos primigenius primigenius Mid-latitude Eurasia 1627 2008 (IUCN) Hunting, competition with, and diseases from domestic cattle. Domestic descendants survive worldwide, including feral populations.[114] There are several ongoing projects to re-breed wild-type aurochs and release them into the wild.
Ascension crake Mundia elpenor Ascension Island 1656 1988 (IUCN) Possibly introduction of rats and cats, although it is not attested by the time they arrived in the 18th and 19th centuries.[115]
Dodo Raphus cucullatus Mauritius, Mascarene Islands 1662 (confirmed)
1688 (unconfirmed)[116]
1988 (IUCN) Hunting.[117]
Larger malagasy hippopotamus Hippopotamus laloumena Eastern Madagascar 1670-1950 (confirmed)[45]
1976 (unconfirmed)
Increased human and cattle pressure after the introduction of prickly pear farming.[72] Its specific separation from the common hippopotamus has been questioned.[118]
Réunion sheldgoose Alopochen kervazoi Réunion, Mascarene Islands 1671-1672 1710
1988 (IUCN)
Hunting and habitat destruction.[119]
Réunion kestrel Falco duboisi Réunion 1671-1672 2004 (IUCN) Undetermined.[120]
Réunion fody Foudia delloni Réunion c. 1672 2016 (IUCN) Probably predation by introduced rats.[121]
Broad-billed parrot Lophopsittacus mauritianus Mauritius 1673-1675 1693
1988 (IUCN)
Hunting.[122]
Réunion rail Dryolimnas augusti Réunion 1674 2014 (IUCN) Probably hunting and introduced rats and cats.[123]
Réunion pigeon Nesoenas duboisi Réunion 1674 1988 (IUCN) Probably introduced rats and cats.[124]
Réunion night heron Nycticorax duboisi Réunion 1674 1988 (IUCN) Hunting.[125]
Giant vampire bat Desmodus draculae Eastern South America;
Central America (Pleistocene)[126]
1675-1755 Undetermined.[127]
Mauritius sheldgoose Alopochen mauritiana Mauritius 1693 1698
1988 (IUCN)
Hunting.[128]
Red rail Aphanapteryx bonasia Mauritius 1693 1988 (IUCN) Hunting and predation by introduced cats.[129]
Mascarene coot Fulica newtonii Mauritius and Réunion 1672 (Réunion)
1693 (Mauritius)
1988 (IUCN) Hunting.[130]
Mauritius night heron Nycticorax mauritianus Mauritius 1693 1988 (IUCN) Probably hunting.[131]
Mascarene teal Anas theodori Mauritius; Réunion? 1696 1988 (IUCN) Hunting.[132]

18th century

Common name Binomial name Former range Last record Declared extinct Causes
Guadeloupe parakeet Psittacara labati Guadeloupe 1724 1988 (IUCN) Probably hunting.[133]
Rodrigues rail Erythromachus leguati Rodrigues, Mascarene Islands 1726 1988 (IUCN) Hunting.[134]
Rodrigues owl Mascarenotus murivorus Rodrigues 1726 1988 (IUCN) Probably hunting, deforestation, and predation by introduced animals.[135]
Rodrigues starling Necropsar rodericanus Rodrigues 1726 1761
1988 (IUCN)
Undetermined.[136]
Rodrigues pigeon Nesoenas rodericanus Rodrigues 1726 1988 (IUCN) Probably predation by introduced black rats.[137]
Rodrigues night heron Nycticorax megacephalus Rodrigues 1726 1761
1988 (IUCN)
Hunting.[138]
Réunion swamphen Porphyrio caerulescens Réunion, Mascarene Islands c. 1730 1988 (IUCN) Hunting.[139]
Saddle-backed Mauritius giant tortoise Cylindraspis inepta Mauritius c. 1735[12] 1994 (IUCN) Possibly hunting and introduced predators and competitors.[140]
Domed Mauritius giant tortoise Cylindraspis triserrata Mauritius c. 1735[12] 1994 (IUCN) Possibly hunting and introduced predators and competitors.[141]
Corynanthe brachythyrsus Cameroon 1746 1998 (IUCN) Undetermined.[142]
Atlantic gray whale Eschrichtius robustus North Atlantic and the Mediterranean 550 (Europe)
1760 (North America)
Whaling. The same species survives in the Pacific Ocean.[143]
Rodrigues parrot Necropsittacus rodricanus Rodrigues 1761 1988 (IUCN) Hunting.[144]
Rodrigues solitaire Pezophaps solitaria Rodrigues 1761 1778
1988 (IUCN)
Hunting and predation by introduced cats.[145]
Steller's sea cow Hydrodamalis gigas Bering Sea; Northern Pacific coasts from Japan to Baja California (Pleistocene) 1762-1763 1768
1986 (IUCN)
Hunting and reduction of kelp as a result of sea otter hunting, which caused proliferation of kelp-eating sea urchins.[146]
Réunion ibis Threskiornis solitarius Réunion 1763 1988 (IUCN) Hunting.[147]
Mauritius grey parrot Lophopsittacus bensoni Mauritius and Réunion 1764 1988 (IUCN) Hunting.[148]
Raiatea parakeet Cyanoramphus ulietanus Raiatea, Society Islands, French Polynesia 1773 1988 (IUCN) Possibly deforestation, hunting, and predation by introduced species.[149]
Tanna ground dove Alopecoenas ferrugineus Tanna, Vanuatu 1774 1988 (IUCN) Hunting?[150]
Raiatea starling ?Aplonis ulietensis Raiatea, Society Islands, French Polynesia 1774 1850
2016 (IUCN)
Possibly predation by introduced rats.[151]
Moorea sandpiper Prosobonia ellisi Moorea, Society Islands, French Polynesia 1777 1988 (IUCN) Predation by introduced rats.[152]
Tahiti sandpiper Prosobonia leucoptera Tahiti, Society Islands, French Polynesia 1777 1988 (IUCN) Predation by introduced rats.[153]
Martinique amazon Amazona martinicana Martinique 1779 1988 (IUCN) Probably hunting.[154]
Guadeloupe amazon Amazona violacea Guadeloupe 1779 1988 (IUCN) Hunting.[155]
Tahiti crake Zapornia nigra Tahiti, Society Islands, French Polynesia 1784 1988 (IUCN) Possibly introduced predators.[156]
White swamphen Porphyrio albus Lord Howe Island, Australia 1790 1834
1988 (IUCN)
Hunting.[157]
Oceanic eclectus parrot Eclectus infectus Tonga and Vanuatu; Fiji? 1793 2014 (IUCN) Probably hunting and predation by introduced mammals.[158]
Bluebuck Hippotragus leucophaeus Overberg;
South Africa (Pleistocene)
1799-1800 1986 (IUCN)[159] Vegetation change and disruption of migration routes after the Last Glacial Period, competition with domestic cattle, overhunting, and further habitat loss due to agriculture.[21]

19th century

1800s-1820s
Common name Binomial name Former range Last record Declared extinct Causes
Domed Rodrigues giant tortoise Cylindraspis peltastes Rodrigues c. 1800[12] 1994 (IUCN) Possibly hunting and introduced predators and competitors.[160]
Saddle-backed Rodrigues giant tortoise Cylindraspis vosmaeri Rodrigues c. 1800[12] 1994 (IUCN) Possibly hunting and introduced predators and competitors.[161]
Kangaroo Island emu Dromaius baudinianus Kangaroo Island, Australia 1802 (confirmed)
1827 (unconfirmed)
1837
1988 (IUCN)
Hunting.[162]
King Island emu Dromaius minor King Island, Australia 1802 1805
1988 (IUCN)
Hunting.[163]
Spotted green pigeon Caloenas maculata Tahiti, French Polynesia? 1823 (confirmed)
1928 (unconfirmed)
2008 (IUCN) Hunting?[164]
Maupiti monarch Pomarea pomarea Maupiti, Society Islands, French Polynesia 1823 1988 (IUCN) Probably introduced species.[165]
Mysterious starling Aplonis mavornata Mauke, Cook Islands 1825 1988 (IUCN) Predation by introduced brown rats.[166]
ʻĀmaui Myadestes woahensis Oahu, Hawaii, United States 1825 1988 (IUCN) Possibly habitat destruction and introduced avian malaria.[167]
Mauritius blue pigeon Alectroenas nitidissimus Mauritius 1826 (confirmed)
1837 (unconfirmed)[168]
1988 (IUCN) Hunting and deforestation.[169]
Kosrae crake Zapornia monasa Kosrae, Micronesia 1827-1828 1988 (IUCN) Predation by introduced rats.[170]
Kosrae starling Aplonis corvina Kosrae, Micronesia 1828 1880
1988 (IUCN)
Probably predation by introduced rats.[171]
Bonin grosbeak Carpodacus ferreorostris Bonin Islands, Japan 1828 (confirmed)
1890 (unconfirmed)
1854
1988 (IUCN)
Possibly deforestation and predation by introduced cats and rats.[172]
Bonin thrush Zoothera terrestris Bonin Islands, Japan 1828 1889
1988 (IUCN)
Probably predation by introduced cats and rats.[173]
Tonga ground skink Tachygyia microlepis Tonga c. 1829[174] 1996 (IUCN) Habitat loss and predation by introduced dogs, pigs, and rats.[175]
1830s-1840s
Common name Binomial name Former range Last record Declared extinct Causes
Delalande's coua Coua delalandei Nosy Boraha, Madagascar 1834 1994 (IUCN) Deforestation.[176]
Mascarene parrot Mascarinus mascarin Réunion, Mascarene Islands 1775 (wild)
1834 (captive)
1988 (IUCN) Hunting.[177]
Atlas bear Ursus arctos crowtheri Northern Maghreb 1834[178] Possibly habitat fragmentation.[178] Two haplotypes are found in remains from the Vandal and Byzantine periods: one shared with Iberian bears that could have been introduced by humans, and another unique to Africa.[179] It is not known which type survived until more recent times.
Oʻahu ʻakialoa Akialoa ellisana Oahu, Hawaii, United States 1837 (confirmed)
1940 (unconfirmed)
2016 (IUCN) Possibly habitat destruction and introduced disease.[180]
Hoopoe starling Fregilupus varius Réunion, Mascarene Islands 1837 (confirmed)
1850-1860 (unconfirmed)
1988 (IUCN) Possibly introduced disease, hunting, and habitat degradation.[181]
Oʻahu ʻōʻō Moho apicalis Oahu, Hawaii, United States 1837 1988 (IUCN) Habitat loss and introduction of disease-carrying mosquitos.[182]
Mauritius owl Mascarenotus sauzieri Mauritius, Mascarene Islands 1837 1859
1988 (IUCN)
Possibly deforestation, hunting, and predation by introduced mammals.[183]
Oʻahu nukupuʻu Hemignathus lucidus Oahu, Hawaii, United States 1838-1841 (confirmed)
1860 (unconfirmed)
1890 Undetermined.[184]
Large Samoan flying fox Pteropus coxi Samoan Islands 1839-1841 2020 (IUCN) Undetermined.[185]
Réunion giant tortoise Cylindraspis indica Réunion, Mascarene Islands c. 1840[12] 1994 (IUCN)[186] Undetermined.
Dieffenbach's Rail Hypotaenidia dieffenbachii Chatham Islands, New Zealand 1840 1872
1988 (IUCN)
Possibly introduced predators and habitat loss from fire.[187]
Black-fronted parakeet Cyanorhamphus zealandicus Tahiti, Society Islands, French Polynesia 1844 1988 (IUCN) Possibly deforestation, hunting, and predation by introduced species.[188]
1850s-1860s
Common name Binomial name Former range Last record Declared extinct Causes
Daudin's giant tortoise Aldabrachelys gigantea daudinii Mahé, Seychelles c. 1850 Undetermined.[12]
Floreana giant tortoise Chelonoidis niger Floreana, Galápagos Islands, Ecuador c. 1850[12] 1996 (IUCN) Probably hunting and introduced species. Hybrid descendants of C. niger and C. becki survive in nearby Isabela Island.[189]
Southern black rhinoceros Diceros bicornis bicornis Southwestern Africa c. 1850 Undetermined.[190]
Christmas sandpiper Prosobonia cancellata Kiritimati, Kiribati c. 1850 2014 (IUCN) Probably predation by introduced cats and rats.[191]
Turquoise-throated puffleg Eriocnemis godini Northern Ecuador 1850 (confirmed)
1976 (unconfirmed)
Habitat destruction.[192]
Spectacled cormorant Phalacrocorax perspicillatus Commander Islands; Kamchatka coast? 1850 1988 (IUCN) Hunting.[193]
String tree Acalypha rubrinervis Central ridge of St Helena island 1850-1875 (captive) 1998 (IUCN) Undetermined.[194]
Norfolk kaka Nestor productus Norfolk Island, Australia 1851 (captive) 1988 (IUCN) Hunting.[195]
Great auk Pinguinus impennis North Atlantic and western Mediterranean 1852 1988 (IUCN) Hunting.[196]
Small Samoan flying fox Pteropus allenorum Upolu, Samoa 1856 2020 (IUCN) Undetermined.[197]
Gould's mouse Pseudomys gouldii Southern Australia 1856-1857 1990 (IUCN) Possibly predation by feral cats, habitat degradation by livestock, and changed fire regime.[198]
Kioea Chaetoptila angustipluma Hawaii, United States 1859 1988 (IUCN) Possibly deforestation, hunting, and introduced predators.[199]
Sea mink Neovison macrodon Atlantic coast of Canada and New England c. 1860 (confirmed)
1894 (unconfirmed)
2002 (IUCN) Hunting for the fur trade.[200]
Gould's emerald Riccordia elegans Jamaica? 1860 1988 (IUCN) Undetermined.[201]
Jamaican poorwill Siphonorhis americana Jamaica 1860 Predation by introduced black rats, brown rats, and small Indian mongooses.[202]
Small Mauritian flying fox Pteropus subniger Mauritius and Réunion 1862 (confirmed)
1864-1873 (unconfirmed)
1988 (IUCN) Hunting and deforestation.[203]
Cuban macaw Ara tricolor Cuba and Juventud 1864 (confirmed)
1885 (unconfirmed)
2000 (IUCN) Hunting for food and the exotic pet trade.[204]
Cape lion Panthera leo melanochaita Cape Province, South Africa 1865 Extermination campaign.[205] Genetics do not support subspecific differentiation between the Cape lion and living lions in Eastern Africa; if placed in a single subspecies, it would be P. l. melanochaita because of being the older name.[206]
Eastern elk Cervus canadensis canadensis Eastern North America 1867[207] 1880[208] Hunting. It's been argued (based on genetic data) that most or all elk subspecies in North America are actually the same, which would be C. c. canadensis due to being named first.[209][210]
Kawaihae hibiscadelphus Hibiscadelphus bombycinus Kawaihae, Hawaii, United States[211] 1868[212] Undetermined.
1870s-1880s
Common name Binomial name Former range Last record Declared extinct Causes
North Island snipe Coenocorypha barrierensis North Island, New Zealand 1870 2014 (IUCN) Predation by introduced Polynesian rats and feral cats.[213]
Cape warthog Phacochoerus aethiopicus aethiopicus Cape Province, South Africa 1871 Undetermined.[214]
Tasmanian emu Dromaius novaehollandiae diemenensis Tasmania, Australia 1845-1846 (wild)[215]
1873 (captive)[216]
Hunting.
Tristan moorhen Gallinula nesiotis Tristan da Cunha 1873-1900 1988 (IUCN) Hunting, predation by introduced cats, rats, and pigs; and habitat destruction by fire.[217]
Samoan woodhen Pareudiastes pacificus Savai'i, Samoa 1873 (confirmed)
2003 (unconfirmed)
Hunting and predation by introduced cats, rats, pigs, and dogs.[218]
Large Palau flying fox Pteropus pilosus Palau Before 1874 1988 (IUCN) Possibly hunting and habitat degradation.[219]
Percy Island flying fox Pteropus brunneus Percy Islands, Australia 1874 1996 (IUCN) Possibly habitat loss.[220]
Newton's parakeet Alexandrinus exsul Rodrigues, Mascarene Islands 1875 1988 (IUCN) Probably habitat loss and hunting. The last pairs may have been killed by the 1876 cyclone season.[221]
Labrador duck Camptorhynchus labradorius Atlantic coast of Canada and New England 1875 (confirmed)
1878 (unconfirmed)[222]
1988 (IUCN) Hunting, egg harvesting, and habitat loss.[223]
New Zealand quail Coturnix novaezelandiae New Zealand 1875 1988 (IUCN) Introduced diseases?[224]
Broad-faced potoroo Potorous platyops Western Australia 1875 1982 (IUCN) Predation by feral cats and habitat loss.[225]
Falkland Islands wolf Dusicyon australis Falkland Islands 1876 1986 (IUCN) Extermination campaign.[226]
Himalayan quail Ophrysia superciliosa Uttarakhand, India 1876 (confirmed)
2010 (unconfirmed)
Hunting and habitat loss.[227]
Brace's emerald Riccordia bracei New Providence, Bahamas 1877 1988 (IUCN) Undetermined.[228]
Jamaican rice rat Oryzomys antillarum Jamaica 1877 2008 (IUCN) Competition with introduced rats,[50] or predation by introduced mongooses.[229]
Navassa Island iguana Cyclura cornuta onchiopsis Navassa Island 1878 2011 (IUCN) Probably hunting.[230]
Jamaican petrel Pterodroma caribbaea Jamaica; Dominica and Guadeloupe? 1879 Hunting and predation by introduced rats, mongooses, pigs, and dogs.[231]
Parras characodon Characodon garmani Southern Coahuila, Mexico 1880-1889?[232] 1953[233]
1988 (IUCN)
Probably habitat loss.[232]
Saint Lucia giant rice rat Megalomys luciae Saint Lucia c. 1881 1994 (IUCN) Predation by introduced mongooses.[234]
Quagga Equus quagga quagga Cape Province, South Africa 1860-1865 (wild)[235]
1883 (captive)
1889[235]
1986 (IUCN)[236]
Hunting.
Hawaiian rail Zapornia sandwichensis Eastern Hawai'i (and Molokai?), United States 1884 1988 (IUCN) Possibly hunting and predation by introduced rats, cats, and dogs.[237]
Bennett's seaweed Vanvoorstia bennettiana Sydney Harbor, Australia 1886 2003 (IUCN) Habitat loss and pollution.[238]
Hokkaido wolf Canis lupus hattai Hokkaido, Japan c. 1889 Extermination campaign.[239][better source needed]
Bonin wood pigeon Columba versicolor Bonin Islands, Japan 1889 1988 (IUCN) Deforestation and predation by introduced cats and rats.[240]
Whiteline topminnow Fundulus albolineatus Huntsville, Alabama, United States 1889 Habitat destruction.[232]
Eastern hare-wallaby Lagorchestes leporides Interior southeastern Australia 1889[241] 1982 (IUCN) Possibly habitat loss due to livestock grazing and wildfires.[242]
Sturdee's pipistrelle Pipistrellus sturdeei Haha-jima, Bonin Islands, Japan 1889 1994 (IUCN) Undetermined.[243]
1890s
Common name Binomial name Former range Last record Declared extinct Causes
Portuguese ibex Capra pyrenaica lusitanica Portuguese-Galician border c. 1890[244] Hunting.
New Caledonian rail Cabalus lafresnayanus New Caledonia 1890 (confirmed)
1984 (unconfirmed)
Probably predation by introduced dogs, cats, pigs, and rats.[245]
Kauaʻi nukupuʻu Hemignathus hanapepe Kaua'i, Hawaii, United States 1890 (confirmed)[246]
2007 (unconfirmed)
Undetermined.
New Zealand bittern Ixobrychus novaezelandiae New Zealand 1890-1899 1988 (IUCN) Undetermined.[247]
Lesser koa finch Rhodacanthis flaviceps Hawai'i Island, Hawaii, United States 1891 1893
1988 (IUCN)
Undetermined.[248]
Maui Nui ʻakialoa Akialoa lanaiensis Lana'i, Hawaii, United States 1892 2016 (IUCN) Possibly habitat destruction and introduced disease.[249]
ʻUla-ʻai-hawane Ciridops anna Hawai'i Island, Hawaii, United States 1892 (confirmed)
1937 (unconfirmed)
1988 (IUCN) Undetermined.[250]
Nendo tube-nosed fruit bat Nyctimene sanctacrucis Santa Cruz Islands, Solomon Islands 1892 (confirmed)
1907 (unconfirmed)
1994 (IUCN) Undetermined. Could be conspecific with the Island tube-nosed fruit bat.[251]
St. Vincent pygmy rice rat Oligoryzomys victus St. Vincent 1892 2008 (IUCN) Probably predation by introduced brown rats, black rats, and mongooses.[252]
Chatham fernbird Poodytes rufescens Chatham Islands, New Zealand 1892 1988 (IUCN) Possibly habitat loss and predation by introduced cats.[253]
Chatham rail Cabalus modestus Chatham Islands, New Zealand 1893-1895 1988 (IUCN) Habitat destruction, predation and competition with introduced mammals.[254]
Harelip sucker Lagochila lacera Southeastern United States 1893 Possibly water siltation and pollution.[232]
Seychelles parakeet Psittacula wardi Seychelles 1893 1906
1988 (IUCN)
Hunting and habitat loss to agriculture.[255]
Kona grosbeak Chloridops kona Lana'i, Hawaii, United States 1894 1988 (IUCN) Undetermined.[256]
North Island takahē Porhyrio mantelli North Island, New Zealand 1894 2000 (IUCN) Climate-induced reduction of grasslands and hunting.[257]
Hawkins's rail Diaphorapteryx hawkinsi Chatham Islands, New Zealand 1895 2005 (IUCN) Hunting.[258]
Lyall's wren Traversia lyalli New Zealand 1895 1895
1988 (IUCN)
Habitat loss and predation by introduced cats.[259]
Greater koa finch Rhodacanthis palmeri Hawai'i Island, Hawaii, United States 1896 1906
1988 (IUCN)
Possibly habitat destruction and introduced avian malaria.[260]
Newfoundland wolf Canis lupus beothucus Newfoundland, Canada 1896 (confirmed)[261]
1911 (unconfirmed)
Hunting.
Martinique giant rice rat Megalomys desmarestii Martinique 1897 (confirmed)
1902 (unconfirmed)
1994 (IUCN) Predation by introduced mongooses.[262]
Nelson's rice rat Oryzomys nelsoni Central María Madre Island, Mexico 1897 1996 (IUCN) Competition with introduced black rats.[263]
Hawaii mamo Drepanis pacifica Hawai'i Island, Hawaii, United States 1899 1988 (IUCN) Hunting, habitat destruction, and introduced disease.[264]

20th century

1900s
Common name Binomial name Former range Last record Declared extinct Causes
Caucasian moose Alces alces caucasicus Northern Caucasus and Transcaucasian shore of the Black Sea[265] c. 1900 Hunting. The subspecies' validity is questioned because moose from Russia recolonized the Caucasian moose's former range naturally over the 20th century.[266]
Saint Croix racer Borikenophis sanctaecrucis Saint Croix, United States Virgin Islands c. 1900 Undetermined.[267]
Gravenche Coregonus hiemalis Lake Geneva c. 1900 2008 (IUCN) Eutrophication and overfishing.[268]
Leafshell Epioblasma flexuosa Tennessee, Cumberland, and Ohio River systems, United States 1900[269] Undetermined.
Southern pig-footed bandicoot Chaeropus ecaudatus Interior Australia 1901 (confirmed)
1950s (unconfirmed)
1982 (IUCN) Predation by feral cats and red foxes.[270]
Tennessee riffleshell Epioblasma propinqua Tennessee, Cumberland, Wabash, and Ohio River systems, United States 1901[271] Undetermined.
Greater ʻamakihi Viridonia sagittirostris Wailuku river, Hawai'i Island, United States 1901 1988 (IUCN) Habitat destruction for sugarcane agriculture.[272]
Rocky Mountain locust Melanoplus spretus Rocky Mountains and North American Prairie 1902 2014 (IUCN)[273] Breeding habitat loss due to irrigation and cattle ranching.
Auckland merganser Mergus australis South, Stewart, and Auckland Island, New Zealand 1902 1910
1988 (IUCN)
Hunting and predation by introduced animals.[274]
North Island piopio Turnagra tanagra North Island, New Zealand 1902 (confirmed)
1970 (unconfirmed)
1988 (IUCN) Possibly habitat destruction, hunting, and predation by introduced cats and rats.[275]
Guadalupe caracara Caracara lutosa Guadalupe Island, Mexico 1903 1988 (IUCN) Extermination campaign.[276]
Stumptooth minnow Stypodon signifer Southern Coahuila, Mexico 1903 Habitat degradation and pollution.[232]
Choiseul pigeon Microgoura meeki Choiseul, Solomon Islands 1904 1994 (IUCN) Predation by feral dogs and cats.[277]
Japanese wolf Canis lupus hodophilax Honshū, Shikoku and Kyūshū, Japan 1905 (confirmed)[278]
1910-1996 (unconfirmed)[279][280]
Hunting and a rabies-like epidemic.[239]
South Island piopio Turnagra capensis South Island, New Zealand 1905 (confirmed)
1963 (unconfirmed)
1988 (IUCN) Possibly habitat destruction and predation by introduced rats.[281]
Chatham bellbird Anthornis melanocephala Chatham Islands, New Zealand 1906 1938
1988 (IUCN)
Possibly habitat destruction, predation by rats and cats, and overhunting by collectionists.[282]
Black mamo Drepanis funerea Molokai and Maui, Hawaii, United States 1907 1988 (IUCN) Habitat destruction by introduced cattle and deer, and predation by introduced rats and mongooses.[283]
Huia Heteralocha acutirostris North Island, New Zealand 1907 (confirmed)[284]
1963 (unconfirmed)[285]
1988 (IUCN) Hunting and deforestation of old growth forests to make pastures for livestock.
Huia louse Rallicola extinctus North Island, New Zealand 1907? 1990 Extinction of its host.[286]
Robust white-eye Zosterops strenuus Lord Howe Island, Australia 1908 1928
1988 (IUCN)
Predation by black rats.[287]
Cumberland leafshell Epioblasma stewardsonii Tennessee and Coosa River systems, United States 1909[288] Undetermined.
Tarpan Equus ferus ferus Europe 1879 (wild)[289]
1909 (captive)
Hunting and hybridization with domestic horses.
1910s
Common name Binomial name Former range Last record Declared extinct Causes
Maui hau kuahiwi Hibiscadelphus wilderianus Maui, Hawaii, United States 1910[211] 1978 (IUCN) Undetermined.[290]
Yellowfin cutthroat trout Oncorhynchus clarki macdonaldi Twin Lakes, Colorado, United States 1910 Hybridization with rainbow trout and competition with lake trout, both introduced.[232]
Slender-billed grackle Quiscalus palustris Lerma River and Xochimilco, Mexico 1910 1988 (IUCN) Draining of marshlands.[291]
Cape Verde giant skink Chioninia coctei Cape Verde 1912 (confirmed)
2005 (unconfirmed)
1996 (IUCN) Predation by feral cats.[292]
Guadalupe storm petrel Oceanodroma macrodactyla Guadalupe Island, Mexico 1912 Predation by feral cats, and habitat degradation by goat grazing.[293]
New Caledonian lorikeet Charmosyna diadema New Caledonia 1913 (confirmed)
1976 (unconfirmed)
1998 Undetermined.[294]
Canary Islands oystercatcher Haematopus meadewaldoi Lanzarote and Fuerteventura, Spain; Senegal? 1913 (confirmed)
1981 (unconfirmed)
Overharvesting of intertidal invertebrates.[295]
Passenger pigeon Ectopistes migratorius Eastern North America 1901 (wild, confirmed)[296]
1902-1907 (unconfirmed)[296][297]
1914 (captive)
Hunting and habitat loss.
Laughing owl Ninox albifacies New Zealand 1914 (confirmed)
1960 (unconfirmed)[298]
1988 (IUCN) Competition or predation by introduced stoats and cats.[299]
Kenai Peninsula wolf Canis lupus alces Kenai Peninsula, Alaska c. 1915[300] Extermination campaign.
Lord Howe starling Aplonis fusca hulliana Lord Howe Island, Australia 1918 1928
1988 (IUCN)
Predation by introduced black rats.[301]
Bernard's wolf Canis lupus bernardi Banks Island, Canada 1918-1952[302] Undetermined. It's been suggested that Bernard's wolf should be merged with the extant arctic wolf[303] or other wolves from the continent.[302]
Carolina parakeet Conorupsis carolinensis Eastern and central United States 1910 (wild)
1918 (captive)
1930s (wild, unconfirmed)
1988 (IUCN) Hunting, habitat loss, and competition with introduced bees.[304]
Lānaʻi hookbill Dysmorodrepanis munroi Lana'i, Hawaii, United States 1918 1988 (IUCN) Habitat destruction for pineapple agriculture, and predation by introduced cats and rats.[305]
1920s
Common name Binomial name Former range Last record Declared extinct Causes
Florida black wolf Canis rufus[306] floridanus Southeastern United States c. 1920 Hunting and habitat loss.[306]
True fera Coregonus fera Lake Geneva 1920 2008 (IUCN) Eutrophication and overfishing.[307]
Great Plains wolf Canis lupus nubilus North American prairie 1922[308] 1926[309] Extermination campaign. The Great Plains wolf has been later determined to be continuous morphologically[303] and genetically[310] with the still existing Mexican wolf, which would use the name C. l. nubilus if placed in the same subspecies, due to being the older one.
Red-moustached fruit dove Ptilinopus mercierii Marquesas, French Polynesia 1922 1994 (IUCN) Predation by introduced great horned owls, rats, and cats.[311]
Norfolk Island starling Aplonis fusca fusca Norfolk Island, Australia 1923 1968
1988 (IUCN)
Undetermined.[301]
Laysan honeycreeper Himatione fraithii Laysan, Hawaii, United States 1923 2016 (IUCN) Habitat destruction by introduced rabbits.[312]
Round combshell Epioblasma personata Tennessee, Wabash, and Ohio River systems, United States 1924 Undetermined.[313]
California grizzly bear Ursus arctos californicus California, United States 1924 Hunting.[314]
Bubal hartebeest Alcelaphus buselaphus buselaphus North Africa and Southern Levant 1925 Hunting.[315]
Anthony's woodrat Neotoma bryanti anthonyi Isla Todos Santos, Mexico 1926 2008 (IUCN) Predation by feral cats.[316]
Thick-billed ground dove Alopecoenas salamonis Solomon Islands 1927 2005 (IUCN) Probably habitat destruction, hunting, and predation by introduced cats and rats.[317]
Caucasian wisent Bison bonasus caucasicus Caucasus Mountains 1927[318] Hunting. Hybrid descendants exist in captivity, and have been reintroduced to the wild.[319]
Snake River sucker Chasmistes muriei Snake River, United States 1927 Hybridization with the Utah sucker after dams changed the river's flow.[232]
Syrian wild ass Equus hemionus hemippus Near East 1927 Hunting.[320]
Cry pansy Viola cryana Cry, Yonne, France 1927 2011 (IUCN) Overcollection by botanists and limestone quarrying.[321]
Utah Lake sculpin Cottus echinatus Utah Lake, Utah, United States 1928 Increased water pollution and salinity caused by agriculture, and introduced fishes. The last individuals may have been killed by drought in the 1930s.[232]
Lord Howe gerygone Gerygone insularis Lord Howe Island, Australia 1928 1936
1988 (IUCN)
Predation by introduced rats.[322]
Paradise parrot Psephotellus pulcherrimus Eastern Australia 1928 1994 (IUCN) Probably habitat degradation.[323]
Acalypha wilderi Northwestern Rarotonga, Cook Islands 1929 2014 (IUCN) Deforestation for agriculture and housing development. Doubts exist about it being distinct from still living A. raivavensis and A. tubuaiensis; if indeed the same, the older name A. wilderi prevails.[324]
1930s
Common name Binomial name Former range Last record Declared extinct Causes
Tahiti rail Hypotaenidia pacifica Tahiti, Society Islands, French Polynesia 1930-1939 1988 (IUCN) Probably predation by introduced cats and rats.[325]
St Kilda house mouse Mus musculus muralis St Kilda, Scotland 1930 Complete evacuation of St Kilda's human population, which it depended on.[326]
Darwin's Galápagos mouse Nesoryzomys darwini Santa Cruz, Galápagos Islands, Ecuador 1930 Competition, predation, and exotic pathogens from introduced black rats.[327]
Nuku Hiva monarch Pomarea nukuhivae Nuku Hiva, Marquesas Islands, French Polynesia 1930-1939 (confirmed)
1977 (unconfirmed)
1972
2006 (IUCN)
Probably habitat destruction and predation by introduced species.[328]
Silver trout Salvelinus agassizi Dublin Pond and Christine Lake, New Hampshire, United States 1930 Overfishing and introduction of exotic fish.[232]
Bunker's woodrat Neotoma bryanti bunkeri Coronados Islands, Mexico 1931 2008 (IUCN) Depletion of food resources and predation by feral cats.[329]
Heath hen Tympanuchus cupido cupido East Coast of the United States 1932 Hunting, predation by feral cats, wildfires, and histomoniasis transmitted by domestic poultry.[330][331]
Hawaiʻi ʻōʻō Moho nobilis Lana'i, Hawaii, United States 1934 1988 (IUCN) Possibly habitat loss and disease.[332]
Indefatigable Galápagos mouse Nesoryzomys indefessus Santa Cruz and Baltra, Galápagos Islands, Ecuador 1934 2008 (IUCN) Introduction of black rats.[333]
Aguelmame Sidi Ali trout Salmo pallaryi Lake Aguelmame Sidi Ali, Morocco 1934[334] 2006 (IUCN) Introduction of the common carp.[335]
Desert rat-kangaroo Caloprymnus campestris Central Australia 1935 (confirmed)
1957-2011 (unconfirmed)
1994 (IUCN) Predation by introduced red foxes and cats.[336]
Mogollon mountain wolf Canis lupus mogollonensis Arizona, United States 1935[337][better source needed] Hunting. The subspecific differences between extinct Great Plains wolf, Mogollon mountain wolf, Southern Rocky Mountain wolf, and surviving Mexican wolf have been denied on morphological grounds.[303]
Southern Rocky Mountain wolf Canis lupus youngi Southern Rocky Mountains 1935[337][better source needed]
Ryukyu wood pigeon Columba jouyi Ryukyu, Japan 1936 1988 (IUCN) Undetermined.[338]
Thylacine Thylacinus cynocephalus Australia and New Guinea 3050 BCE (New Guinea)[15]
1277-1229 BCE (Australia)[339]
1931 (Tasmania)[340]
1936 (captivity)
1937-2000 (unconfirmed)[341]
1982 (IUCN)[342] Competition with humans and dingos, extermination campaign (in Tasmania).
Bali tiger Panthera tigris balica Bali, Indonesia 1937 (confirmed)[205]
1972 (unconfirmed)
Hunting and habitat loss. Genetics do not support a subspecific differentiation with the living Sumatran tiger.[206]
Marquesas swamphen Porphyrio paepae Hiva Oa and Tahuata, Marquesas, French Polynesia 1937 2014 (IUCN) Probably hunting and predation by rats and cats.[343]
Pahranagat spinedace Lepidomeda altivelis Pahranagat Valley, Nevada, United States 1938 Competition and predation by introduced common carps, mosquitofish, and American bullfrogs.[232]
Eastern cougar Puma concolor couguar Eastern North America 1938 (confirmed)[344]
1992 (unconfirmed)
2011[345] Hunting. Genetics do not support subspecies differentiation between the eastern cougar and living cougars in Florida and Western North America;[206] if placed under a single subspecies, this would have the name P. c. couguar because of being older.
Grass Valley speckled dace Rhynichthys osculus reliquus Lander County, Nevada, United States 1938 Introduction of the rainbow trout.[232]
Schomburgk's deer Rucervus schomburgki Central Thailand 1932 (wild)
1938 (captive)
1994 (IUCN) Hunting.[346]
Grand Cayman thrush Turdus ravidus Grand Cayman, Cayman Islands 1938 1965
1988 (IUCN)
Probably habitat loss.[347]
Toolache wallaby Macropus greyi Southeastern Australia 1924 (wild, confirmed)
1939 (captive)
1943-1970s (wild, unconfirmed)
1982 (IUCN) Habitat loss to agriculture, hunting, and predation by introduced red fox.[348]
1940s
Common name Binomial name Former range Last record Declared extinct Causes
Sugarspoon Epioblasma arcaeformis Cumberland and Tennessee river systems, United States c. 1940 1983 (IUCN) Damming.[349]
Lesser ʻakialoa Akialoa obscura Hawai'i Island, Hawaii, United States 1940 1994 (IUCN) Possibly deforestation and introduced disease-carrying mosquitos.[350]
Cascade mountain wolf Canis lupus fuscus Continental Cascadia[303] 1940[337][better source needed] Hunting.
Las Vegas dace Rhinichthys deaconi Las Vegas Valley, Nevada, United States 1940 1965 Habitat destruction.[232]
Javan lapwing Vanellus macropterus Java, Indonesia 1940 Hunting and habitat loss to agriculture.[351]
Arabian ostrich Struthio camelus syriacus Arabian Peninsula and the Near East c. 1941 (confirmed)
1966 (unconfirmed)
Hunting.[352]
Texas gray wolf Canis lupus monstrabilis Texas, United States 1942[337][better source needed] Hunting. The Texas gray wolf has been at times included within either the extinct Great Plains wolf or the living Mexican wolf on morphological grounds.[303]
Barbary lion Panthera leo leo North Africa 1943 (confirmed)[205]
1956 (unconfirmed)
Habitat loss from desertification and human activities, followed by extermination campaign. Hybrid descendants are believed to exist in captivity.[353] However, genetics do not support subspecies differentiation with living wild lions in Asia, West and Central Africa,[206] which would be named P. l. leo if placed within a single subspecies.
Desert bandicoot Perameles eremiana Central Australia 1943 (confirmed)
1960-1970 (unconfirmed)
1982 (IUCN) Predation by cats and foxes, competition with European rabbits, and changes to the fire regime after the British colonization of Australia.[354]
American ivory-billed woodpecker Campephilus principalis principalis Southern United States 1944 (confirmed)[355]
2008 (unconfirmed)[356][357]
Logging and hunting.
Laysan rail Zapornia palmeri Laysan, Hawaii, United States 1944 1988 (IUCN) Habitat destruction by introduced rabbits and guinea pigs, and predation by introduced rats.[358]
Wake Island rail Hypotaenidia wakensis Wake Island, United States 1945 1988 (IUCN) Hunting and destruction caused by fighting in World War II.[359]
Ash Meadows killifish Empetrichthys merriami Ash Meadows, Nevada, United States 1948 Predation by introduced bullfrogs and red swamp crayfish.[232]
Pink-headed duck Rhodonessa caryophyllacea Northeast India, Bangladesh, and northern Myanmar 1949 (confirmed)
2011 (unconfirmed)
Habitat loss to agriculture.[360]
1950s
Common name Binomial name Former range Last record Declared extinct Causes
Little Swan Island hutia Geocapromys thoracatus Little Swan Island, Honduras c. 1950 1996 (IUCN) Introduced rats.[361]
San Martín Island woodrat Neotoma bryanti martinensis Isla San Martín, Mexico 1950-1960 2008 (IUCN) Predation by feral cats.[362]
Japanese sea lion Zalophus japonicus Japanese Islands and Korea 1951 (confirmed)
1975 (unconfirmed)
1994 (IUCN) Hunting.[363]
Deepwater cisco Coregonus johannae Lakes Michigan and Huron 1952 1986 (IUCN) Overfishing, predation by introduced lampreys, and hybridization with more common ciscoes.[232]
Caribbean monk seal Neomonachus tropicalis Caribbean Sea, Bahamas, and Gulf of Mexico 1952 (confirmed)
1962 (unconfirmed)[364]
1994 (IUCN)
2008[365]
Hunting.[366]
Ilin Island cloudrunner Crateromys paulus Mindoro and Ilin Islands, Philippines 50 BCE (Mindoro)[15]
1953 (Ilin)
Deforestation?[367]
Raycraft Ranch killifish Empetrichthys latos concavus Pahrump Valley, Nevada, United States 1953 Predation by introduced carps and bullfrogs.[232]
Maravillas red shiner Cyprinella lutrensis blairi Maravillas Creek, Texas, United States 1954 1987 Introduction of plains killifish.[232]
Plateau chub Evarra eigenmanni Chalco and Xochimilco-Tlahuac channels, Valley of Mexico 1954 1986 (IUCN) Habitat destruction and pollution.[368]
Coosa elktoe Alasmidonta mccordi Coosa River, Alabama, United States 1956 2000 (IUCN) Impoundment of the Coosa River.[369]
Imperial woodpecker Campephilus imperialis North-Central Mexico 1956 Hunting and habitat loss.[370]
Levuana moth Levuana iridescens Viti Levu, Fiji 1956[371] 1994 (IUCN)[372] Introduction of the parasitic fly Bessa remota by coconut farmers, as a form of biological pest control. It's been argued that L. iridescens was not actually native to Fiji and that lack of post-1956 records is the result of diminished enthomological research after Fiji's independence.[371]
Crescent nail-tail wallaby Onychogalea lunata Western and central Australia 1956[373] 1982 (IUCN) Predation by introduced foxes and feral cats, human-induced habitat degradation.[374]
Thicktail chub Gila crassicauda California Central Valley and San Francisco Bay, United States 1957 Habitat destruction for agriculture and introduced fish.[232]
Scioto madtom Noturus trautmani Big Darby Creek, Ohio, United States 1957 2013 (IUCN) Undetermined.[375]
Hainan ormosia Ormosia howii Hainan and Guangdong, China 1957[376] 1998 (IUCN) Possibly deforestation for agriculture.[377]
Pahrump Ranch poolfish Empetrichthys latos pahrump Nye County, Nevada, United States 1958 Habitat destruction by excessive water pumping.[232]
Blue Pike Stizostedion vitreum glaucum Lake Erie, Ontario, and Niagara River 1958 1983 Overfishing and hybridization with walleye.[378]
Santa Barbara song sparrow Melospiza melodia graminea Santa Barbara Island, California, United States 1959 1983 Wildfire.[378]
1960s
Common name Binomial name Former range Last record Declared extinct Causes
Lesser bilby Macrotis leucura Deserts of Australia c. 1960 1982 (IUCN) Probably predation by introduced cats and red foxes, and changes to the fire regime.[379]
Candango mouse Juscelinomys candango Brasilia, Brazil 1960 2008 (IUCN) Urban sprawl.[380]
Viesca mud turtle Kinosternon hirtipes megacephalum Southwestern Coahuila, Mexico 1961 Aridification.[381]
Semper's warbler Leucopeza semperi St Lucia mountains 1961 (confirmed)
2015 (unconfirmed)
Predation by introduced Javan mongooses.[382]
Durango shiner Notropis aulidion Tunal river, Durango, Mexico 1961 Pollution and introduced species.[232]
Kākāwahie Paroreomyza flammea Molokai, Hawaii, United States 1961-1963 1979
1994 (IUCN)
Probably habitat destruction and introduced disease.[383]
Red-bellied gracile opossum Cryptonanus ignitus Jujuy, Argentina 1962 2008 (IUCN) Habitat loss to agriculture and industry development.[384]
Hawaii chaff flower Achyranthes atollensis The atolls Kure, Midway, Pearl and Hermes, and Laysan of the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands, United States 1964 2003 (IUCN) Habitat loss due to the construction of military installations.[385]
South Island snipe Coenocorypha iredalei South and Stewart islands, New Zealand 1964 2014 (IUCN) Predation by introduced animals.[386]
Lake Ontario kiyi Coregonus kiyi orientalis Lake Ontario 1964 Overfishing, introduction of exotic species, eutrophication, and water pollution.[232]
Rio Grande bluntnose shiner Notropis simus simus Upper Rio Grande 1964 Possibly habitat degradation and introduced species.[232]
Crested shelduck Tadorna cristata Primorye, Hokkaido, and Korea;
Northeastern China?
1964 (confirmed)
1971 (unconfirmed)
Undetermined.[387]
Turgid blossom Epioblasma turgidula Southern Appalachians and Cumberland Plateau, United States 1965 Damming and water pollution.[388]
Independence Valley tui chub Gila bicolor isolata Warm Springs, Nevada, United States 1966 Predation by introduced species.[232]
Narrow catspaw Epioblasma lenior Tennessee River system, United States 1967 Damming.[389]
Saint Helena earwig Labidura herculeana Saint Helena 1967 Predation by introduced animals.[390]
New Zealand greater short-tailed bat Mystacina robusta New Zealand 1967 1988 (IUCN) Predation by introduced Polynesian and black rats.[391]
Amistad gambusia Gambusia amistadensis Goodenough Spring, Texas, United States 1968 1987 Flooding of the spring by the Amistad Reservoir, hybridization and predation.[378][232]
Kauaʻi ʻakialoa Akialoa stejnegeri Kaua'i, Hawaii, United States 1969 2016 (IUCN) Possibly habitat destruction and introduced disease.[392]
Blackfin cisco Coregonus nigripinnis Lakes Michigan and Huron 1969 Overfishing, predation by introduced sea lampreys, and hybridization with other ciscoes.[232]
Tubercled blossom Epioblasma torulosa torulosa Tennessee and Ohio River systems, United States 1969 Impoundment, siltation, and pollution.[393]
Kouprey Bos sauveli Northeastern Cambodia 1969-1970 (confirmed)[394]
1982-1983 (unconfirmed)[395]
Hunting.
1970s
Common name Binomial name Former range Last record Declared extinct Causes
Mexican dace Evarra bustamantei Xochimilco-Tlahuac channels, Valley of Mexico 1970 1986 (IUCN) Habitat destruction and pollution.[396]
Endorheic chub Evarra tlahuacensis Lake Chalco, Valley of Mexico 1970 1986 (IUCN) Habitat destruction and pollution.[397]
Saudi gazelle Gazella saudiya Arabian Peninsula 1970 2008 (IUCN) Hunting.[398]
Clear Lake splittail Pogonichthys ciscoides Clear Lake and its tributaries, California, United States 1970 Habitat destruction and pollution from agriculture.[232]
Acornshell Epioblasma haysiana Tennessee and Cumberland River systems, United States 1970-1979 Exposure to domestic sewage.[399]
Tecopa pupfish Cyprinodon nevadensis calidae Tecopa Hot Springs, California, United States 1972 1982 Habitat degradation and introduced bluegill sunfish and mosquito fish.[378]
Tropical acidweed Desmarestia tropica Galápagos Islands, Ecuador 1972 Undetermined.[400]
Mason River myrtle Myrcia skeldingii Mason River, Jamaica 1972 1998 (IUCN) Undetermined.[401]
Bushwren Xenicus longipes New Zealand 1972 1994 (IUCN) Probably introduced predators.[402]
Bar-winged rail Hypotaenidia poeciloptera Fiji 1973 1994 (IUCN) Predation by introduced cats and mongooses.[403]
Longjaw cisco Coregonus alpenae Lakes Michigan, Huron, and Erie 1975 1986 (IUCN) Overfishing, predation by introduced sea lampreys, and hybridization with introduced ciscoes.[232]
Phantom shiner Notropis orca Rio Grande 1975 Possibly habitat loss, hybridization with the bluntnose shiner, and introduction of exotic fishes.[232]
Mexican grizzly bear Ursus arctos nelsoni Aridoamerica 1976[404] Hunting.
Colombian grebe Podiceps andinus Bogotá wetlands, Colombia 1977 1994 (IUCN) Habitat loss, pollution, hunting, and predation of chicks by introduced rainbow trout.[405]
Eiao monarch Pomarea fluxa Eiao, Marquesas Islands, French Polynesia 1977 2006 (IUCN) Possibly predation by introduced cats, black rats, and Polynesian rats; disease transmitted by introduced chestnut-breasted mannikin, and habitat loss due to grazing by sheep.[406]
White-eyed river martin Eurochelidon sirintarae Central Thailand 1978 Hunting and habitat loss.[407]
Little earth hutia Mesocapromys sanfelipensis Key Juan García, Cuba 1978 Hunting, man-made fires, and competition with black rats.[408]
Japanese river otter Lutra lutra whiteleyi Japan 1979 2012 Hunting and habitat loss.[409]
Caspian tiger Panthera tigris virgata Transcaucasia, Kurdistan, Hyrcania, Afghanistan, and Turkestan 1972 (wild, confirmed)
1979 (captive)
2007 (wild, unconfirmed)
Hunting and desertification.[205] Genetics do not support subspecific differentiation with extant mainland tigers.[206]
Mount Glorious day frog Taudactylus diurnus Southeast Queensland, Australia 1979 2002 (IUCN) Undetermined.[410]
1980s
Common name Binomial name Former range Last record Declared extinct Causes
Maui nukupu'u Hemignathus affinis Maui, Hawaii, United States 1980[411] Undetermined.
Olomaʻo Myadestes lanaiensis Maui, Lana'i, and Molokai, Hawaii 1980 (confirmed)
2005 (unconfirmed)
Disease and habitat degradation caused by introduced pigs, axis deer, and mosquitos.[412]
Anabarilius macrolepis Yilong Lake, Yunnan, China 1981 2011 (IUCN) Drying of the lake for 20 days, after excessive water abstraction for agriculture.[413]
Mariana mallard Anas platyrhynchos oustaleti Mariana Islands 1979 (wild)
1981 (captive)[414]
2004 Hunting and habitat loss to agriculture.[415]
Yilong carp Cyprinus yilongensis Yilong Lake, Yunnan, China 1981 1996 (IUCN) Drying of the lake after excessive water abstraction for agriculture.[416]
Puhielelu hibiscadelphus Hibiscadelphus crucibracteatus Lana'i, Hawaii, United States 1981 Predation by introduced axis deer.[211]
Bishop's ʻōʻō Moho bishopi Molokai, Hawaii, United States 1981 2000 (IUCN) Habitat loss to agriculture and livestock grazing, followed by the introduction of black rats and disease-carrying mosquitos.[417]
Southern gastric-brooding frog Rheobatrachus silus Southeast Queensland, Australia 1981 2002 (IUCN) Undetermined, possibly chytridiomycosis.[418]
Galápagos damsel Azurina eupalama Galápagos Islands, Ecuador 1982-1983 1982-83 El Niño event.[419]
San Marcos gambusia Gambusia georgei San Marcos spring and river, Texas, United States 1983 1990 Reduced flow and pollution from agriculture, introduced fishes and plants (Colocasia esculenta), and hybridization with Gambusia affinis.[420]
24-rayed sunstar Heliaster solaris Galápagos Islands, Ecuador 1983 1982-83 El Niño event.[421]
Guam flycatcher Myiagra freycineti Guam 1983 1994 (IUCN)
2004[415]
Predation by the introduced brown tree snake.[422]
Formosan clouded leopard Neofelis nebulosa brachyura Taiwan 1983 (confirmed)
2019 (unconfirmed)
2013[423][better source needed] Hunting. Subspecific status has been denied on morphological and genetic grounds.[206]
Aldabra brush-warbler Nesillas aldabrana Malabar Island, Seychelles 1983 1994 (IUCN) Possibly predation by introduced cats and rats, and habitat degradation by goats and tortoises.[424]
Atitlán grebe Podilymbus gigas Lake Atitlán, Guatemala 1983-1986 1994 (IUCN) Predation and competition with introduced largemouth bass, water level fall after the 1976 Guatemala earthquake, and degradation of breeding sites due to reed-cutting and tourism development.[425]
Green blossom Epioblasma torulosa gubernaculum Tennessee River system, United States 1984 Impoundment, siltation, and pollution.[426]
Javan tiger Panthera tigris sondaica Java, Indonesia 1984 1994 Hunting and habitat loss.[205] Genetics do not support subspecies differentiation with the extant Sumatran tiger; if placed in the same subspecies, this would have the name P. t. sondaica due to being older.[206]
California condor louse Colpocephalum californici North America c. 1985 Delousing of all surviving California condors as prerequisite for their captive breeding program.[13]
Christmas Island shrew Crocidura trichura Christmas Island, Australia 1985 (confirmed)
1998 (unconfirmed)
Undetermined.[427]
Kāmaʻo Myadestes myadestinus Kaua'i, Hawaii, United States 1985 (confirmed)
1991 (unconfirmed)
2004 (IUCN) Habitat loss and disease spread by introduced mosquitos.[428]
Ua Pou monarch Pomarea mira Ua Pou, Marquesas, French Polynesia 1985 (confirmed)
2010 (unconfirmed)
Deforestation and predation by introduced black rats.[429]
Northern gastric-brooding frog Rheobatrachus vitellinus Mid-eastern Queensland, Australia 1985 2002 (IUCN) Undetermined, possibly chytridiomycosis.[430]
Alaotra grebe Tachybaptus rufolavatus Lake Alaotra, Madagascar 1985 (confirmed)
1988 (unconfirmed)
2010 (IUCN) Hunting, accidental capture in nylon gillnets, predation and competition with introduced largemouth bass, striped snakehead, and Tilapia; habitat degradation from agriculture, and hybridization with the little grebe.[431]
Zanzibar leopard Panthera pardus adersi Unguja Island, Tanzania 1986 (confirmed)
2018 (unconfirmed)
Extermination campaign.[205] The subspecies has been subsumed into the extant African leopard on morphological grounds.[432]
Banff longnose dace Rhinichthys cataractae smithi Banff National Park, Alberta, Canada 1986 1987 Habitat degradation, competition and hybridization with introduced fishes.[433]
Dusky seaside sparrow Ammospiza maritima nigrescens Merritt Island and the St. Johns River, Florida, United States 1980 (wild)
1987 (captive)
1990 Flooding and draining of marshes to reduce mosquito population.[434]
Cuban ivory-billed woodpecker Campephilus principalis bairdii Cuba 1987 (confirmed)
1998 (unconfirmed)
Habitat loss.[355]
Kauaʻi ʻōʻō Moho braccatus Kauaʻi, Hawaii, United States 1987 2000 (IUCN) Habitat loss and introduced black rats, pigs, and disease-carrying mosquitos. The last female was killed by Hurricane Iwa during the 1982-1983 El Niño event.[435]
Bachman's warbler Vermivora bachmanii Southeastern United States and Cuba 1988[436] Habitat destruction from swampland draining and sugarcane agriculture.[437]
Golden toad Incilius periglenes Monteverde, Costa Rica 1989 2020 (IUCN) Anthropogenic global warming, chytridiomycosis, and airborne pollution.[438]
1990s
Common name Binomial name Former range Last record Declared extinct Causes
Barbary leopard Panthera pardus panthera Atlas Mountains 1996 Hunting.[205] The subspecies has been subsumed into the extant African leopard on morphological grounds.[432]
Swollen Raiatea Tree Snail Partula turgida Raiatea, Society Islands, French Polynesia 1992 (wild)
1996 (captive)
1996 (IUCN) Predation by the introduced carnivorous snail Euglandina rosea.[439]
Iberian lynx louse Felicola isidoroi Iberian Peninsula 1997 Undetermined.[440]

3rd millennium CE


21st century

2000s
Common name Binomial name Former range Last record Declared extinct Causes
Pyrenean ibex Capra pyrenaica pyrenaica Pyrenees;[244]
Cantabrian Mountains?[441]
2000
(briefly cloned in 2003)
2000 (IUCN)[442] Hunting, competition for pastures and diseases from exotic and domestic ungulates.[443][444]
Glaucous macaw Anodorhynchus glaucus Border area of Argentina, Paraguay, Brazil, and Uruguay 2001 Deforestation for agriculture and livestock grazing, particularly of the Yatay palm in which it fed.[445]
Polynesian tree snail Partula labrusca Raiatea, Society Islands, French Polynesia 1992 (wild)
2002 (captive)
2007 (IUCN) Predation by Euglandina rosea.[446]
Saint Helena olive Nesiota elliptica Saint Helena 1994 (wild)
2003 (captive)
2003 (IUCN) Deforestation for fuel and timber, and use of the land for plantations of New Zealand flax, leading to inbreeding depression and fungal infections from reduced numbers.[447]
Chinese paddlefish Psephurus gladius Yangtze and Yellow River basins, China 2003 2019 (IUCN)[448] Overfishing; construction of the Gezhouba and Three Gorges dams, causing population fragmentation and blocking the anadromous spawning migration.
Chinese river dolphin Lipotes vexillifer Middle and lower Yangtze, China 2002 (captive)
2007-2018 (wild, unconfirmed)
2007[449] Hunting, increased pollution and naval traffic, and habitat loss including as a result of the construction of the Three Gorges Dam.
Po'ouli Melamprosops phaeosoma Eastern Maui, Hawaii, United States 2004 2019 (IUCN) Introduced avian malaria and predators.[450]
Western black rhinoceros Diceros bicornis longipes South Sudan to Nigerian-Niger border area 2006 2011 (IUCN) Hunting.[451]
South Island kōkako Callaeas cinereus South Island, New Zealand 2007 (confirmed)
2018 (unconfirmed)
Habitat destruction from logging and grazing ungulates, and predation by introduced black rats, brush-tailed possums, and stoats.[452]
Bramble Cay melomys Melomys rubicola Bramble Cay, Australia 2009 2015 (IUCN)[453] Sea level rise as a consequence of global warming.[454]
Christmas Island pipistrelle Pipistrellus murrayi Christmas Island, Australia 2009 2017 (IUCN) Undetermined.[455]
2010s
Common name Binomial name Former range Last record Declared extinct Causes
Vietnamese rhinoceros Rhinoceros sondaicus annamiticus South China and Indochina 2010 2011 Hunting.[456]
Pinta Island tortoise Chelonoidis abingdonii Pinta, Galápagos Islands, Ecuador 1971 (wild)
2012 (captive)
2012 (IUCN)[457] Hunting and overgrazing by introduced goats. Hybrid descendants of this species still exist in other Galapagos islands, as a result of human action.[458]
Christmas Island forest skink Emoia nativitatis Christmas Island, Australia 2008 (wild)
2014 (captive)
2017 (IUCN) Undetermined.[459]
Rabbs' fringe-limbed treefrog Ecnomiohyla rabborum El Valle de Antón, Panama 2008 (wild)
2016 (captive)
Chytridiomycosis.[460]

See also


References


  1. S.L. Pimm, G.J. Russell, J.L. Gittleman and T.M. Brooks, The Future of Biodiversity, Science 269: 347–350 (1995)
  2. Mothé, D. et al. (2017). Sixty years after ‘The mastodonts of Brazil’: The state of the art of South American proboscideans (Proboscidea, Gomphotheriidae). Quaternary International, 443, 52-64.
  3. Correal Urrego, G. et al. (1990) Evidencias culturales durante el Pleistoceno y Holoceno de Colombia. Revista de Arqueología Americana, 1, 68-69.
  4. Tonni, E. P., Cione, A. L., & Soibelzon, L. H. (2003). The broken zig-zag: late Cenozoic large mammal and tortoise extintion in South America. Revista del Museo Argentino de Ciencias Naturales, 5.
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