Timeline of geopolitical changes (1900−present)


This is a timeline of country and capital changes around the world since 1900. It includes dates of declarations of independence, changes in country name, changes of capital city or name, and changes in territory such as the annexation, cession, concession, occupation, or secession of land. Territorial conquests as a result of war are included on the timeline at the conclusion of military campaigns, but changes in the course of specific battles and day-to-day operations are generally not included. Changes in airspace and maritime territory are included only when they are subject to a dispute.[lower-alpha 1]

1900s


YearDateEvent
19001 JanuaryThe Northern Nigeria Protectorate is established by the United Kingdom.
The Southern Nigeria Protectorate is established by the United Kingdom.
16 FebruaryThe United States of America takes control of American Samoa under the terms of the Tripartite Convention.[1][2]
MarchThe first Republic of Acre capitulates and is reabsorbed by the Republic of Bolivia. Later the same year, the second Republic of Acre is declared with Antimary as its capital, and it is again reabsorbed by Bolivia.
21 AprilThe United Kingdom annexes the island of Niue, making it a British protectorate.[3]
28 MayThe United Kingdom occupies the Orange Free State.
5 SeptemberThe colony of French Chad is established. Fort-Lamy is the capital.
The border between the Republic of the United States of Brazil and the French colony of Guyane (French Guiana) is defined by arbitration. The French troops that advanced to the margins of the Araguari River repair to the Oiapoque River.
19011 JanuaryThe Commonwealth of Australia is established by federation of the British colonies of New South Wales, Victoria, Queensland, South Australia, Western Australia and Tasmania. Melbourne was the de facto (but not de jure) seat of government from 1901 to 1927.
23 MarchThe First Philippine Republic dissolves.
11 JuneThe United Kingdom transfers the Cook Islands and Niue to the Colony of New Zealand.[3]
26 SeptemberThe United Kingdom occupies the Ashanti Empire and makes it a crown colony.[4][5]
190220 MayThe Republic of Cuba gains independence from the United States of America. Havana is the capital.
31 MayThe United Kingdom creates the Orange River Colony from the Orange Free State and the Transvaal Colony from the South African Republic (Republic of Transvaal). Bloemfontein and Pretoria remains the respective capitals.
1 JulyThe United Kingdom annexes Henderson Island.
10 JulyThe United Kingdom annexes Oeno Island.
20 NovemberKing Edward VII of Britain adjusts borders in the Cordillera of the Andes Boundary Case 1902 (Argentina, Chile).
19 DecemberThe United Kingdom annexes Ducie Island.
The Zaria Emirate and the Abuja Emirate are annexed into the Northern Nigeria Protectorate.
Kamerun annexes the Mandara Kingdom.
190327 JanuaryThe third Republic of Acre declares its independence from Bolivia. The capital is Antimary.
23 FebruaryCuba leases Guantanamo Bay to the United States of America in perpetuity.
12 MayMauritania becomes a protectorate of the French Republic. Saint-Louis is the capital.
29 JulyThe Adamawa Emirate is annexed into the Northern Nigeria Protectorate and Kamerun.
20 OctoberThe Alaska boundary dispute is resolved between the United States of America and Canada.[6]
3 NovemberThe Republic of Panama secedes from the Republic of Colombia. Panama City is the capital.
11 NovemberThe Republic of Bolivia and the Republic of the United States of Brazil sign the Treaty of Petrópolis. Bolivia receives land in Mato Grosso from Brazil, and Brazil absorbs the Republic of Acre.
18 NovemberThe new Republic of Panama grants the United States of America control of the Panama Canal Zone. Balboa is the administrative center.
The United Kingdom secedes the Seychelles from the colony of Mauritius.
After the Aceh War, the Sultanate of Aceh is annexed by the Kingdom of the Netherlands and becomes part of the Dutch East Indies.
190413 FebruaryFollowing the Franco-Siamese Convention, the Kingdom of Siam concedes border territories to French Indochina in exchange for French-occupied Chantaburi.
4 MayThe United States of America annexed the Panama Canal Zone.[7]
4 OctoberThe Franco-Spanish Convention of Paris acknowledges formal control of Saguia el-Hamra (later northern Spanish Sahara) by the Kingdom of Spain.
The border between the Republic of the United States of Brazil and British Guiana is defined by arbitration. Approximately half of the disputed land goes to each side.
French Dahomey is established. Porto-Novo is the capital.
The Kingdom of Champasak is annexed by France and becomes part of the French protectorate of Laos.
19057 JuneThe Kingdom of Norway declares its independence from the United Kingdoms of Sweden and Norway through dissolution of the personal union with Kingdom of Sweden.
5 SeptemberThe Liaodong Peninsula and the Russian railway in south Manchuria are leased to the Empire of Japan following the Treaty of Portsmouth.
The Empire of Japan annexes Sakhalin Island south of 50° N following the Treaty of Portsmouth.
26 OctoberThe Kingdom of Sweden recognizes the union dissolution and the independence of Kingdom of Norway.
The United Kingdom moves the capital of the East Africa Protectorate from Mombasa to Nairobi.
1906The French Republic divides its colony of French Congo into the colonies of Gabon and Middle Congo. Libreville remains the capital of Gabon. Brazzaville becomes the capital of Middle Congo.
The United Kingdom and France jointly administer the New Hebrides. Port Vila is the capital.
190723 MarchThe Kingdom of Siam concedes territory to French Indochina in exchange for Trat.
24 AprilThe border between the Republic of the United States of Brazil and the Republic of Colombia is defined by the Bogotá Treaty. Brazil gains lands on the margins of the Solimoes River at the area known as Cabeça de Cachorro ("The Dog's Head").
26 SeptemberNew Zealand gains independence from the United Kingdom. Wellington is the capital.
17 DecemberUgyen Wangchuck establishes the Kingdom of Bhutan. Punakha is the winter capital and Thimphu is the summer capital.
19085 AugustThe Kingdom of Bulgaria gains independence from the Ottoman Empire. Sofia is the capital.
6 OctoberAustria-Hungary formally annexes the Ottoman Vilayet of Bosnia (under de facto Austro-Hungarian rule since the Treaty of Berlin 1878) as the Condominium of Bosnia and Herzegovina (causing the Bosnian crisis)
15 NovemberKing Leopold II of Belgium sells his private Congo Free State to the Kingdom of Belgium. The colony is renamed the Belgian Congo.
19099 JulyThe Kingdom of Siam transfers its southernmost provinces to British Malaya in the Anglo-Siamese Treaty of 1909.

1910s


YearDateEvent
191015 JanuaryThe French Republic creates French Equatorial Africa from its colonies of Gabon, Middle Congo, and Oubangui-Chari. Libreville and Bangui yield to Brazzaville as the capital.
29 March23 bancos are annexed by Mexico from the United States and 34 bancos are annexed by the United States of America from Mexico with the first application of the Banco Convention of 1905.[8][9]
31 MayThe Cape Colony, the Colony of Natal, the Transvaal, and the Orange River Colony unite as the Union of South Africa to gain independence from the United Kingdom.
20 AugustCanada rescinds its claim to Pope's Folly Island in a treaty with the United States of America.[10][11][12]
22 AugustThe Korean Empire capitulates and is annexed by the Empire of Japan.
5 OctoberThe first Portuguese Republic supersedes the Kingdom of Portugal.
The Kasanje Kingdom is annexed to Portuguese Angola.
19114 NovemberIn the Morocco–Congo Treaty, Germany acquires the Neukamerun region from France in exchange for abandoning German claims in Morocco.
29 DecemberThe Bogd Khanate of Mongolia declares independence from the Qing dynasty of China. Niislel Khüree is the capital.
The capital of British India is moved from Calcutta to New Delhi.
19121 JanuaryThe Republic of China overthrows the Qing dynasty of China in the Xinhai Revolution. Nanking is the provisional capital.
30 MarchThe Treaty of Fez formally re-establishes Morocco as a French Protectorate.
7 NovemberMexico annexes 20 bancos from the United States and the United States of America annexes 11 bancos from Mexico.[8][9]
27 NovemberThe Treaty Between France and Spain Regarding Morocco assigns the northern and southern strips of Morocco to Spain.
28 NovemberAlbania declares its independence from the Ottoman Empire. Tirana is the capital.
The Wadai Empire is disestablished and annexed into French Chad.
191313 FebruaryTibet declares independence from the Republic of China.
MayThe Imamate of Oman rebels against the Sultanate of Muscat and Oman. Nizwa becomes the capital after it is conquered on 5 June.[13][14]
10 AugustFollowing the Second Balkan War, the Treaty of Bucharest is signed, by the terms of which:
29 SeptemberFollowing the Second Balkan War, the Treaty of Constantinople is signed, by the terms of which:
19141 JanuaryThe United Kingdom unites the Southern Nigeria Protectorate and the Northern Nigeria Protectorate to form the Colony and Protectorate of Nigeria. Lagos is the capital.
7 MarchAlbania becomes the Principality of Albania.
17 AprilTannu Uriankhai is officially made a protectorate of the Russian Empire.
28 JulyFollowing the assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand, Austria-Hungary declares war on Serbia, precipitating the First World War.
1 SeptemberThe Russian Empire changes the name of its capital from Saint Petersburg to Petrograd.
The Kingdom of Kongo is annexed to Portuguese Angola.
19151 MayThe Panama Canal Zone border is redefined between Panama and the United States of America resulting in slight territory changes.[15][16][17]
27 MayThe United States of America annexes some more land around the Rio Chagres mouth in the Panama Canal Zone due to the Hay–Bunau-Varilla Treaty.[18]
18 OctoberThe German Empire creates the Government General of Warsaw from the parts of Poland conquered by the Russian Empire.
8 DecemberThe United States of America annexes a triangle of island between the Rio Chagres, Caribbean Sea and the Panama Canal Zone.[18]
12 DecemberHongxian proclaims the Empire of China. Beijing is the capital.
191622 MarchThe Empire of China is abolished.
5 NovemberGermany and Austria-Hungary proclaim the establishment of the Kingdom of Poland. Warsaw is the capital.
191715 MarchThe Provisional Government of Russia supersedes the Russian Empire in the wake of the February Revolution.
31 MarchUnder the Treaty of the Danish West Indies, the United States of America acquires the Danish West Indies (excluding Water Island) from the Kingdom of Denmark, renaming them the United States Virgin Islands.
12 AprilThe Autonomous Governorate of Estonia is created from the Governorate of Estonia and some of the Governorate of Livonia of the Russian Empire.
1 JulyXuantong is reinstalled as Emperor of China in an event now called the Manchu Restoration.
12 JulyEnd of the Manchu Restoration.
14 SeptemberThe Russian Republic supersedes the Provisional Government of Russia.
7 NovemberThe Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic supersedes the Russian Republic.
2 DecemberThe Emirate of Chechenia declares its independence from the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic. Vedeno is the capital.
6 DecemberThe Republic of Finland gains independence from the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic. Helsinki is the capital.
22 DecemberThe Independent State of Flanders declares its independence from the Kingdom of Belgium. Brussels is the capital.
191822 JanuaryThe Ukrainian People's Republic gains independence from the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic. Kiev is the capital.
16 FebruaryThe State of Lithuania declares its independence from the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic. Vilnius is named the capital despite occupation by the Kingdom of Poland.
24 FebruaryThe Republic of Estonia declares independence from the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic. Tallinn is the capital.
3 MarchThe Treaty of Brest-Litovsk creates many new states out of the western Russian Empire.
12 MarchThe Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic moves its capital from Petrograd to Moscow.
25 MarchThe Abkhazian Republic (Abkhazia) gains independence from the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic. Sukhumi is the capital.
The Belarusian People's Republic declares its independence from the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic. Minsk and Hrodna are named the joint capitals.
27 MarchThe Union of Bessarabia with Romania is proclaimed by the Treaty of Paris (1920).
19 AprilThe Transcaucasian Democratic Federative Republic annexes the Abkhazian Republic (Abkhazia).
22 AprilThe Transcaucasian Democratic Federative Republic gains independence from the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic. Tbilisi is the capital.
11 MayThe Mountainous Republic of the Northern Caucasus annexes the Emirate of Chechenia.
26 MayThe Democratic Republic of Georgia secedes from the Transcaucasian Democratic Federative Republic. Tbilisi is the capital.
28 MayArmenia and the Azerbaijan Democratic Republic dissolve the Transcaucasian Democratic Federative Republic. Yerevan and Baku are the respective capitals.
30 MayArmenia changes its name to the Democratic Republic of Armenia.
9 JulyThe Kingdom of Lithuania supersedes the State of Lithuania.
10 JulyThe Russian Socialist Federative Soviet Republic supersedes the Soviet Russian Republic.
12 JulyThe United States of America annexes 2.6 hectares of land at Punta Paitilla for the Panama Canal Zone.
25 JulyThe Kingdom of Belgium reabsorbs the Independent State of Flanders.
21 AugustThe United States of America annexes land between Rio Chagres and Quebrada Majagual for the Panama Canal Zone.[18]
29 OctoberThe State of Slovenes, Croats and Serbs proclaims independence from the Austro-Hungarian Empire. Zagreb is the capital.
31 OctoberThe Kingdom of Hungary declares the monarchy abolished. Budapest is the capital.
1 NovemberThe Mutawakkilite Kingdom of Yemen (North Yemen) gains independence from the Ottoman Empire. Sana'a becomes its capital.
The Banat Republic is proclaimed.
The short-lived West Ukrainian People's Republic is proclaimed.
2 NovemberThe Republic of Lithuania supersedes the Kingdom of Lithuania.
10 NovemberThe Republic of Alsace-Lorraine is proclaimed. Strasbourg is the capital.
12 NovemberThe Republic of German-Austria is proclaimed.
14 NovemberThe Republic of Poland supersedes the Kingdom of Poland.
15 NovemberThe Kingdom of Serbia invades the short-lived Banat Republic and divides it between the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes and Romania.
16 NovemberThe Hungarian People's Republic supersedes the Kingdom of Hungary.
18 NovemberThe Republic of Latvia gains independence from the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic. Riga is the capital.
22 NovemberFrance annexes the Republic of Alsace-Lorraine.
25 NovemberThe de facto province of Vojvodina votes to join with the Kingdom of Serbia.
28 NovemberThe Kingdom of Serbia annexes the Kingdom of Montenegro.
The Union of Bukovina with Romania is proclaimed.
29 NovemberThe Commune of the Working People of Estonia is established as a puppet state in Soviet-occupied Estonia.
1 DecemberIceland, a dependent territory of the Kingdom of Denmark with home rule, becomes the fully sovereign Kingdom of Iceland in personal union with Denmark. Reykjavík is the capital.
The State of Slovenes, Croats and Serbs and the Kingdom of Serbia unite to form the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes. Zagreb yields to Belgrade as the capital.
The Union of Transylvania with Romania is proclaimed.
19191 JanuaryThe Byelorussian Soviet Socialist Republic supersedes the Belarusian People's Republic. Minsk and Smolensk remain joint capitals.
1 FebruaryThe Soviet puppet state Commune of the Working People of Estonia loses all territory to the Republic of Estonia.
27 FebruaryThe Lithuanian-Belorussian Soviet Socialist Republic supersedes the Byelorussian Soviet Socialist Republic. Vilnius is the capital.
1 MarchThe Oriental State of Uruguay changes its name to the Oriental Republic of Uruguay.
French West Africa is reorganized, with Upper Volta as a separate colony.
21 MarchThe Hungarian Soviet Republic supersedes the Hungarian People's Republic.
6 AprilThe Bavarian Soviet Republic supersedes the People's State of Bavaria.
19 AprilPoland occupies Vilnius, which is disputed by the Lithuanians.
3 MayThe Free State of Bavaria supersedes the Bavarian Soviet Republic.
6 MayThe Kionga Triangle is assigned to Portugal as a mandate.
Kamerun and Togoland are assigned to France and the United Kingdom as mandates, respectively.
7 MayGerman New Guinea and the Bismarck Archipelago are assigned to Australia as a mandate.
German Southwest Africa is assigned to South Africa as a mandate.
German Samoa is assigned to New Zealand as a mandate.
The German Northern Pacific Islands are assigned to Japan as a mandate.
Nauru is assigned to the British Empire (eventually the United Kingdom, Australia, and New Zealand) as a mandate.
30 MayRuanda and Urundi (minus Kisaka district) are assigned to Belgium as a mandate.
28 JuneIn the aftermath of World War I, the Treaty of Versailles and the Little Treaty of Versailles are signed, by the terms of which:
10 JulyFrance and the United Kingdom agree on a frontier between their mandates in the Cameroons.
2 AugustThe Hungarian People's Republic supersedes the Hungarian Soviet Republic.
8 AugustAfghanistan declares its independence from the United Kingdom.
The Hungarian Republic supersedes the Hungarian People's Republic.
11 AugustThe Weimar Republic supersedes the German Empire.
10 SeptemberAustria signs the Treaty of Saint-Germain-en-Laye, by the terms of which:
12 SeptemberThe Bonin–Pichon agreement transfers two desert strips from French control to Italian Libya.
18 SeptemberThe United States of America annexes the island of Largo Remo for the Panama Canal Zone.[19]
25 SeptemberSpitsbergen is awarded to Norway.
27 NovemberBulgaria signs the Treaty of Neuilly-sur-Seine, by the terms of which:

1920s


YearDateEvent
192010 JanuaryThe United Kingdom officially takes over administration of German East Africa and changes its name to Tanganyika.
The League of Nations is founded.
2 FebruaryThe Estonian War of Independence ends with the Treaty of Tartu, which awards areas around Ivangorod (Jaanilinn) and Pechory (Petseri) from Soviet Russia to Estonia.
29 FebruaryThe Kingdom of Hungary supersedes the Hungarian Republic.
6 AprilThe Far Eastern Republic is established. Chita becomes the capital.
26 AprilThe Khorezm People's Soviet Republic supersedes the Khanate of Khiva.
28 AprilThe Azerbaijani Socialist Conciliar Republic supersedes the Azerbaijan Democratic Republic.
Late AprilWestern Thrace is granted to Greece by the Triple Entente.
4 JuneHungary signs the Treaty of Trianon, by the terms of which:
9 JulyDenmark officially incorporates Northern Schleswig following a plebiscite held earlier in the year.
25 SeptemberThe Sultanate of Muscat and Oman is reunified through an agreement which grants substantial autonomy and self-government to the Imamate of Oman but recognizes the sovereignty of the Sultanate of Muscat.[20]
8 OctoberThe Bukharan People's Soviet Republic supersede the Emirate of Bukhara.
29 NovemberThe Armenian Socialist Conciliar Republic supersedes the Democratic Republic of Armenia.
192125 FebruaryThe Socialist Conciliar Republic of Georgia supersedes the Democratic Republic of Georgia.
18 MarchThe Peace of Riga defines new borders between Poland and Soviet Russia, Soviet Ukraine, and Soviet Belarus.
1 JuneFrance reorganizes French West Africa and the colony of Mauritania is established.
14 AugustThe Tuvan People's Republic supersedes Tannu Uriankhai and changes the name of its capital from Belotsarsk to Kyzyl.
18 SeptemberThe Rif Republic is declared in Spanish Morocco with no recognition.
12 OctoberUpper Silesia is divided between Poland and Germany.
13 OctoberIn the Treaty of Kars, Turkey relinquishes claims to Armenia but gains the area around Kars and southern Achara.
Niger is established as a separate French colony. Zinder becomes the capital.
22 NovemberThe United Kingdom recognizes the independence of Afghanistan.
192228 FebruaryThe Kingdom of Egypt gains independence from the United Kingdom. Cairo is the capital.
12 MarchThe Socialist Conciliar Republic of Georgia, Azerbaijani Socialist Conciliar Republic, and the Armenian Socialist Conciliar Republic unite to form the Transcaucasian Socialist Federative Soviet Republic. Baku and Yerevan yield to Tbilisi as the capital.
15 NovemberThe Far Eastern Republic is disestablished and merged with the Russian Socialist Federative Soviet Republic.
17 NovemberThe Ottoman Empire is dissolved. Its territories are mostly made protectorates of the victorious Allies of World War I.
6 DecemberThe Irish Free State is constituted as an independent dominion formed through the secession of the island of Ireland from the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland. Dublin is the capital.
8 DecemberNorthern Ireland secedes from the Irish Free State to again form a region of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland.
30 DecemberThe Russian Socialist Federative Soviet Republic, the Transcaucasian Socialist Federative Soviet Republic, the Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic, and the Byelorussian Soviet Socialist Republic unite to form the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (Soviet Union). Tbilisi, Kharkov, and Smolensk yield to Moscow as the capital.
19231 FebruaryThe United States of America annexes the future location of Madden Lake for the Panama Canal Zone.[21][22][23]
29 OctoberThe Republic of Turkey is established following the fall of the Ottoman Empire. Ankara is the capital.
15 NovemberHonduras claims Swan Islands, creating a dispute with the United States of America.[24]
The Kingdom of Belgium moves the capital of its colony of the Congo from Boma to Leopoldville.
192417 FebruaryThe Bukharan People's Soviet Republic joins the Soviet Union.
27 OctoberThe Khorezm People's Soviet Republic joins the Soviet Union.
26 NovemberThe Mongolian People's Republic is established. Ulan Bator is the capital.
19251 JanuaryThe Kingdom of Norway changes the name of its capital from Kristiania to Oslo.
22 JanuaryThe Republic of Albania supersedes the Principality of Albania.
4 MarchThe United States of America annexes Swains Island as part of American Samoa.
29 JuneBritain transfers control of northern Jubaland to Italy, becoming the Italian colony of Oltre Giuba.
1 JulyThe Republic of China relocates its provisional capital from Nanking to Canton.
17 JulyA treaty between the United States of America and Canada slightly adjusts the border between the two. Overall the United States gained between 30 and 35 acres.[25][26]
6 DecemberBritain adjusts the Egyptian border in favor of Italian Libya, giving it the Jarabub and Kufra oases.
192627 MayThe Rif Republic is dissolved by Spanish and French occupation forces in Morocco.
9 JuneAfghanistan becomes the Kingdom of Afghanistan.
30 JuneOltre Giuba is incorporated into Italian Somaliland.
192729 JanuaryWithin the Nejd and Hejaz, the Sultanate of Nejd is renamed the Kingdom of Nejd and its Dependencies.
12 AprilThe United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland changes its name to the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland.
9 MayThe Commonwealth of Australia moves its seat of parliament from Melbourne to the purpose-built capital of Canberra.[27]
18 JulyThe United States of America annexes 38 hectares of Taboga and Taboguilla for the Panama Canal Zone.[18]
26 OctoberTwo bancos along the Colorado River are ceded from Mexico to the United States of America.[28][29]
28 OctoberThe Republic of Ararat declares independence from Turkey.
In French Syria, the State of Souaida is renamed the Jabal Druze State.
19284 AprilThe United States of America cedes Palmas, American Territory of Philippines to the Netherlands after the Island of Palmas Case.
23 April41 bancos are exchanged between Mexico and the United States of America.[30]
26 MayThe United States of America annexes the Las Adjuntas banco from Mexico.[31]
1 SeptemberThe Kingdom of Albania supersedes the Republic of Albania.
24 SeptemberThe United States of America annexes three hectares of land at El Cerro de Doscientos Pies ("200-Foot Hill") near Las Minas Bay for the Panama Canal Zone.[18]
29 DecemberThe Republic of China establishes Nanking as its official capital, later codified in the Constitution of the Republic of China.
1929JanuaryThe Emirate of Afghanistan supersedes the Kingdom of Afghanistan.
6 JanuaryThe Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes is renamed the Kingdom of Yugoslavia.
FebruaryVatican City gains independence from the Kingdom of Italy. Vatican City itself is the capital.
2 FebruaryNorway claims Peter I Island.
3 JuneTacna is returned to Peru by Chile.
OctoberThe Kingdom of Afghanistan supersedes the Emirate of Afghanistan.
3 OctoberThe Kingdom of Yugoslavia supersedes the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes.

1930s


YearDateEvent
19304 FebruaryThe United States of America annexes the La Rana, El Pilon, Ojinaga, and El Mulato bancos from Mexico and Mexico annexes the Galindo, Haciendita, and San Rafael bancos from the United States.[32]
19 FebruaryThe United States of America annexes the Aguilar, Tabalopa, Quibira, and Los Puliques bancos from Mexico.[33]
3 MarchThe United States of America annexes the Bermudez, Compania Agricola, Charles Davis, Calero, Diablo, and Guayuco bancos from Mexico and Mexico annexes the Azcarate, Arroyo del Alamo, Newman, and Pruitt bancos from the United States.[34]
18 MarchThe United States of America annexes the Weber banco from Mexico.[35]
21 MarchThe United States of America annexes the San Lorenzo banco from Mexico.[36]
9 AprilThe United States of America annexes the Gallego and Nunez bancos from Mexico.[37]
25 AprilThe United States of America annexes the La Cachanilla, Rincon de Marcelino, and Camp Rice bancos from Mexico.[38]
28 AprilThe United States of America annexes the El Carino banco from Mexico.[39]
1 MayThe United States of America annexes the Las Piedras and Max Muller bancos from Mexico.[40]
22 JulyThe United States of America annexes 25 hectares on Jicarita Island and 60 hectares at Punta Morro de Puercos for the Panama Canal Zone.[18]
11 NovemberNorway rescinds its claim to the Sverdrup Islands; in return, the United Kingdom recognizes the Norwegian claim to Jan Mayen.
193115 JanuaryThe Belgian concession within the city of Tientsin is returned to China.
28 JanuaryFrance officially annexes Isla de la Pasión as Clipperton Island.
14 AprilThe Second Spanish Republic supersedes the Monarchy of Spain. The Catalan Republic subsequently declares independence from Spain.
15 AprilThe United States of America annexes small areas around the Madden Dam for the Panama Canal Zone.[18]
28 AprilThe Catalan Republic is taken over by Spain.
20 MayThe United States of America annexes the La Pascualilla and Morales bancos from Mexico.[41]
22 MayMexico annexes the Ochoa and El Jazmin bancos from the United States of America.[42]
12 JuneThe Australian territories of North Australia and Central Australia merge to form the Northern Territory.
10 JulyNorway claims territory in eastern Greenland as Erik the Red's Land.
7 NovemberThe Chinese Soviet Republic is established by the Communist Party of China as a group of discontiguous territories within the larger Republic of China.
11 DecemberBy the Statute of Westminster 1931, Canada gains full control over its foreign policy and thus independence from the United Kingdom.
193218 FebruaryThe Empire of Japan takes over northeastern China and establishes Manchukuo. Hsinking becomes its capital.
25 FebruaryThe United States of America annexes the El Morillo banco from Mexico.[43]
12 MayThe United States of America annexes the Diablo Segundo banco from Mexico.[44]
17 MayPanama annexes a small area of land at Punta Paitilla from the United States' Panama Canal Zone.[45]
4 JuneThe Republic of Chile changes its name to the Socialist Republic of Chile.
13 SeptemberThe Socialist Republic of Chile changes its name back to the Republic of Chile.
23 SeptemberThe personal union of the Kingdom of Nejd and Hejaz unify to form the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.
3 OctoberThe Iraqi Kingdom (Iraq) gains independence from the United Kingdom. Baghdad is the capital.
13 DecemberThe United States of America annexes the Mangsee Island and seven of the Turtle Islands into the Commonwealth of the Philippines from the United Kingdom.
193323 MarchNazi Germany supersedes the Weimar Republic.
5 AprilErik the Red's Land in Greenland is ceded by Norway to Denmark.
13 JuneThe United Kingdom cedes Enderby Land and Victoria Land to Australia as the Australian Antarctic Territory.
17 JulyMexico annexes the Hollinsworth banco from the United States of America.[46]
12 NovemberAn Uyghur independence movement creates the Islamic Republic of East Turkistan. Kashgar is the capital.
19341 JanuaryItaly creates Italian Libya with the merger of the colonies of Tripolitania, Cyrenaica, and Fezzan. The capital is Tripoli.
6 FebruaryThe Islamic Republic of East Turkistan is taken over by the Republic of China.
27 FebruaryThe United States of America annexes the Villarreales Segundo banco from Mexico.[47]
1 MarchManchukuo is renamed Manchutikuo.
6 AprilSpain establishes a protectorate in Ifni, in territory it had claimed since 1860.[48][49]
6 OctoberThe Catalan State proclaims itself independent of the Spanish Republic. Barcelona is the capital.
7 OctoberThe Catalan State is disestablished and reabsorbed into the Spanish Republic.
15 OctoberThe Chinese Soviet Republic is annexed by the Republic of China.
193521 MarchReza Shah Pahlavi changes the name of the Imperial State of Persia to the Imperial State of Iran.
26 MarchJarvis Island is transferred from the United Kingdom to the United States.
1 AprilThe Territory of the Saar Basin is taken over by Nazi Germany.
3 NovemberThe Hellenic Republic is renamed the Kingdom of Greece after a coup d'état and a referendum staged by Georgios Kondylis restore the monarchy.
15 NovemberThe United States territory of the Philippines becomes the semi-independent Commonwealth of the Philippines.
25 NovemberThe East Hebei Autonomous Government is created in China after the invasion of eastern Hebei by the Empire of Japan. Tongzhou is the capital.
19369 MayThe Ethiopian Empire is taken over by Italy as Italian Ethiopia following the Italian victory in the Second Italo-Abyssinian War.
1 JuneThe Italian colonies of Eritrea, Ethiopia, and Italian Somaliland merge to form Italian East Africa.
17 JulySpanish Nationalist forces take over Spanish Morocco, starting the Spanish Civil War.
23 JulyThe Spanish State under Nationalist rebel leader Francisco Franco proclaims itself the sole government of Spain.
6 AugustThe United Kingdom claims Enderbury Island and McKean Island and reasserts its claim to Kanton Island.
SeptemberIfni and Spanish Sahara are taken over by Spanish Nationalist forces.
14 OctoberSpanish Guinea is taken over by Spanish Nationalist forces.
2 DecemberIn the French Mandate of Syria, the Jabal ad-Druze is integrated into the Syrian Republic.
5 DecemberIn the French Mandate of Syria, the Sanjak of Latakia is integrated into the Syrian Republic.
22 DecemberThe Anglo-Egyptian Treaty of 1936 is ratified and all British troops are withdrawn from Egypt, except for within the Suez Canal Zone.
The former colony of Curaçao and Dependencies is renamed the Territory of Curaçao following the implementation of several laws resulting from the 1922 abolition of colonies in the Kingdom of the Netherlands. Willemstad on Curaçao remains the capital.
19371 AprilThe Aden Settlement is separated from British India and changed into the Aden Colony and Protectorate. The city of Aden becomes the capital.
British Burma is separated from the British Raj.
22 NovemberThe Mongol Military Government is renamed the Mongol United Autonomous Government.
5 DecemberThe Japanese invade Shanghai, creating the Dadao Municipal Government of Shanghai.
14 DecemberThe Japanese invasion of China continues with the creation of the Provisional Government of the Republic of China.
29 DecemberThe Irish Free State changes its name to Ireland.
193812 JanuaryTristan da Cunha becomes a dependency of Saint Helena, a crown colony of the United Kingdom.
14 JanuaryNorway lays claims in Antarctica as Queen Maud Land, which lies between 20° west and 45° east.
8 MarchThe United States claims the Canton and Enderbury Islands.
13 MarchNazi Germany annexes the Federal State of Austria in the Anschluss. Vienna yields to Berlin as the capital.
28 MarchThe Reformed Government of the Republic of China is formed after Japan invades northeastern China.
29 JulyThe Australian Federal Capital Territory is renamed the Australian Capital Territory.
7 SeptemberThe area known as Hatay gains independence from Syria as the Hatay State.
30 SeptemberThe Munich Agreement transfers the Sudetenland from Czechoslovakia to Germany and gives parts to Hungary and Poland.
The Czechoslovak Republic is renamed the Czecho-Slovak Republic.
193914 MarchCzechoslovakia is dissolved as the Slovak state was proclaimed.
15 MarchCarpatho-Ukraine is proclaimed but remains unrecognized, and the same day is occupied and annexed by Hungary.
16 MarchThe Protectorate of Bohemia and Moravia is proclaimed as a German protectorate.
1 AprilThe Spanish State supersedes the Second Spanish Republic with the Nationalist victory in the Spanish Civil War.
3 AprilThe United States of America annexes the Lozano banco from Mexico.[50]
6 AprilThe islands of Canton and Enderbury are put under the Canton and Enderbury Islands condominium of the United States and the United Kingdom.
12 AprilItaly annexes the Albanian Kingdom.
23 JuneThe Kingdom of Siam changes its name to the Kingdom of Thailand.
10 JulyNazi Germany changes its name to the Greater German Empire.
23 JulyTurkey fully annexes the Republic of Hatay.
27 JulyPanama annexes a corridor of land connecting both separated pieces of the United States' Panama Canal Zone.[51]
16 AugustThe United States of America claims Fakaofo, Funafuti, Hull Island, Niulakita, Nukufetau, and Nukulaelae.[52]
1 SeptemberWorld War II begins with the invasion of Poland by Nazi Germany.
Japanese-occupied Mengjiang is renamed the Mengjiang United Autonomous Government.
2 SeptemberThe Free City of Danzig is annexed by Nazi Germany. Danzig yields to Berlin as the capital.
14 SeptemberThe colonies of French Guiana, Guadeloupe, Inini, Martinique, and Saint Pierre and Miquelon merge into the colony of the French Antilles and Guiana.
17 SeptemberThe Soviet Union invades the Republic of Poland.
28 SeptemberThe government of the Republic of Poland collapses, inviting military occupation by Nazi Germany.
6 OctoberThe former territory of the Republic of Poland is partitioned between Nazi Germany and the Soviet Union, per the terms of the Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact.
12 OctoberThe General Government for the Occupied Polish Territories is created after the invasion of the Republic of Poland by Nazi Germany.
1 DecemberThe Finnish Democratic Republic is created after the invasion of Finland by the Soviet Union. Terijoki is the de facto capital.

1940s


YearDateEvent
194012 MarchThe Karelo-Finnish Soviet Socialist Republic is formed when Soviet forces invade the Finnish Democratic Republic. Petrozavodsk is the capital.
30 MarchThe Provisional Government of the Republic of China and the Reformed Government of the Republic of China merge to form the Reorganized National Government of China.
9 AprilThe Kingdom of Denmark is invaded by Germany, while Greenland is granted autonomy.
12 AprilThe Faroe Islands are put under British occupation.
10 MayThe Military Administration of Luxembourg and the Civil Administration Area of Luxembourg are created when German forces invade the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg. Luxembourg City is the capital.
14 MayThe Reich Commissariat for the Occupied Dutch Territories is created when German forces invade the Kingdom of the Netherlands. Amsterdam is the capital.
17 MayThe Military Administration in Belgium and Northern France and the Realm Commissariat of Belgium and Northern France are created when German forces invade the Kingdom of Belgium. Brussels is the capital.
6 JuneMexico annexes the Progreso and Las Flores bancos from the United States.[53]
7 JuneThe Realm Commissariat for the Occupied Norwegian Territories is created when Germany invades the Kingdom of Norway and its possessions. Oslo is the capital.
15 JuneThe Soviet Union invades the Republic of Lithuania.
Nazi Germany annexes Alsace-Lorraine from France.
17 JuneThe Soviet Union invades the Republic of Estonia and the Republic of Latvia.
22 JuneThe French Republic is renamed the French State (Vichy France).
28 JuneThe Soviet Union occupies regions of Romania.
30 JuneThe Bailiwick of Guernsey is occupied by Nazi Germany.
1 JulyThe Bailiwick of Jersey is occupied by Nazi Germany.
21 JulyThe Estonian, Latvian, and Lithuanian Soviet Socialist Republics are declared in Soviet-occupied Estonia, Latvia, and Lithuania. Most of the international community does not recognize Soviet rule in these occupied countries and some continue to recognize their diplomatic legations abroad.
31 JulyThe General Government for the Occupied Polish Territories is renamed the General Government.
2 AugustThe Moldavian Soviet Socialist Republic is created from a larger part of Bessarabia, a region annexed from Romania, and integrated into the Soviet Union as the 13th union republic.
3 AugustThe Lithuanian SSR is illegally annexed into the Soviet Union as the 14th union republic. This move is not recognized by the United States, United Kingdom, or the international community.
5 AugustThe Latvian SSR is illegally annexed into the Soviet Union as the 15th union republic. This move is not recognized by the United States, United Kingdom, or the international community.
6 AugustThe Estonian SSR is illegally annexed into the Soviet Union as the 16th union republic. This move is not recognized by the United States, United Kingdom, or the international community.
19 AugustBritish Somaliland is taken over by Italian forces and becomes a part of Italian East Africa.
2 SeptemberFrench Oceania is taken over by forces loyal to the Free French Forces (FFF).
9 SeptemberFrench India is taken over by forces loyal to the Free French Forces (FFF).
22 SeptemberNew Caledonia and Dependencies are taken over by forces loyal to the Free French Forces (FFF).
4 NovemberThe international city of Tangier is taken over by the State of Spain.
12 NovemberFrench Equatorial Africa is taken over by forces loyal to the Free French Forces (FFF).
1941FebruaryCyrenaica is taken over by the United Kingdom.
18 FebruaryThe United States annexes the San Antonio and Angostura bancos from Mexico and Mexico annexes the Casner and Ruidosa bancos from the United States.[54]
26 FebruaryAllied forces take over Italian Somaliland, which is placed under the protection of the United Kingdom.
16 MarchThe British Somaliland protectorate is taken over by Allied forces.
6 AprilThe Kingdom of Greece is taken over by Axis forces.
9 AprilGreenland and the Kingdom of Iceland are put under United States protection from the Danish government-in-exile.
17 AprilThe Kingdom of Yugoslavia is dissolved due to Axis invasions.
30 AprilThe Military Administration in Serbia is created after Nazi Germany invades Serbia.
2 MayThe United States annexes the Las Ruelas banco from Mexico and Mexico annexes the Nogales banco from the United States.[55]
5 MayThe Ethiopian Empire is revived after being under Italian control.
19 MayEritrea is taken over by the United Kingdom.
JulyThe French agree to share French Indochina with the Empire of Japan.
12 JulyAfter Italy invades Montenegro, it creates the protectorate of the Kingdom of Montenegro.
17 JulyAfter the invasion of Estonia, Latvia, and Lithuania, Nazi Germany creates the Reichskommissariat Ostland.
After the invasion of Ukraine, Nazi Germany creates the Reichskommissariat Ukraine.
28 NovemberItalian East Africa is taken over by Allied forces.
8 DecemberThe Japanese begin the invasion of Malaya in the State of Perlis Indera Kavangan, eventually occupying it as Japanese Malaya.
10 DecemberThe Territory of Guam is taken over by Japan from the United States as Omiya Jima.
11 DecemberThe Japanese take the State of Terengganu Darul Iman from the United Kingdom and incorporate it into Japanese Malaya.
14 DecemberWithin British Malaya, the State of Kedah Darul Aman is taken over by Japan.
21 DecemberMexico annexes the Las Antonias and El Comedor bancos from the United States.[56]
22 DecemberWithin British Malaya, the State of Kelantan Darul Naim is taken over by Japan.
23 DecemberWake Island is taken over by Japan from the United States as Otori Jima.
24 DecemberThe Japanese occupy the Kingdom of Sarawak as Sarawak.
25 DecemberThe Japanese occupy British Hong Kong as the Hong Kong Occupied Territory.
19422 JanuaryThe Japanese occupy the Commonwealth of the Philippines from the United States as the Philippines.
6 JanuaryThe Japanese occupy the State of Brunei Darussalam from the United Kingdom.
18 JanuaryThe Japanese occupy Bourneo Kita from the United Kingdom.
31 JanuaryThe Japanese occupy the State of Johor Darul Ta'zim and the Federated Malay States from the United Kingdom as part of Japanese Malaya.
15 FebruaryThe Japanese occupy Singapore from the United Kingdom as Syonan-to.
20 FebruaryThe Japanese occupy Portuguese Timor and Dutch Timor as Timor.
27 FebruaryThe United States annexes the Las Palomas banco from Mexico.[57]
8 MarchThe Japanese occupy the Netherlands East Indies from the Netherlands as Indonesia.
23 MarchThe Japanese occupy the Andaman and Nicobar Islands from the United Kingdom.
31 MarchThe Japanese occupy Christmas Island and the Straits Settlements from the United Kingdom as part of Japanese Malaya.
7 JuneThe Japanese occupy Atsuta Jima and Narukami Jima from the United States.
1 AugustThe Japanese occupy Burma from the United Kingdom.
26 AugustThe Japanese occupy Banaba Island and Nauru from the United Kingdom.
9 OctoberThe Commonwealth of Australia ceases to be a dominion within the British Empire.
23 OctoberAllied forces take Tripolitania from Italy, and it becomes an occupied territory of the United Kingdom.
NovemberThe British Military Administration of Libya begins when British forces invade Cyrenaica from Egypt.
Allied forces take French West Africa from Vichy France.
1 NovemberThe Karafuto Prefecture is integrated into Mainland Japan.
8 NovemberAllied forces take the Kingdom of Morocco from Vichy France.
11 NovemberItaly occupies Corsica in Operation Anton.
28 NovemberAllied forces take Réunion from Vichy France.
14 DecemberAllied forces take Madagascar from Vichy France.
28 DecemberAllied forces take French Somaliland from Vichy France.
1943JanuaryThe French Military Territory of Fezzan-Ghadames is created when Free French Forces from Chad invade southern Italian Libya. Sabha is the capital.
FebruaryKouang-Tchéou-Wan is conquered by Japan.
30 MayAttu Island is reconquered by the United States.
26 JuneThe German Reich is officially renamed the Greater German Reich.
30 JulyThe Shanghai French Concession and the Tientsin French Concession are taken over by Japan.
1 AugustBurma is given independence under Japanese occupation as the State of Burma.
15 AugustKiska is reconquered by the United States after an Allied invasion.
SeptemberThe French Antilles and Guiana is split into French Guiana, Guadeloupe, Inini, Martinique, and Saint Pierre and Miquelon.
8 SeptemberThe Albanian Kingdom becomes a protectorate of Nazi Germany from Italy.
9 SeptemberCorsica becomes an occupied territory under Nazi Germany.
10 SeptemberThe Kingdom of Montenegro becomes a protectorate under Nazi Germany.
11 SeptemberThe Dodecanese Islands become an occupied territory under Nazi Germany.
23 SeptemberThe part of Italy under German occupation is made into a separate country as the National Republican State of Italy.
14 OctoberThe Japanese-occupied Philippines is given independence as the Republic of the Philippines.
23 OctoberThe Andaman and Nicobar Islands are taken over by Allied forces.
22 NovemberThe State of Greater Lebanon and the Syrian Republic, which together comprise the Mandate of Syria, are given independence as the Lebanese Republic and the Syrian Republic, respectively.
1 DecemberThe National Republican State of Italy is renamed the Italian Social Republic.
15 DecemberThe United States annexes the Rock Bend, La Parida, and Los Fresnos bancos from Mexico and Mexico annexes the Orrbe banco from the United States.[58]
19442 FebruaryThe Reichskommissariat Ukraine (Ukraine) is taken back by the Soviet Union from German occupation.
3 FebruaryThe Marshall Islands are taken over by the United States from the Empire of Japan.
5 JuneThe United States annexes the Cerros Colorados, Farias, EL Bano, Grande, Fierro, Adalberto, Martinez, Bonifacio, Pilares, Pilarito, and Cajoncitos bancos from Mexico and Mexico annexes the Bosque Bonito banco from the United States.[59]
17 JuneThe Kingdom of Iceland ends its personal union with the Kingdom of Denmark, becoming the Republic of Iceland.
19 JuneThe United States purchases Water Island in the Caribbean from the East Asiatic Company, a private shipping company based in Denmark (which at the time was under German occupation).[60]
9 AugustVichy France is disestablished by ordinance of the newly created Provisional Government of the French Republic during the Liberation of France by Allied forces. The Vichy administration nominally continues to govern from Sigmaringen in Germany, but no longer controls any territory in Mainland France.
10 AugustOmiya Jima is taken over by the United States from the Empire of Japan.
20 AugustClipperton Island is returned to the Provisional Government of the French Republic.
3 SeptemberThe Military Administration in Belgium and North France is liberated from Nazi Germany. The Kingdom of Belgium is reformed, and the Belgian Congo is put under the Belgian government's control after having remained loyal to the government-in-exile.
8 SeptemberThe Independent State of Macedonia is created in Bulgarian-controlled Macedonia.
11 SeptemberThe Grand Duchy of Luxembourg is liberated from Nazi Germany.
11 OctoberThe Soviet Union annexes the Tuvan People's Republic.
13 OctoberThe Kingdom of Greece returns to power after Athens is recovered.
The Reichskommissariat Ostland is completely taken over by Allied forces and integrated into the Soviet Union.
16 OctoberIn the Kingdom of Hungary, the Government of National Unity is established with the support of Nazi Germany, though the boundaries of the state itself remain unchanged.
20 OctoberThe Albanian Kingdom is liberated from the Axis Powers as the Democratic Government of Albania.
The Military Administration in Serbia is liberated from the Axis Powers, and Yugoslavia resumes control of it.
3 NovemberThe Hellenic State is completely liberated from Axis forces. The Kingdom of Greece takes over the rest of it.
12 NovemberThe East Turkestan Republic declares independence from the Republic of China.
13 NovemberThe Independent State of Macedonia is liberated from Axis forces, and Yugoslavia resumes control of it.
15 DecemberThe Kingdom of Montenegro, a puppet state of the Italian Social Republic (itself a puppet state of Nazi Germany), is taken over by Allied forces.
21 DecemberThe Weil and Las Antonias bancos are annexed by Mexico from the United States.[56]
31 DecemberThe Republic of Poland gains independence.
194517 JanuaryThe Polish area of the General Government is liberated from Nazi Germany by Allied forces.
8 MarchThe Kingdom of Hungary is liberated from Nazi Germany.
11 MarchThe Empire of Vietnam declares independence from Japan under its occupation.
16 MarchThe United States annexes the Candelaria, Candela, Tascate, Chinati, Mimbres, La Quemada, and Buenavista bancos from Mexico and Mexico annexes the El Comedor, Kilpatrick, Palo Blanco, Guadelupe, and Gleim bancos from the United States.[61]
18 MarchThe Kingdom of Cambodia declares independence from Japan under its occupation.
20 MarchFrance regains Alsace-Lorraine.
27 MarchThe State of Burma is taken back over by Allied forces and becomes the British crown colony of Burma.
3 AprilThe Czechoslovak Republic is liberated from Nazi Germany.
The United States takes over the Ryukyu Islands and administers it as the United States Civil Administration of the Ryukyu Islands.
4 AprilThe Slovak Republic is liberated and given to the Czechoslovak Republic.
8 AprilThe Kingdom of Laos declares independence under Japanese occupation, while Japanese Indochina ceases to exist as a political entity.
25 AprilThe Italian Social Republic is recovered from Nazi Germany and given to the Kingdom of Italy.
27 AprilThe second Republic of Austria is established in occupied Austria. Vienna is the capital. Its independence is recognised by the Allies.
1 MayFollowing the death of Adolf Hitler and the Allied victory in the Battle of Berlin, the government of Nazi Germany is moved to Flensburg and the Flensburg Government is created.
5 MayThe occupation of the Kingdom of Denmark by the Flensburg Government ends. Greenland is returned to Denmark from United States protection.
The Reichskommissariat Niederlande (the Netherlands) is liberated and merged with the colonies of Curaçao and Dependencies and the Surinam, which had remained loyal to the government-in-exile, to form the Kingdom of the Netherlands.
7 MayThe Dodecanese Islands are taken over by Allied forces and given to Greece.
8 MayNazi Germany formally surrenders to Allied forces, ending World War II in Europe.
The Independent State of Croatia is taken over by Allied forces and given back to Yugoslavia.
9 MayReichskommissariat Norwegen (Norway) is liberated by Allied forces and its possessions are returned (Bouvet Island, Peter I Island, and Queen Maud Land).
The Channel Islands are liberated from Nazi Germany to the United Kingdom as the Bailiwick of Guernsey and the Bailiwick of Jersey.
13 MayThe Protectorate of Bohemia and Moravia is integrated back into Czechoslovakia.
14 JuneThe State of Brunei is retaken by the United Kingdom and is classified as a protectorate.
29 JuneA treaty is signed between the Soviet Union and Czechoslovakia by which the Soviet Union annexes Subcarpathian Ruthenia.
Two bancos are annexed by both the United States and Mexico from one another.[62]
11 AugustThe Japanese-occupied Empire of Vietnam is taken back by France.
15 AugustKorea gains independence from the Empire of Japan. Seoul is the capital.
The Great Empire of Manchuria is taken over by the Soviet Union.
French Indochina is recovered by France.
16 AugustHong Kong is liberated from Japan by Allied forces and put under British rule.
17 AugustThe de facto Republic of Indonesia declares independence under Japanese and Allied occupation.
The Commonwealth of the Philippines takes over the Japanese-occupied independent Republic of the Philippines.
18 AugustThe Japanese create a separate political entity for the Andaman and Nicobar Islands.
22 AugustThe Kwantung Leased Territory is returned to the Republic of China.
28 AugustBritish Hong Kong becomes a crown colony.
30 AugustBảo Đại abdicates. End of the Nguyễn dynasty in Vietnam.
31 AugustThe United States captures Minami-Tori-shima from the Empire of Japan.
SeptemberThe concessions in Shanghai, Tientsin, and Kouang-Tchéou-Wan are re-controlled by France.
2 SeptemberThe Empire of Japan formally surrenders to Allied forces, ending World War II in the Pacific.
The Democratic Republic of Vietnam declares its independence from the French Republic. Hanoi is the capital.
The capital of the Republic of China is moved from Chungking back to Nanking.
3 SeptemberThe United States occupies the Bonin Islands and Volcano Islands from Japan.
4 SeptemberThe United States occupies Wake Island from Japan.
8 SeptemberThe Kingdom of Thailand changes its name back to the Kingdom of Siam.
The following states are freed from the Empire of Japan (which becomes occupied by Allied forces) and become their own states from Malaya:
9 SeptemberThe Reorganized National Government of the Republic of China is taken over by the Republic of China.
10 SeptemberBourneo Kita and the occupation of the British protectorate of the Kingdom of Sarawak are taken back over by the United Kingdom as North Borneo.
11 SeptemberIn occupied Japan, Timor is split between the Portuguese East Timor and the Dutch West Timor.
12 SeptemberMalaya is given back to the United Kingdom from occupied Japan and is split into the Federated Malay States and the State of Johor Darul Ta'zim.
Syonan-to is taken back over by the United Kingdom from Japan as the Straits Settlements. Singapore is the capital.
13 SeptemberNauru is taken over by Allied forces and placed under a United Nations trusteeship administered by Australia, New Zealand, and the United Kingdom.
15 SeptemberThe Soviet Union's occupation of the People's Republic of Korea ends.
16 SeptemberThe British occupation of the Faroe Islands ends and is handed back to Denmark.
23 SeptemberThe Kingdom of Laos, which was under Japanese occupation, is taken back by France as part of French Indochina.
OctoberIn occupied Japan, Christmas Island is given back to the United Kingdom.
7 OctoberIn occupied Japan, the Andaman and Nicobar Islands are given back to the British Raj.
10 OctoberIn occupied Japan, Banaba Island is given back over by the Gilbert and Ellice Islands under the United Kingdom.
16 OctoberThe Japanese puppet state of the Kingdom of Cambodia is taken over by France and put back under French Indochina.
17 OctoberThe Soviet Union annexes northern East Prussia.
25 OctoberTaiwan is returned to the Republic of China.
NovemberThe Soviet Union invades northwest Iran and creates the puppet state of the Azerbaijan People's Government.
29 NovemberFrance withdraws from Guangzhouwan after agreeing on 18 August to return the leased territory to the Republic of China.
The Democratic Federal Yugoslavia is renamed the Federal People's Republic of Yugoslavia.
2 DecemberThe Federal People's Republic of Yugoslavia supersedes the Kingdom of Yugoslavia.
26 DecemberThe Republic of Poland becomes independent.
29 DecemberThe Netherlands New Guinea is separated from the Dutch East Indies.
19464 JanuaryThe Republic of Indonesia moves its capital from Jakarta to Yogyakarta.
11 JanuaryThe People's Republic of Albania supersedes the Democratic Government of Albania.
22 JanuaryThe Soviet Union occupies part of northwestern Iran, and that area forms the puppet state of the Republic of Mahabad.
1 FebruaryThe Hungarian Republic supersedes the Kingdom of Hungary.
28 FebruaryThe following French concessions are ceded to the Republic of China:
19 MarchThe Provisional Government of the French Republic elevates its colonies of Algeria and Réunion to overseas departments.
The French Republic elevates its colonies of Guadeloupe and Martinique to overseas departments.
The French Republic elevates its colony of Guyane (French Guiana) to an overseas department.
1 AprilThe colony of the Malayan Union is formed from the following protectorates:
25 MayThe Hashemite Kingdom of Transjordan gains independence from a British League of Nations Mandate. Amman is the capital.
2 JuneThe Kingdom of Italy is renamed the Italian Republic.
4 JulyThe Republic of the Philippines gains independence from the United States. Manila is the capital.
In the Soviet Union, the city of Königsberg is renamed Kaliningrad.
13 JulyIn Montenegro (then part of Yugoslavia), the city of Podgorica is renamed Titograd.
26 JulyThe Spanish colonies of Ifni and Spanish Sahara merge to form Spanish West Africa.
15 SeptemberThe People's Republic of Bulgaria supersedes the Tsardom of Bulgaria. Sofia is the capital.
14 OctoberThe Provisional Government of the French Republic is renamed the French Republic.
The United States annexes the Culebron banco from Mexico.[63]
22 OctoberIn the Dutch East Indies, the autonomous Federation of West Kalimantan is established.
27 OctoberThe French Republic elevates its uninhabited possession of Adélie Land to an overseas territory.
The French Republic elevates its colonies of French Equatorial Africa, French West Africa, and Madagascar to overseas territories; the French colony of Comoros is separated from Madagascar; and French Somaliland is renamed the Territory of French Somaliland.
The French Republic elevates its French Establishments in India to an overseas territory.
The French Establishments in Oceania are renamed the French Settlements in Oceania.
New Caledonia and Dependencies is renamed the Territory of New Caledonia and Dependencies.
Saint Pierre and Miquelon is renamed the Territory of Saint Pierre and Miquelon.
NovemberThe Soviet-occupied area of the Azerbaijan People's Government is returned to Iran.
DecemberSeveral League of Nations Mandates in Africa are transferred as United Nations Trust Territories:
7 DecemberIn the Dutch East Indies, the autonomous state of Dayak Besar is established.
8 DecemberThe League of Nations Mandate of the Territory of New Guinea is transferred as a United Nations Trust Territory, administered by Australia.
10 DecemberIn the Dutch East Indies, the autonomous Belitung Council is established.
15 DecemberThe Soviet-occupied area of the Republic of Mahabad is returned to Iran.
24 DecemberIn the Dutch East Indies, the State of Great East is established.
27 DecemberIn the Dutch East Indies, the autonomous State of Great East is renamed the State of East Indonesia.
19478 JanuaryIn the Dutch East Indies, the autonomous state of the Federation of South Kalimantan is established.
25 JanuaryThe New Zealand-administered League of Nations Mandate of Western Samoa is transferred as a United Nations Trust Territory.
10 FebruaryThe Italian Republic returns its concession in Tientsin to the Republic of China.
3 MayThe new Constitution of Japan is adopted, dissolving the Greater Japanese Empire.
12 MayIn the Dutch East Indies, the Federation of West Kalimantan is renamed the Special Territory of West Kalimantan.
12 JulyIn the Dutch East Indies, the autonomous states of Bangka Council and Riau Council are created.
18 JulyThe South Pacific (League of Nations) Mandate, governed by Japan, is transferred to the United Nations Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands, administered by the United States.
12 AugustBalochistan (Kalat State) gains independence from the United Kingdom.
14 AugustThe Dominion of Pakistan gains independence from the United Kingdom. Karachi is the capital.
15 AugustThe Dominion of India gains independence from the United Kingdom. New Delhi is the capital.[64]
27 AugustIn the Dutch East Indies, the Siak Besar Territory is created.
15 SeptemberThe Free Territory of Trieste is created in Central Europe.
8 OctoberIn the Dutch East Indies, the autonomous state of the Special Territory of East Sumatra is created.
16 OctoberSeven of the Turtle Islands are ceded to the Philippines by the United Kingdom.
27 OctoberThe princely state of Jammu and Kashmir is divided between India and Pakistan.[65]
1 NovemberThe League of Nations Mandate of Nauru is transferred as a United Nations Trust Territory.
25 NovemberThe Dominion of New Zealand ceases to be a dominion of the British Empire.
14 DecemberThe Soviet Union completely withdraws its forces from Bulgaria, ending a three-year-long occupation.[66]
15 DecemberFrance claims the Saar as a protectorate from occupied Germany.
25 DecemberIn the Dutch East Indies, the Special Territory of East Sumatra is renamed the State of East Sumatra.
26 DecemberSovereignty over the Territory of Heard Island and McDonald Islands is transferred from the United Kingdom to Australia.
30 DecemberThe Romanian People's Republic supersedes the Kingdom of Romania.
19484 JanuaryThe Union of Burma gains independence from the United Kingdom. Yangon (British Rangoon) is the capital.
14 JanuaryIn the Dutch East Indies, the autonomous state of the Territory of Banjar is created.
23 JanuaryIn the Dutch East Indies, the states of Bangka Council, the Belitung Council, and the Riau Council are merged as the Bangka Belitung and Riau Federation.
In the Dutch East Indies, the autonomous State of Madura is created.
30 JanuaryIn the United Kingdom, the Malayan Union is renamed the Federation of Malaya.
4 FebruaryThe Crown Colony of Ceylon (Sri Lanka) gains independence from the United Kingdom as the Dominion of Ceylon. Colombo remains the capital.
In the Dutch East Indies, the Siak Besar Territory is renamed the Federation of East Kalimantan.
26 FebruaryIn the Dutch East Indies, the State of West Java is created.
27 MarchKalat State is integrated into the Dominion of Pakistan.
1 AprilThe Faroe Islands becomes a self-governing dependency.
18 AprilIreland is declared a republic.
25 AprilIn the Dutch East Indies, the State of West Java is renamed the Sundanese State.
14 MayThe State of Israel is established upon the termination of the British Mandate for Palestine. Tel Aviv is the capital.[67]
17 JulyThe Republic of the Philippines moves its capital from Manila to Quezon City.
15 AugustThe Republic of Korea is established from British/American/United Nations-occupied South Korea.
30 AugustIn the Dutch East Indies, the State of South Sumatra is established.
9 SeptemberKorea is divided between the Democratic People's Republic of Korea (North Korea) and the Republic of Korea (South Korea). Pyongyang and Seoul are the respective capitals.
12 SeptemberThe State of Hyderabad is annexed by India.
20 SeptemberThe Dutch colony of Curaçao and Dependencies is renamed the Netherlands Antilles, as the dependencies gain equality in level of sovereignty.
26 NovemberIn the Dutch East Indies, the autonomous state of East Java is established.
25 DecemberThe Soviet Union completely withdraws its forces from North Korea, ending a three-year-long occupation.[68]
The Mutawakkilite Kingdom of Yemen (North Yemen) moves its capital from Sana'a to Taiz.
19491 JanuaryNew Zealand annexes the Tokelau Islands, which creates a dispute with the United States over its claims of Atafu, Fakaofo, and Nukunono.[69]
1 MarchThe Emirate of Cyrenaica is created from part of the British Military Administration of Libya. The capital is Benghazi.
2 MarchIn the Dutch East Indies, the autonomous state of Central Java is established.
10 MarchAs a result of the 1948 Arab–Israeli War, Israel captures half of the land allotted to an Arab state under the Partition Plan, Jordan occupies the West Bank, and Egypt occupies the Gaza Strip.
31 MarchThe Dominion of Newfoundland joins Canada as the Province of Newfoundland following the Newfoundland referendums. St. John's yields to Ottawa as the capital.
3 AprilThe Hashemite Kingdom of Transjordan is renamed the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan.
22 AprilThe Republic of China government evacuates Nanjing the day before the capital city falls to the Communists. Canton becomes the de facto capital.
11 MayThe Kingdom of Siam changes its name back to the Kingdom of Thailand.
23 MayThe Federal Republic of Germany (West Germany) and West Berlin are established in the American, British, and French occupation zones of Germany. Bonn is the capital.
14 JuneThe area of Vietnam in French Indochina becomes a separate entity under France as the State of Vietnam, though North Vietnam still claims independence.
20 JuneThe 1948 Arab–Israeli War ends, resulting in the former territory of Mandatory Palestine being split among Israel, Jordan, and Egypt.
19 JulyThe area of Laos in French Indochina becomes a separate entity under France as the Kingdom of Laos.
8 AugustThe Indian protectorate of the Kingdom of Bhutan declares independence.
20 AugustThe Hungarian People's Republic supersedes the Hungarian Republic.
9 SeptemberThe Kingdom of Tripura merges with India.
26 SeptemberThe United States annexes the Don Juan Cross banco from Mexico and Mexico annexes Ringgold banco from the United States.[70]
1 OctoberMao Zedong proclaims the People's Republic of China. Beijing is the capital.
7 OctoberThe German Democratic Republic (East Germany) is established in Soviet-occupied eastern Germany. East Berlin is the capital.
13 OctoberThe Republic of China government evacuates Canton. Chongqing becomes the de facto capital.[71]
6 NovemberThe Australian-administered Territory of New Guinea and the Territory of Papua merge to form the Territory of Papua and New Guinea.
8 NovemberThe remains of French Indochina form the French-administered Kingdom of Cambodia.
21 NovemberThe British-administered protectorates of the Emirate of Cyrenaica, the occupied territory of Tripolitania, and the French-occupied territory of Fezzan merge to form a jointly administered Libya.
29 NovemberThe Republic of China government evacuates Chongqing. Chengdu becomes the de facto capital.[72]
5 DecemberThe State of Israel declares Jerusalem its official capital. Tel Aviv continues to serve as the de facto capital.
10 DecemberThe Republic of China government in Chengdu evacuates Mainland China for Taiwan. Taipei becomes the de facto capital.[73]
22 DecemberThe People's Republic of China completes the conquest of the East Turkestan Republic in Xinjiang, after Republic of China forces in the region ally with the Communists in September.[74]
27 DecemberThe forces of the People's Republic of China enter Chengdu, ending the Southwest Campaign against the Republic of China and completing the conquest of major continental Han-inhabited territories.
The Republic of Indonesia becomes a federation as the Republic of the United States of Indonesia and its independence is formally recognised by the Netherlands, comprising most of the former Dutch East Indies. The capital returns to Jakarta from Yogyakarta. The Dutch remaining possession in Western New Guinea becomes Netherlands New Guinea.

1950s


YearDateEvent
195026 JanuaryIndia adopts a republican constitution and changes its name to the Republic of India.
19 FebruaryThe People's Republic of China completes the conquest of southern Yunnan, expelling the Republic of China from all of continental China Proper.
1 AprilThe British-occupied territory of Italian Somaliland is transferred to Italy as the Trust Territory of Somalia.
7 AprilThe People's Republic of China completes the conquest of Xikang, defeating the last regular forces of the Republic of China in continental Mainland China.
25 AprilThe unrecognized Republic of South Maluku declares independence from Indonesia.
1 MayThe People's Republic of China completes the conquest of Hainan Island from the Republic of China.
7 AugustThe People's Republic of China completes the conquest of the Wanshan Archipelago from the Republic of China, concluding the main period of hostilities in the Chinese Civil War.
17 AugustThe Republic of the United States of Indonesia becomes a unitary state and changes its name back to the Republic of Indonesia.
5 NovemberIndonesia reconquers Ambon, the last stronghold of the Republic of South Maluku, reducing the separatist movement to a minor insurgency.
5 DecemberThe Kingdom of Sikkim signs a treaty to become a protectorate of India.
15 DecemberThe United States reorganizes the United States Military Government of the Ryukyu Islands as the United States Civil Administration of the Ryukyu Islands.[75]
195127 AprilDenmark leases Thule Air Base in Greenland to the United States in perpetuity and cedes exclusive jurisdiction over the base area.[76]
23 MayThe People's Republic of China annexes the de facto independent state of Tibet after the military conquest of its Chamdo Region in October 1950.
5 JuneThe Republic of Poland and the Soviet Union exchange territory along their common border.
11 JuneDue to Portuguese colonies being reorganized as overseas provinces, Portuguese East Africa is renamed Mozambique and Portuguese West Africa is renamed Angola.
24 DecemberThe United Kingdom of Libya gains independence from a United Nations trusteeship, previously having been divided into the independent Emirate of Cyrenaica, British-administered Tripolitania, and the French Military Territory of Fezzan-Ghadames. Tripoli is the capital.
195228 AprilThe Allied occupation of Japan ends.
22 JulyThe Republic of Poland changes its name to the Polish People's Republic.
15 SeptemberItalian Eritrea is federated within the Ethiopian Empire.
Spain incorporates the protectorate of Ifni as a region of Spanish West Africa.
19531 JanuaryThe Republic of Maldives supersedes the Sultanate of Maldives.
12 JanuaryThe Estonian Government in Exile is established, in parallel to Estonian diplomatic legations abroad. Both are later declared keepers of the legal continuity of the restored Republic of Estonia.
15 AprilThe United States of Venezuela is renamed the Republic of Venezuela.[77]
13 JuneThe Egyptian Republic supersedes the Kingdom of Egypt.
27 JulyThe Korean Armistice Agreement is signed, establishing the Korean Demilitarized Zone along the border between the Democratic People's Republic of Korea (North Korea) and the Republic of Korea (South Korea).
1 AugustThe British colonies of Northern Rhodesia, Southern Rhodesia, and Nyasaland merge to form Rhodesia and Nyasaland.
22 OctoberThe Kingdom of Laos gains independence from France. Vientiane is the capital.
9 NovemberThe Kingdom of Cambodia declares its independence from France. Phnom Penh is the capital.
19547 MarchThe Sultanate of Maldives supersedes the Republic of Maldives.
15 AprilThe Geneva Accords grant independence to Vietnam, which is provisionally divided into North Vietnam and South Vietnam.
20 JulyFrance recognizes the independence of Vietnam divided between the Democratic Republic of Vietnam (North Vietnam) and the Republic of Vietnam (South Vietnam). Hanoi and Saigon are the respective capitals.
27 JulyThe Free Dadra declares independence from Portugal, but is officially recognized only by India.
2 AugustThe capital of Free Dadra is moved from Dadra to Silvassa.
11 AugustThe Republic of India annexes Dadra and Nagar Haveli from Portuguese India.
26 OctoberThe Free Territory of Trieste is divided between Italy and Yugoslavia.
25 NovemberAmidst a civil war, the Imamate of Oman declares the dissolution of the union of Muscat and Oman and applies for membership in the Arab League as the independent Kingdom of Oman. Nizwa remains the capital.[78]
15 DecemberThe Kingdom of the Netherlands makes the Territory of Curaçao one of its three constituent countries as the Netherlands Antilles. Willemstad on Curaçao remains the capital.
The Kingdom of the Netherlands makes the Territory of Surinam one of its three constituent countries as Suriname. Paramaribo remains the capital.
20 DecemberFrance recognizes the independence of the Kingdom of Cambodia. Phnom Penh remains the capital.
195520 JanuaryThe People's Republic of China conquers the Yijiangshan Islands from the Republic of China after the Battle of Yijiangshan Islands.
8–26 FebruaryThe People's Republic of China takes control of the Dachen Islands, Yushan Islands, Pishan Islands, and Nanji Islands after the Republic of China withdraws from these territories judged indefensible.[79]
11 AprilThe corridor of Panama inside the Panama Canal Zone, part of the United States of America, is slightly shifted by territorial exchanges due to bridges and highways.[80][81]
15 MayThe Republic of Austria regains its independence with the end of Allied occupation. Vienna is the capital.
28 JulyFollowing the withdrawal of French forces in August 1954, the People's Republic of China conquers Bạch Long Vĩ Island from the Republic of China.[82]
6 AugustThe French overseas territory of Adélie Land and the Malagasy dependencies of the Crozet Islands, the Kerguelen Islands, and Saint-Paul and Amsterdam merge to form the French Southern and Antarctic Lands.
23 AugustThe border between Panama and the United States' Panama Canal Zone is redefined, resulting in several border changes. Punta Paitilla, the land held on Taboga Island, and the remaining American holdings in Colón and Panama City are ceded to Panama.[83]
18 SeptemberRockall is officially claimed by the United Kingdom.
26 OctoberThe State of Vietnam is renamed the Republic of Vietnam (South Vietnam).
23 NovemberThe United Kingdom gives the Cocos (Keeling) Islands to Australia.
20 DecemberCardiff is recognised as the capital of Wales. It is the country's first official capital since 1689.
The Kingdom of Bhutan moves its capital from Punakha to Thimphu.
19561 JanuaryThe Republic of Sudan gains independence from the United Kingdom. Khartoum is the capital. Egypt relinquishes its claim to Sudan.
14 JanuaryThe United States of America annexes the San Felipe banco from Mexico.[84]
2 MarchThe Kingdom of Morocco gains independence from France. Rabat is the capital.
20 MarchThe Tunisian Republic gains independence from France. Tunis is the capital.
23 MarchPakistan adopts a new constitution and changes its name to the Islamic Republic of Pakistan.
7 AprilSpanish Morocco becomes part of the Sherifian Empire.
18 JuneThe Egyptian Republic declares its complete independence from the United Kingdom.
29 OctoberThe Tangier International Zone, under the joint administration of France, Spain, the United Kingdom, Italy, Portugal, and Belgium, is reintegrated into the Sherifian Empire.
13 DecemberBritish Togoland is merged into the Gold Coast.
19571 JanuarySaar is given to West Germany as the state of Saarland.
16 JanuaryThe People's Republic of China transfers Bạch Long Vĩ Island to North Vietnam.
6 MarchThe Republic of Ghana gains independence from the United Kingdom. Accra is the capital.
25 JulyThe Tunisian Realm is renamed the Tunisian Republic.
14 AugustThe Sherifian Empire is renamed the Kingdom of Morocco.
31 AugustThe Federation of Malaya gains independence from the United Kingdom. Kuala Lumpur is the capital.
23 OctoberMorocco invades Ifni, conquering most of the region beyond the vicinity of Sidi Ifni from Spain by December, and occupying it until Spain cedes the entire region in 1969.
19583 JanuaryThe United Kingdom establishes the West Indies Federation as a federation of most of the British West Indies, excluding the British Virgin Islands and the Bahamas. The de jure capital is Chaguaramas on Trinidad and the de facto capital is Port of Spain on Trinidad.
10 JanuaryIfni is separated from Spanish West Africa as Ifni Province.
14 FebruaryThe Hashemite Kingdom of Iraq and the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan unite to form the Arab Federation of Iraq and Jordan. Amman yields to Baghdad as the capital.
22 FebruaryThe Egyptian Republic and the Syrian Arab Republic unite to form the United Arab Republic. Damascus yields to Cairo as the capital.
The French-administered United Nations Trust Territory of French Togoland is renamed Togo.
8 MarchThe United Arab States is formed as a confederation between the United Arab Republic (Egypt and Syria) and the Kingdom of Yemen.[85]
10 AprilSpanish West Africa is disestablished:
14 MayThe French Territory of the Comoros votes to move its capital from Dzaoudzi to Moroni. The actual move occurs gradually by 1966.[86][87]
14 JulyThe Republic of Iraq and the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan are created from the dissolution of the Arab Federation of Iraq and Jordan. Baghdad remains the capital of Iraq. Amman is again the capital of Jordan.
1 OctoberSovereignty over Christmas Island is transferred from the United Kingdom to Australia.
2 OctoberThe Republic of Guinea gains independence from France. Conakry is the capital.
4 OctoberThe French Fifth Republic succeeds the French Fourth Republic.[88]
15 OctoberThe Malagasy Republic (Madagascar) gains autonomy within the French Community. Antananarivo is the capital.
26 OctoberThe People's Republic of China completely withdraws its forces from North Korea, ending its eight-year-long military presence in the Korean Peninsula.[89]
15 NovemberThe Soviet Union completely withdraws its forces from Romania, ending a 14-year-long occupation.[90]
28 NovemberThe following French colonies join the newly created French Community:
1 DecemberThe French colony of Ubangi-Shari joins the French Community as the Central African Republic.
4 DecemberThe French colony of Dahomey joins the French Community.
The French colony of Ivory Coast joins the French Community.
8 DecemberSovereignty over Gwadar is transferred from the Sultanate of Muscat and Oman to Pakistan.
11 DecemberThe French colony of Upper Volta joins the French Community.
19 DecemberThe French colony of Niger joins the French Community.
19593 JanuaryThe United Suvadive Republic secedes from the Sultanate of Maldives. Hithadhoo is the capital.
30 JanuaryThe forces of the United Kingdom and the Sultanate of Muscat conquer the last strongholds of the Kingdom of Oman, reincorporating the Imamate into Muscat and Oman. Muscat effectively becomes the joint capital.[91]
4 AprilIn French Africa, the colonies of Senegal and Soudan merge to form the Mali Federation.
30 JuneFernando Pó and Río Muni are merged to form Spanish Guinea.

1960s


YearDateEvent
19601 JanuaryThe Republic of Cameroun gains independence from the French Republic. Yaoundé remains the capital.
1 AprilFrance detaches the Scattered Islands in the Indian Ocean from the Malagasy Republic shortly before its independence. In September the administration of the Scattered Islands is delegated to the Prefect of Réunion.[92][93]
21 AprilThe Republic of the United States of Brazil moves its capital from Rio de Janeiro to Brasília.
27 AprilThe Togolese Republic (Togo) gains independence from the French Republic. Lomé remains the capital.
14 JuneSouth Kasai declares independence from the Republic of the Congo (Léopoldville).
20 JuneIndependence of French Sudan from France with Senegal as the Mali Federation.
26 JuneThe Malagasy Republic (Madagascar) gains independence from the French Republic. Antananarivo remains the capital.
British Somaliland gains independence from the United Kingdom temporarily as the State of Somaliland, in preparation for union with the Trust Territory of Somaliland. Hargeisa remains the capital.
30 JuneThe Belgian Congo gains independence from the Kingdom of Belgium as the Republic of the Congo (Congo-Léopoldville). Léopoldville remains the capital.
1 JulyThe Somali Republic is created through the merger of the Trust Territory of Somaliland and the State of Somaliland. Mogadishu becomes the capital.
11 JulyThe Czechoslovak Republic changes its name to the Czechoslovak Socialist Republic.
The State of Katanga declares independence from the Republic of the Congo (Léopoldville) with no recognition.
1 AugustThe Republic of Dahomey gains independence from the French Republic. Porto-Novo remains the capital.
The capital of Pakistan is moved from Karachi to Rawalpindi.
3 AugustThe Republic of Niger gains independence from the French Republic. Niamey remains the capital.
5 AugustThe Republic of Upper Volta gains independence from the French Republic. Ouagadougou remains the capital.
7 AugustThe Côte d'Ivoire gains independence from the French Republic. Abidjan remains the capital.
11 AugustThe Republic of Chad gains independence from the French Republic. N'Djamena remains the capital.
13 AugustThe Central African Republic gains independence from the French Republic. Bangui remains the capital.
15 AugustThe Republic of the Congo (Congo-Brazzaville) gains independence from the French Republic. Brazzaville remains the capital.
16 AugustThe Republic of Cyprus gains independence from the United Kingdom. Lefkosia (Nicosia) remains the capital. The United Kingdom retains control of Akrotiri and Dhekelia.
17 AugustThe Gabonese Republic (Gabon) gains independence from the French Republic. Libreville remains the capital.
20 AugustThe Republic of Senegal gains independence from the French Republic. Dakar remains the capital.
22 SeptemberThe Republic of Mali gains independence from the French Republic. Bamako remains the capital.
1 OctoberThe People's Republic of China is ceded 132 square miles (340 km2) of territory and Burma is ceded 85 square miles (220 km2) of territory in a boundary treaty delimiting the borders between the two countries.[94]
The Federation of Nigeria gains independence from the United Kingdom. Lagos remains the capital.
28 NovemberThe Islamic Republic of Mauritania gains independence from the French Republic. Nouakchott remains the capital.
The British Virgin Islands becomes a separate crown colony with the abolition of the office of the Governor of the British Leeward Islands.[95]
196114 JanuaryIndia annexes Portuguese India, and Portugal maintains its claims to it.
27 AprilThe Republic of Sierra Leone gains independence from the United Kingdom. Freetown remains the capital.
31 MayThe Union of South Africa ceases to be a Commonwealth realm and changes its name to the Republic of South Africa. Pretoria, Cape Town and Bloemfontein remain the capitals.
Northern British Cameroon joins Nigeria.
19 JuneThe State of Kuwait gains independence from the United Kingdom. Kuwait City remains the capital.
23 JuneThe Antarctic Treaty System enters force to administer the continent of Antarctica and all lands and waters south of the 60th parallel south.
28 SeptemberIn the United Arab States, Syria leaves the United Arab Republic and returns to the name of the Syrian Arab Republic.
The Free Dadra and Nagar Haveli joins India, as Portugal ceases to claim it.
Portugal cedes São João Baptista de Ajudá to Dahomey.
Portuguese fort São João Baptista de Ajudá (now Ouidah) is annexed by Dahomey.
1 OctoberThe southern portion of the British Cameroons gains independence from the United Kingdom and unites with the Republic of Cameroun to form the Federal Republic of Cameroon. Yaoundé remains the capital.
1 DecemberThe Netherlands New Guinea is renamed West Papua.
9 DecemberThe Republic of Tanganyika gains independence from the United Kingdom. Dar-es-Salaam remains the capital.
19 DecemberThe Republic of India annexes Goa, Daman and Diu from Portuguese India.
28 DecemberThe Syrian Arab Republic secedes from the United Arab Republic, leaving Egypt as the sole member of the federation. Cairo remains the capital of the UAR. Damascus is again the capital of Syria.
30 DecemberSouth Kasai is taken back by Congo (Léopoldville).
19621 JanuaryThe Independent State of Western Samoa gains independence from New Zealand. Apia remains the capital.
3 MarchThe United Kingdom officially gives the territory claimed in Antarctica an entity, the British Antarctic Territory, although this is suspended under the Antarctic Treaty.
31 MayThe West Indies Federation is dissolved and member states return to their status as parts of the British West Indies. Chaguaramas yields to London as the capital. Changes include the following:
1 JulyThe Kingdom of Burundi and the Republic of Rwanda gain independence from the Kingdom of Belgium. Bujumbura and Kigali are the respective capitals.
3 JulyThe French overseas department of Algeria gains independence from the French Republic. Algiers remains the capital.
6 AugustThe United Kingdom creates the Crown Colony of the Cayman Islands. George Town is the capital.
The Crown Colony of Jamaica gains independence from the United Kingdom. Kingston remains the capital.
31 AugustThe Republic of Trinidad and Tobago gains independence from the United Kingdom. Port of Spain remains the capital.
25 SeptemberAlgeria becomes the People's Democratic Algerian Republic.
26 SeptemberThe capital of the Mutawakkilite Kingdom of Yemen is moved from Ta'izz to Sana'a.
27 SeptemberMutawakkilite Kingdom of Yemen (North Yemen) is overthrown by the Yemen Arab Republic. San'a becomes the capital.
1 OctoberWest Papua is transferred from the Netherlands to UN authority as West New Guinea.
9 OctoberThe Republic of Uganda gains independence from the United Kingdom. Kampala remains the capital.
14 NovemberEritrea becomes a province of the Ethiopian Empire, losing the autonomy it had under federation.
21 NovemberThe People's Republic of China imposes a ceasefire after conquering all of Aksai Chin. India continues to claim the territory.
9 DecemberTanganyika is renamed the Republic of Tanganyika.
196315 JanuaryKatanga is taken back by Congo (Léopoldville).
3 MarchThe People's Republic of China is ceded the Trans-Karakoram Tract by Pakistan. India continues to claim the territory.
7 AprilThe Federal People's Republic of Yugoslavia changes its name to the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia.
25 AprilThe Kingdom of Libya supersedes the United Kingdom of Libya.
1 MayWest New Guinea is provisionally transferred from United Nations Temporary Executive Authority to Indonesian administration as the province of Irian Barat, pending the fulfillment of the New York Agreement.[96]
30 JuneThe Kingdom of Rwenzururu declares independence from Uganda with no recognition.
31 AugustThe Republic of Singapore gains independence from the United Kingdom.
16 SeptemberThe Federation of Malaya unites with the British colonies of Singapore, Sarawak, and British North Borneo (Sabah) to form Malaysia. Kuala Lumpur remains the capital.
23 SeptemberThe United Suvadive Republic is reunited with the Sultanate of Maldives. Hithadhoo yields to Male as the capital.
1 OctoberThe Federation of Nigeria is renamed the Federal Republic of Nigeria.
10 DecemberThe Sultanate of Zanzibar gains independence from the United Kingdom. Zanzibar City remains the capital.
12 DecemberThe Republic of Kenya gains independence from the United Kingdom. Nairobi remains the capital.
15 DecemberThe Spanish colonies of Fernando Pó and Río Muni merge to form Spanish Guinea.
31 DecemberThe Federation of Rhodesia and Nyasaland is divided into Northern Rhodesia, Southern Rhodesia, and Nyasaland.
196412 JanuaryThe Republic of Zanzibar and Pemba is established after a revolution overthrows the Sultanate of Zanzibar.
14 JanuaryThe Chamizal is split between Mexico and the United States of America.[97]
4 MarchThe United Nations Buffer Zone in Cyprus is established in the Republic of Cyprus between Greek Cypriot and Turkish Cypriot communities.
26 AprilThe Republic of Tanganyika and the Republic of Zanzibar and Pemba unite to form the United Republic of Tanganyika and Zanzibar. Zanzibar City yields to Dar-es-Salaam as the capital.
6 JulyMalawi gains independence from the United Kingdom. Lilongwe remains the capital.
1 AugustThe Republic of the Congo (Congo-Léopoldville) changes its name to the Democratic Republic of the Congo.
21 SeptemberThe Crown Colony of Malta gains independence from the United Kingdom as the State of Malta. Valletta remains the capital.
24 OctoberNorthern Rhodesia gains independence from the United Kingdom as the Republic of Zambia. Lusaka remains the capital.
1 NovemberThe United Republic of Tanganyika and Zanzibar changes its name to the United Republic of Tanzania.
12 DecemberKenya is renamed the Republic of Kenya.
196518 FebruaryThe Gambia gains independence from the United Kingdom as the Republic of the Gambia. Banjul remains the capital.
8 MarchThe first 3,500 U.S. combat troops land in Da Nang, beginning an eight-year United States occupation of South Vietnam.[98]
26 JulyThe British Protectorate over the Sultanate of Maldives ends. Male remains the capital.
4 AugustThe Cook Islands become a state in free association with New Zealand, sharing citizenship.
9 AugustThe Republic of Singapore is expelled from Malaysia and becomes independent. Singapore remains the capital.
Jordan and Saudi Arabia sign a treaty significantly revising their mutual borders and resolving the territorial dispute over Ma'an.[99]
21 AugustThe Romanian People's Republic changes its name to Socialist Republic of Romania.
8 NovemberThe United Kingdom creates the British Indian Ocean Territory from the Chagos Archipelago in Mauritius and the islands of Aldabra, Farquhar and Desroches from Seychelles, as Mauritius claims the Chagos Archipelago.[100]
11 NovemberThe Cabinet of Southern Rhodesia issues its Unilateral Declaration of Independence from the United Kingdom as Rhodesia, which goes unrecognized. Salisbury remains the capital.
196624 MayThe Federal Republic of Nigeria changes its name to the Republic of Nigeria.[101]
26 MayThe Crown Colony of British Guiana gains independence from the United Kingdom as the Co-operative Republic of Guyana. Georgetown remains the capital.
30 JuneThe Democratic Republic of the Congo changes the name of its capital from Léopoldville to Kinshasa.
6 JulyNyasaland gains independence from the United Kingdom as the Republic of Malawi. Lilongwe remains the capital.
31 AugustThe Republic of Nigeria changes its name back to the Federal Republic of Nigeria.[101]
30 SeptemberBechuanaland gains independence from the United Kingdom as the Republic of Botswana. Gaborone remains the capital.
4 OctoberThe Crown Colony of the Territory of Basutoland gains independence from the United Kingdom as the Kingdom of Lesotho. Maseru remains the capital.
12 OctoberGuyana discovers that Venezuela had sometime before occupied and effectively annexed Ankoko Island in the disputed Guayana Esequiba region.[102]
24 NovemberThe Río Encuentro-Alto Palena Dispute between the Republic of Chile and the Argentine Republic is defined by arbitration by Elizabeth II.
28 NovemberThe Republic of Burundi supersedes the Kingdom of Burundi.
30 NovemberBarbados gains independence from the United Kingdom. Bridgetown remains the capital.
196724 JanuaryThe Republic of the United States of Brazil changes its name to the Federative Republic of Brazil.
30 MayThe Republic of Biafra secedes from the Federal Republic of Nigeria. Enugu is the capital. Recognized by Gabon, Ivory Coast, Tanzania, and Zambia.
10 JuneIsrael captures the Gaza Strip and the Sinai Peninsula from the United Arab Republic (Egypt), the West Bank (including East Jerusalem) from Jordan, and the Golan Heights from Syria as a result of the Six-Day War.
5 JulyFrench Somaliland is renamed the French Territory of the Afars and Issas.
12 JulyFollowing a referendum the day before, the Republic of Anguilla declares independence from the associated state of Saint Christopher-Nevis-Anguilla while seeking to remain a territory of the United Kingdom. The Valley becomes the capital.[103]
14 AugustThe capital of Pakistan is moved from Rawalpindi to Islamabad.
17 AugustBiafra takes over the Benin region.
8 SeptemberUganda is renamed the Republic of Uganda.
19 SeptemberThe Republic of Benin becomes a puppet state that has no recognition from the parent state (Biafra).
20 SeptemberThe Republic of Benin is taken over by Nigeria.
7 NovemberSouth Yemen declares its independence from the United Kingdom as the People's Republic of South Yemen. Aden is the capital.
30 NovemberThe United Kingdom transfers the Khuriya Muriya Islands to Muscat and Oman.[104]
196831 JanuaryNauru gains independence from a United Nations trusteeship jointly administered by the Commonwealth of Australia, New Zealand, and the United Kingdom as the Republic of Nauru. Yaren remains the de facto capital.
12 MarchThe Mauritius gains independence from the United Kingdom. Port Louis remains the capital.
18 MayMexico annexes the Los Indios banco from the United States of America.[105]
26 JuneThe Allied-occupied Bonin-Volcano Islands are given back to Japan.
6 SeptemberThe Kingdom of Swaziland gains full independence from the United Kingdom. Mbabane is the capital.
12 OctoberSpanish Guinea gains independence from the Spanish State as the Republic of Equatorial Guinea. Malabo remains the capital.
11 NovemberThe Republic of Maldives supersedes the Sultanate of Maldives.
19697 FebruaryFollowing a referendum the day before, the Republic of Anguilla declares independence from the United Kingdom. The Valley remains the capital.[106]
19 MarchThe Republic of Anguilla is overthrown by British forces and reincorporated into the associated state of Saint Christopher-Nevis-Anguilla.[107]
10 MayThe United Kingdom changes the name of the Colony of the Bahama Islands to the Commonwealth of the Bahama Islands.[108]
25 MayFollowing a coup, the Democratic Republic of the Sudan supersedes the Republic of the Sudan. Khartoum remains the capital.[109][110]
30 JuneSpain transfers Ifni to Morocco.[111]
1 SeptemberFollowing a coup, the Libyan Arab Republic supersedes the Kingdom of Libya. Tripoli becomes the sole capital.[112]
21 OctoberFollowing a coup, the Somali Democratic Republic supersedes the Somali Republic. Mogadishu remains the capital.[113]
19 NovemberThe UN General Assembly formally recognizes Indonesia's annexation of West New Guinea 'in accordance' with the New York Agreement.[114]
31 DecemberThe Republic of the Congo changes its name to the People's Republic of the Congo.[115]

1970s


YearDateEvent
1970 15 JanuaryThe Republic of Biafra capitulates and is reabsorbed by Nigeria.[116]
18 JanuaryKuwait and Saudi Arabia ratify an agreement to partition the Neutral Zone between the two.[117]
23 FebruaryGuyana changes its name to the Co-operative Republic of Guyana and severs all ties to the British monarchy as a Commonwealth realm.[118]
18 MarchFollowing the deposition of Prince Norodom Sihanouk, the Kingdom of Cambodia changes its name to the State of Cambodia.[119]
24 AprilFollowing a referendum, The Gambia changes its name to the Republic of The Gambia and severs all ties to the British monarchy as a Commonwealth realm.[120]
1 MayBritish Honduras begins to move its capital from Belize City to Belmopan.[121][122]
4 JuneThe Kingdom of Tonga gains full independence from the United Kingdom, withdrawing from its protectorate agreement. Nukuʻalofa remains the capital.[123]
27 JulyMexico annexes 15 bancos from the United States, and the United States annexes 4 bancos from Mexico, under the terms of the Banco Convention of 1905; Mexico acquires a net 507.6 hectares (1254.1 acres).[124]
9 AugustThe Sultanate of Muscat and Oman changes its name to the Sultanate of Oman.[125]
9 OctoberThe State of Cambodia changes its name to the Khmer Republic.[126]
10 OctoberThe Colony of Fiji gains independence from the United Kingdom as the Dominion of Fiji. Suva remains the capital.
29 OctoberMexico annexes the Panales and Loma del Pinto Segundo bancos from the United States under the terms of the Banco Convention of 1905, acquiring 72 hectares (177.8 acres).[127]
30 NovemberThe People's Republic of South Yemen changes its name to the People's Democratic Republic of Yemen.[128]
1971 26 MarchAmidst a military crackdown by West Pakistani forces, East Pakistan declares independence from Pakistan as the People's Republic of Bangladesh, sparking the Liberation War. Dhaka becomes the capital.
19 AprilSierra Leone changes its name to the Republic of Sierra Leone and severs all ties to the British monarchy as a Commonwealth realm.
14 AugustThe protectorate of Bahrain and Its Dependencies declares independence from the United Kingdom as the State of Bahrain; its special treaties with the UK are abrogated the next day. Manama remains the capital.[129]
1 SeptemberThe protectorate of Qatar declares independence from the United Kingdom as the State of Qatar; its special treaties with the UK are abrogated two days later. Doha remains the capital.[130]
11 SeptemberFollowing a referendum, the United Arab Republic changes its name to the Arab Republic of Egypt.[131]
25 OctoberThe People's Republic of China replaces the Republic of China in China's seat in the United Nations.
27 OctoberThe Democratic Republic of the Congo changes its name to the Republic of Zaire.
29 NovemberFollowing the withdrawal of British forces, Iran conquers Greater and Lesser Tunbs from the Trucial State of Ras Al Khaimah.[132]
30 NovemberFollowing the withdrawal of British forces, Iran conquers Abu Musa from the Trucial State of Sharjah.
1 DecemberThe United Kingdom ends its protectorate over the Trucial States.
2 DecemberThe United Arab Emirates is established between six of the seven emirates of the former Trucial States: Abu Dhabi, Ajman, Dubai, Fujairah, Sharjah, and Umm Al Quwain. Abu Dhabi city becomes the capital.
The Emirate of Ras Al Khaimah temporarily becomes independent, as it rejects the terms of the agreement between the other former Trucial States. Ras Al Khaimah City remains the capital.[133][134]
13 DecemberAustralia changes the name of the Territory of Papua and New Guinea to Papua New Guinea.[135]
1972 1 JanuaryFollowing simultaneous referendums on 1 September 1971 in Egypt, in Libya, and in Syria, the Federation of Arab Republics is formed as a confederation working toward state unification.
10 FebruaryThe Emirate of Ras Al Khaimah joins the United Arab Emirates. Ras Al Khaimah City yields to Abu Dhabi as the capital.
The United Kingdom formally incorporates Rockall as part of Scotland.
15 MayThe United States transfers the Ryukyu Islands, including the Daitō Islands, back to Japan as Okinawa Prefecture.[136]
20 MayFollowing a referendum, the Federal Republic of Cameroon changes its name to the United Republic of Cameroon.[137]
22 MayCeylon changes its name to the Free, Sovereign and Independent Republic of Sri Lanka and severs all ties to the British monarchy as a Commonwealth realm.[138]
17 AugustIndonesia changes the name of its capital from Djakarta to Jakarta.[139][140]
1 SeptemberThe United States removes its claims over the Swan Islands, ending part of its territorial dispute with Honduras.[141]
1973 First HalfLibya invades the Aouzou Strip in northern Chad, formally annexing the region in 1975 and occupying it until 1994.[142]
1 JanuaryPortugal reorganizes the Overseas Province of Angola as the State of Angola.[143]
Portugal reorganizes the Overseas Province of Mozambique as the State of Mozambique.[144]
29 MarchThe last U.S. combat troops are flown out of Tan Son Nhut Air Base, ending the eight-year United States occupation of South Vietnam.[145]
24 AprilThe Gambia changes the name of its capital from Bathurst to Banjul.[146]
1 JuneThe Kingdom of Greece changes its name to the Hellenic Republic.[147]
The United Kingdom changes the name of the Crown Colony of British Honduras to the Crown Colony of Belize.[148]
10 JulyThe Commonwealth of the Bahama Islands gains independence from the United Kingdom as the Commonwealth of The Bahamas. Nassau remains the capital.[149]
17 JulyFollowing a coup, the Republic of Afghanistan supersedes the Kingdom of Afghanistan. Kabul remains the capital.
24 SeptemberPAIGC rebels declare the independence of Portuguese Guinea from Portugal as the Republic of Guinea-Bissau. Madina do Boe is the de facto capital.[150][151]
25 OctoberA ceasefire is imposed in the Yom Kippur War, with Israel occupying 1600 km2 (620 mi2) of Egyptian and 500 km2 (190 mi2) of Syrian territory conquered since 6 October.
2 NovemberThe UN General Assembly recognizes the independence of the Republic of Guinea-Bissau, the first sub-Saharan African state to unilaterally declare independence without the consent of its colonial power (Portugal).[152][151]
19 NovemberUruguay relinquishes its claim to Martín García Island to Argentina.
1974 1 JanuaryMalawi moves its capital from Zomba to Lilongwe.[153]
3 JanuaryThe Union of Burma changes its name to the Socialist Republic of the Union of Burma.[154]
20 JanuaryChina conquers the contested Paracel Islands after a naval battle against South Vietnam.
7 FebruaryThe associated state of Grenada gains independence from the United Kingdom. St. George's remains the capital.
21 FebruaryIsrael completely withdraws from Egyptian territory west of the Suez Canal occupied in the Yom Kippur War, as part of the January Separation of Forces Agreement between the two states and the UN Security Council.[155]
22 FebruaryPakistan recognizes the independence of Bangladesh, relinquishing its claims to the former East Pakistan.[156]
24 MarchThe Nation of Tanna declares independence from the AngloFrench New Hebrides Condominium.[157]
26 JuneIsrael completely withdraws from Syrian territory occupied in the Yom Kippur War and 25 km2 (9.7 mi2) occupied in the Six Day War, implementing the May 1974 agreement creating a 235 km2 (91 mi2) UNDOF buffer zone.
29 JuneThe Nation of Tanna is overthrown and reincorporated into the AngloFrench New Hebrides Condominium.[157]
16 AugustTurkey imposes a ceasefire after conquering 37% of Cyprus since 20 July. UN peacekeepers on the island since 1963 are deployed along the ceasefire line to create an expanded United Nations Buffer Zone in Cyprus.
21 AugustSaudi Arabia and the United Arab Emirates agree on a new mutual border, though the UAE subsequently disputes the Saudi interpretation of the new boundary line.
5 SeptemberThe Parliament of India passes a constitutional amendment incorporating the Kingdom of Sikkim as an "associate state".[158]
10 SeptemberFollowing an agreement to end the war on 26 August, Portugal dissolves Portuguese Guinea and recognizes the independence of the Republic of Guinea-Bissau. Bissau becomes the capital.
12 SeptemberFollowing a Derg coup amidst popular unrest, the Provisional Military Government supersedes the Ethiopian Empire, though the monarchy is formally abolished only on 21 March 1975. Addis Ababa remains the capital.[159][160]
1 OctoberThe Autonomous Turkish Cypriot Administration is established as a nominally autonomous state in the Turkishoccupied territories of Cyprus. North Nicosia becomes the de facto capital.
19 OctoberFollowing a referendum, the status of Niue is upgraded to self-government in free association with New Zealand. Alofi remains the capital.
13 DecemberThe State of Malta changes its name to the Republic of Malta and severs all ties to the British monarchy as a Commonwealth realm.
20 DecemberFollowing the proclamation of "Ethiopian socialism", the Derg Provisional Military Government begins using the name Provisional Military Government of Socialist Ethiopia.[161][162]
1975 13 FebruaryThe Autonomous Turkish Cypriot Administration is reorganized as the Turkish Federated State of Cyprus, with the intention of forcing federation upon Cyprus. North Nicosia remains the capital.
9 AprilIndia invades the Kingdom of Sikkim, organizing a referendum on abolishing the monarchy five days later.[163]
17 AprilFollowing the victory of the Khmer Rouge in the Cambodian Civil War, Kampuchea supersedes the Khmer Republic. Phnom Penh remains the capital.
30 AprilFollowing the Fall of Saigon, the Provisional Revolutionary Government of the Republic of South Vietnam supersedes the Republic of Vietnam. Saigon remains the capital.
16 MayIndia officially annexes the Kingdom of Sikkim as the State of Sikkim.
25 JuneIn accordance with the Lusaka Accord, the State of Mozambique gains independence from Portugal as the People's Republic of Mozambique. Lourenço Marques remains the capital.
5 JulyThe Overseas Province of Cape Verde gains independence from Portugal as the Republic of Cape Verde. Praia remains the capital.
6 JulyFollowing a referendum in December 1974, the Territory of the Comoros unilaterally declares independence from France as the State of Comoros. Moroni remains the capital.[164]
Due to its "no" vote in the December 1974 referendum, Mayotte separates from the Comoros upon the latter's independence and remains part of France, though its exact status is undefined. Dzaoudzi becomes the capital.
12 JulyThe Overseas Province of São Tomé and Príncipe gains independence from Portugal as the Democratic Republic of São Tomé and Príncipe. São Tomé remains the capital.
1 SeptemberTwo weeks before Papua New Guinea's independence, Bougainville Island declares independence from the territory and from Australia as the Republic of North Solomons. Arawa becomes the capital.[165][166]
4 SeptemberIn a treaty with Egypt, Israel agrees to withdraw from western Sinai and create a United Nations Emergency Force buffer zone in the region.[167]
16 SeptemberPapua New Guinea gains independence from Australia as the Independent State of Papua New Guinea. Port Moresby remains the capital.
1 OctoberFollowing a referendum, the British Colony of Gilbert and Ellice Islands is de jure divided into the Colony of Gilbert Islands and the Colony of Tuvalu. Tarawa remains and Funafuti becomes their respective capitals.[168]
11 NovemberIn accordance with the Alvor Agreement, the State of Angola gains independence from Portugal as the People's Republic of Angola. Luanda remains the capital.
14 NovemberA week after Morocco organized the Green March into Spanish Sahara, Spain agrees to decolonize Western Sahara through a temporary tripartite administration with Mauritania and Morocco.
25 NovemberSuriname gains full independence from the Kingdom of the Netherlands as the Republic of Suriname. Paramaribo remains the capital.
28 NovemberThe Fretilin party unilaterally declares the independence of Portuguese Timor as East Timor. Dili remains the capital. The UN continues to recognize Portugal as the legitimate administrative power until May 2002.[169][170]
30 NovemberThe Republic of Dahomey changes its name to the People's Republic of Benin.[171]
2 DecemberFollowing the victory of the Pathet Lao in the Laotian Civil War, the Lao People's Democratic Republic supersedes the Kingdom of Laos. Vientiane remains the capital.
7 DecemberIndonesia invades East Timor, beginning a twenty-four-year occupation.[172]
8 DecemberPortugal completely withdraws its forces from East Timor.[169]
11 DecemberMorocco occupies Laayoune, the capital of Western Sahara, beginning an occupation which continues to the present; fighting immediately breaks out with Polisario Front rebels demanding the territory's independence.[173]
22 DecemberMauritania conquers La Güera and Tichla after a two-week battle against the Polisario Front, beginning a four-year occupation of the southern part of Western Sahara.
26 DecemberIran and Iraq complete the demarcation of their border in the Shatt al-Arab on the basis of the March treaty which resolved their dispute over the waterway.[174]
30 DecemberFollowing a referendum, the Malagasy Republic changes its name to the Democratic Republic of Madagascar.[175]
1976 1 JanuaryThe de facto division of the British Colony of Gilbert and Ellice Islands into the Colony of Gilbert Islands and the Colony of Tuvalu occurs, with the separation of the old administration and introduction of new state symbols.[168]
5 JanuaryKampuchea changes its name to Democratic Kampuchea.[176]
8 JanuaryThe United States annexes the Carranza, Macum, La Oficina, Vado de Pierda, Las Viboras, and Rancho Texas bancos from Mexico under the terms of the Banco Convention of 1905, acquiring 19.9 hectares (49.2 acres).[177]
26 FebruarySpain completely withdraws its forces and relinquishes its status as the administrative power in Western Sahara.[173][178]
27 FebruaryThe Polisario Front proclaims the Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic as an independent state Western Sahara with its capital in Laayoune. 84 UN member states recognize its independence at different times.
13 MarchThe People's Republic of Mozambique changes the name of its capital from Lourenço Marques to Maputo.[179]
14 AprilAmidst a war against the Polisario Front, Mauritania and Morocco partition Western Sahara, with Mauritania annexing the southern third as Tiris al-Gharbiyya and Morocco annexing the rest as its Southern Provinces.[180]
23 JuneThe United Kingdom detaches Aldabra, Desroches and the Farquhar Group from the British Indian Ocean Territory and returns the islands to the Seychelles days before the latter's independence.[100]
24 JuneThe Philippines moves its capital from Quezon City back to Manila; the new Metro Manila becomes the official seat of government. Baguio is no longer recognized as the summer capital.
29 JuneThe Crown Colony of the Seychelles gains independence from the United Kingdom as the Republic of the Seychelles. Victoria remains the capital.[181]
2 JulyThe Democratic Republic of Vietnam and the Provisional Revolutionary Government of the Republic of South Vietnam unite to form the Socialist Republic of Vietnam. Saigon yields to Hanoi as the capital.
17 JulyIndonesia annexes East Timor as the province of East Timor, although much of the mountainous interior remains under the control of the Fretilin resistance movement.[182]
19 JulyFrance incorporates the Overseas Territory of Saint Pierre and Miquelon as the Overseas Department of Saint Pierre and Miquelon.[183]
1 AugustTrinidad and Tobago changes its name to the Republic of Trinidad and Tobago and severs all ties to the British monarchy as a Commonwealth realm.[184][185]
9 AugustThe Republic of the North Solomons surrenders to Papua New Guinea in an agreement promising Bougainville Island autonomy as North Solomons Province.[165]
26 OctoberThe Bantustan Republic of Transkei is declared independent by South Africa. Mthatha becomes the capital. No other county recognizes its independence, widely seen as part of the institution of apartheid.
7 NovemberArgentina occupies Southern Thule in the South Sandwich Islands, territory internationally recognized as part of the United Kingdom.[186]
4 DecemberThe Central African Republic changes its name to the Central African Empire.
24 DecemberAfter confirming its decision to break with the Comoros and remain part of France in two referendums held in February and April, Mayotte is reorganized as the Territorial Collectivity of Mayotte.[187]
28 DecemberThe People's Republic of Albania changes its name to the People's Socialist Republic of Albania.[188]
1977 11 FebruaryMayotte moves its capital from Dzaoudzi to Mamoudzou.[189]
1 MarchThe United States claims maritime borders west of the Strait of Juan de Fuca, within the Dixon Entrance, and in the Beaufort Sea that conflict with the claims of Canada.[190]
2 MarchThe Libyan Arab Republic changes its name to the Socialist People's Libyan Arab Jamahiriya.[191]
31 MarchThe United Kingdom officially turns over its military bases in Masirah Island and Salalah to Oman, fulfilling a demand of the United Nations for the UK to end its "colonial policies" in Oman.[192][193]
26 MayMexico and the United States complete the implementation of the Boundary Treaty of 1970, resulting in several parcels of land being swapped.[194]
27 JuneFollowing a referendum, the French Territory of the Afars and the Issas gains independence from France as the Republic of Djibouti. Djibouti City remains the capital.
13 JulySomalia invades Ethiopia, conquering most of the ethnic-Somali region of Ogaden by mid-September[195]
5 DecemberThe Federation of Arab Republics effectively ceases to exist as Libya and Syria dissolve the Federation Presidential Council, though Egypt does not formally withdraw from the confederation until 1 October 1984.[196][197]
6 DecemberThe Bantustan Republic of Bophuthatswana is declared independent by South Africa. Mmabatho becomes the capital. No other county recognizes its independence, widely seen as part of the institution of apartheid.[198]
1978 23 MarchEthiopia reconquers more than two-thirds of Ogaden, though for several more years Somalia continues to intervene in the region directly and in support of the Western Somali Liberation Front.[195][199][200]
30 AprilFollowing the Saur Revolution, the Democratic Republic of Afghanistan supersedes the Republic of Afghanistan. Kabul remains the capital.[201]
7 JulyThe British Solomon Islands Protectorate gains independence from the United Kingdom as Solomon Islands. Honiara remains the capital.
7 SeptemberThe Free, Sovereign and Independent Republic of Sri Lanka changes its name to the Democratic Socialist Republic of Sri Lanka.[202]
1 OctoberTuvalu gains independence from the United Kingdom. Funafuti remains the capital.
Following the ratification of a new constitution by referendum, the State of Comoros changes its name to the Federal Islamic Republic of the Comoros.[203]
3 NovemberThe associated state of Dominica gains independence from the United Kingdom as the Commonwealth of Dominica. Roseau remains the capital.
25 DecemberVietnam invades Democratic Kampuchea, beginning an occupation of Cambodia lasting more than ten years.
29 DecemberFollowing the transition to democracy and the ratification of a new constitution by referendum, the Spanish State changes its name to the Kingdom of Spain.
1979 7 JanuaryVietnam conquers Phnom Penh effectively overthrowing Democratic Kampuchea, though it remains the UN-recognized government of Cambodia and the Khmer Rouge continues as an insurgency until June 1998.
8 JanuaryThe People's Republic of Kampuchea is established by the pro-Vietnamese Salvation Front. Phnom Penh remains the capital of Cambodia.[204]
11 FebruaryFollowing the overthrow of the Pahlavi dynasty, Iran supersedes the Imperial State of Iran. Tehran remains the capital.
22 FebruaryThe associated state of Saint Lucia gains independence from the United Kingdom. Castries remains the capital.
1 AprilFollowing a referendum, Iran changes its name to the Islamic Republic of Iran.[205]
1 JuneRhodesia changes its name to Zimbabwe Rhodesia, implementing an unsuccessful bid for international recognition through a settlement between the white government and moderate African nationalists.
12 JulyThe Colony of Gilbert Islands gains independence from the United Kingdom as the Republic of Kiribati; it includes most of the Phoenix and Line Islands claimed by the United States until 1983. South Tarawa remains the capital.
The United KingdomUnited States condominium of Canton and Enderbury Islands is effectively dissolved into Kiribati, as the UK cedes its claims and US forces evacuate the territory ahead of the Treaty of Tarawa.[206][207]
5 AugustFailing to defeat the Sahrawi insurgency despite French support, Mauritania relinquishes all territorial claims in Western Sahara in a peace treaty with the Polisario Front.[208]
11 AugustMorocco annexes the southern third of Western Sahara following Mauritania's withdrawal. No UN member state has formally recognized Morocco's annexation of any part of Western Sahara.[209]
13 SeptemberThe Bantustan Republic of Venda is declared independent by South Africa. Thohoyandou becomes the capital. No other county recognizes its independence, widely seen as part of the institution of apartheid.
21 SeptemberThe Central African Empire is overthrown by rebel forces supported by France, and a proclamation is made restoring the Central African Republic.[210]
1 OctoberThe United States dissolving the Panama Canal Zone, transferring its territory to Panama except for 44 US enclaves which will be returned later in stages, and joint control of the canal which continues until 31 December 1999.
27 OctoberThe associated state of Saint Vincent and the Grenadines gains independence from the United Kingdom. Kingstown remains the capital.
11 DecemberZimbabwe Rhodesia temporarily returns under the rule of the United Kingdom as the Republic of Southern Rhodesia, implementing the Lancaster House Agreement.
25 DecemberThe Soviet Union invades Afghanistan, overthrowing its government two days later and beginning an occupation lasting more than nine years.

1980s


YearDateEvent
1980 1 JanuaryTafea declares independence from the AngloFrench New Hebrides Condominium.[157]
18 AprilThe Republic of Southern Rhodesia gains independence from the United Kingdom as the Republic of Zimbabwe. Salisbury remains the capital.[211]
26 MayTafea is overthrown by British forces and reincorporated into the AngloFrench New Hebrides Condominium.[157]
28 MayThe Republic of Vemerana declares independence from the AngloFrench New Hebrides Condominium.[212]
28 JulyPeruvian Republic changes its name to the Republic of Peru.[213]
30 JulyIsrael passes the Jerusalem Law, annexing East Jerusalem and expanding its capital of Jerusalem to encompass the annexed area. The United Nations Security Council declares the law null and void.
The New Hebrides Condominium gains independence from France and the United Kingdom as the Republic of Vanuatu. Port Vila remains the capital.
28 AugustThe Republic of Vemerana is overthrown by the forces of Vanuatu supported by those of Papua New Guinea and the Solomon Islands.[214]
22 SeptemberIraq invades Iran capturing more than 15,000 km2 (5800 mi2) by December, much of which it occupies for almost two years.
19 DecemberThe United Kingdom divides the associated state of Saint Christopher-Nevis-Anguilla into Saint Christopher and Nevis and the Crown Colony of Anguilla. Basseterre remains and The Valley becomes their respective capitals.
1981 17 SeptemberThe United States removes its claims over Roncador Bank, Serrana Bank, and Quita Sueño Bank, ending part of its territorial dispute with Colombia.[215]
21 SeptemberThe Crown Colony of Belize gains independence from the United Kingdom. Belmopan remains the capital.
1 NovemberThe associated state of Antigua and Barbuda gains independence from the United Kingdom. St. John's remains the capital.
4 DecemberThe Bantustan Republic of Ciskei is declared independent by South Africa. Bhisho becomes the capital. No other county recognizes its independence, widely seen as part of the institution of apartheid.
14 DecemberIsrael annexes the Golan Heights.[216]
1982 28 JanuaryIraq approves a treaty of 26 December with Saudi Arabia to partition the Neutral Zone between the two. The actual division of the territory occurs thereafter, though the new border is made public only in June 1991.[217][218]
1 FebruarySenegal and The Gambia unite to form the Senegambia Confederation. Dakar becomes the confederation capital, though most government powers remain with the separate states.
29 MarchCanada becomes a fully sovereign state with the promulgation of the Canada Act, eliminating all remaining powers in the country of the Parliament of the United Kingdom.
2 AprilArgentina conquers the Falkland Islands from the United Kingdom, renaming the territory Islas Malvinas and the capital from Stanley to Puerto Argentino during a two-month-long occupation.
3 AprilArgentina conquers South Georgia from the United Kingdom.
18 AprilZimbabwe changes the name of its capital from Salisbury to Harare.[219]
25 AprilThe United Kingdom reconquers South Georgia from Argentina.
26 AprilIsrael completes the sixth and final step of withdrawal, begun on 25 May 1979, from the remaining territory it occupied in the Sinai Peninsula, fulfilling the terms of its March 1979 peace treaty with Egypt.[220]
29 AprilSri Lanka moves its capital from Colombo to Sri Jayawardenepura Kotte.[221]
14 JuneThe United Kingdom reconquers the Falkland Islands from Argentina, ending the Falklands War.
20 JuneThe United Kingdom reconquers Southern Thule in the South Sandwich Islands from Argentina.
30 JuneIraqi forces are completely expelled from Iran amidst the ongoing Iran–Iraq War.[222]
15 AugustThe unrecognized Kingdom of Rwenzururu disbands and surrenders to Uganda as part of an agreement promising the region a degree of local autonomy, eventually leading to its revival as a subnational kingdom.[223][224]
1983 1 JanuaryThe United Kingdom changes the title of its Crown colonies and self-governing colonies to that of British Dependent Territories.
21 MarchIvory Coast moves its capital from Abidjan to Yamoussoukro.[225]
3 SeptemberThe United States removes its claims over Atafu, Fakaofo, and Nukunono, ending part of its territorial dispute with Tokelau.[226]
8 SeptemberThe United States removes its claims over Pukapuka, Manihiki, Penrhyn, and Rakahanga, ending its territorial dispute with the Cook Islands.[227]
19 SeptemberThe associated state of Saint Christopher and Nevis gains independence from the United Kingdom as the Federation of Saint Christopher and Nevis (Saint Kitts and Nevis). Basseterre remains the capital.
23 SeptemberThe United States removes its claims over Birnie, Canton, Caroline, Christmas, Enderbury, Flint, Gardner, Hull, Malden, McKean, Phoenix, Starbuck, Sydney, and Vostok Islands, ending its territorial dispute with Kiribati.[228][229]
The United States removes its claims over Funafuti, Niulakita, Nukufetau, and Nukulaelae, ending its territorial dispute with Tuvalu.[230]
15 NovemberThe Turkish Federated State of Cyprus declares independence from Cyprus as the Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus. North Nicosia remains the capital. Only Turkey, which occupies Northern Cyprus, recognize it.
1984 1 JanuaryThe Nation of Brunei, the Abode of Peace gains independence from the United Kingdom. Bandar Seri Begawan remains the capital.
4 FebruaryThe United Republic of Cameroon changes its name to the Republic of Cameroon.[231]
4 AugustThe Republic of Upper Volta changes its name to Burkina Faso.[232]
29 NovemberA treaty, approved in Argentina by referendum, resolves the Beagle conflict by awarding the disputed Picton, Lennox and Nueva Islands to Chile and most of the adjacent maritime territory to Argentina.
1985 6 JuneIsrael withdraws from other territory it had captured in Lebanon since 1982 to a self-declared "security zone" of formal occupation covering 850 km2 (330 mi2) of southern Lebanon.[233][234]
11 JuneFrance restores autonomous government to the Overseas Department of Saint Pierre and Miquelon, reorganizing it as the Territorial Collectivity of Saint Pierre and Miquelon.[235]
3 OctoberThe United Kingdom detaches the Falkland Islands Dependencies from the Falkland Islands as the separate territory of South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands. King Edward Point becomes the capital.[236]
10 OctoberThe Democratic Republic of the Sudan changes its name to the Republic of the Sudan.
14 OctoberThe Republic of Ivory Coast changes its official English name to the Republic of Côte d'Ivoire.[237]
1986 1 JanuaryAruba withdraws from the Netherlands Antilles and becomes a constituent country of the Kingdom of the Netherlands. Oranjestad becomes the capital.
3 MarchAustralia becomes a fully sovereign state with the promulgation of the Australia Act, eliminating all remaining powers in the country of the Parliament of the United Kingdom.
15 AprilThe Socialist People's Libyan Arab Jamahiriya changes its name to the Great Socialist People's Libyan Arab Jamahiriya.
30 SeptemberThe United States returns almost half of its concession at Thule Air Base to the jurisdiction of Greenland and Denmark.[238]
21 OctoberThe Republic of the Marshall Islands withdraws from the US–administered United Nations Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands and becomes independent in free association with the United States. Majuro remains the capital.
3 NovemberThe Federated States of Micronesia withdraws from the US–administered United Nations Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands and becomes independent in free association with the United States. Kolonia remains the capital.
4 NovemberThe Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands withdraws from the US–administered United Nations Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands and becomes an insular area of the United States. Saipan remains the capital.
1987 1 JanuaryNew Zealand becomes a fully sovereign state with the promulgation of the Constitution Act, eliminating all remaining powers in the country of the Parliament of the United Kingdom.
22 FebruaryThe Provisional Military Government of Socialist Ethiopia (Derg) changes its name to the People's Democratic Republic of Ethiopia.
7 OctoberFollowing a coup, the Dominion of Fiji changes its name to the Republic of Fiji and severs all ties to the British monarchy as a Commonwealth realm.
30 NovemberThe Democratic Republic of Afghanistan changes its name to the Republic of Afghanistan.[239]
1988 14 MarchChina conquers Johnson South Reef in the Spratly Islands from Vietnam.
16 JulyIran withdraws from Iraqi Kurdistan after having been evicted from territory it occupied further south, as Iraq returns to the offensive and once more invades Iran; precipitating a ceasefire in the Iran–Iraq War on 20 August.[240]
18 SeptemberThe Socialist Republic of the Union of Burma changes its name to the Union of Burma, with the SLORC junta's suspension of the 1974 Constitution.[241]
15 NovemberThe State of Palestine declares independence from Israel, with East Jerusalem as its capital. While its actual control over territory is limited, the declaration is made amidst a popular uprising in the Israeli-occupied territories.[242]
1989 15 FebruaryThe Soviet Union completely withdraws its forces from Afghanistan, ending a nine-year-long occupation.
1 MayThe People's Republic of Kampuchea changes its name to the State of Cambodia.
19 JuneThe Union of Burma changes its name to the Union of Myanmar. The official English name of its capital is changed from Rangoon to Yangon.[243]
26 SeptemberVietnam completely withdraws its forces from Cambodia, ending a more than ten-year-long occupation.
30 SeptemberThe Senegambia Confederation between Senegal and The Gambia is dissolved.
23 OctoberThe Hungarian People's Republic changes its name to the Hungarian Republic.
3–4 NovemberThe Federated States of Micronesia moves its capital from Kolonia to Palikir.[244]
28 DecemberFollowing the Romanian Revolution, the Socialist Republic of Romania changes its name to Romania.[245]
31 DecemberThe Polish People's Republic changes its name to the Republic of Poland.[246]

1990s


YearDateEvent
1990 19 JanuaryArmenian forces conquer Karki, an exclave of the Azerbaijan SSR. It remains Azerbaijani territory only de jure.[247]
1 MarchThe People's Republic of Benin changes its name to the Republic of Benin.
8 MarchThe Socialist Republic of Slovenia changes its name to the Republic of Slovenia.
11 MarchFollowing democratic elections, the Lithuanian Soviet Socialist Republic declares independence from the Soviet Union as the restored Republic of Lithuania. Vilnius remains the capital.
Chile moves its legislative capital from Santiago to Valparaíso. Santiago remains the administrative capital.[248]
21 MarchSouth West Africa gains independence from South Africa as the Republic of Namibia, fulfilling the terms of the Tripartite Accord. Windhoek remains the capital.
30 MarchFollowing grassroots elections, the Estonian SSR announces a transitional period to restore the independence of the Republic of Estonia from the Soviet Union.
23 AprilThe Czechoslovak Socialist Republic changes its name to the Czech and Slovak Federative Republic.
4 MayFollowing democratic elections, the Latvian Soviet Socialist Republic declares independence from the Soviet Union as the restored Republic of Latvia, while also announcing a transitional period to achieve independence.
8 MayThe Estonian Soviet Socialist Republic changes its name to the Republic of Estonia.
17 MayThe Republic of Bougainville declares independence from Papua New Guinea. Arawa becomes the capital.[249]
22 MayThe Republic of Yemen is formed through the unification of the People's Democratic Republic of Yemen and the Yemen Arab Republic. Aden yields to Sanaa as the capital.
23 JuneThe Moldavian Soviet Socialist Republic changes its name to the Soviet Socialist Republic of Moldova.
25 JulyThe Republic of Fiji changes its name to the Sovereign Democratic Republic of Fiji.[250]
2 AugustIraq invades Kuwait, beginning a seven-month-long occupation.
4 AugustThe State of Kuwait changes its name to the Republic of Kuwait as a Provisional Government is installed by Iraq.
19 AugustThe Gagauz Republic declares independence from the Soviet Socialist Republic of Moldova as a separate republic within the Soviet Union. Comrat becomes the capital.
20 AugustIraq completely withdraws its forces from the territory of Iran occupied during the last weeks of the Iran–Iraq War, returning to the internationally recognized borders established by the 1975 Algiers Agreement.[251]
23 AugustThe Armenian Soviet Socialist Republic secedes from the Soviet Union as the Republic of Armenia. Yerevan remains the capital.
28 AugustIraq annexes the Republic of Kuwait as the Kuwait Governorate and Saddamiyat al-Mitla' District.[252]
2 SeptemberThe Pridnestrovian Moldavian Soviet Socialist Republic declares independence from the Soviet Socialist Republic of Moldova as a separate republic within the Soviet Union. Tiraspol becomes the capital.
20 SeptemberThe South Ossetian Autonomous Oblast changes its name to the South Ossetian Soviet Democratic Republic and declares its independence from the Georgian SSR inside the Soviet Union. Tskhinvali becomes the capital.[253]
28 SeptemberThe Socialist Republic of Serbia changes its name to the Republic of Serbia.
3 OctoberGermany is reunified through the merger of the German Democratic Republic into the Federal Republic of Germany. Bonn yields to Berlin as the capital.
30 OctoberThe Kirghiz Soviet Socialist Republic changes its name to the Socialist Republic of Kyrgyzstan.
15 NovemberThe People's Republic of Bulgaria changes its name to the Republic of Bulgaria.
18 NovemberThe Georgian Soviet Socialist Republic changes its name to the Republic of Georgia.
28 NovemberThe South Ossetian Soviet Democratic Republic changes its name to the South Ossetian Soviet Republic.[254]
30 NovemberThe People's Republic of Mozambique changes its name to the Republic of Mozambique.[255]
15 DecemberThe Socialist Republic of Kyrgyzstan changes its name to the Republic of Kyrgyzstan.
22 DecemberThe Socialist Republic of Croatia changes its name to the Republic of Croatia.
1991 13 JanuaryThe forces of the Soviet Union withdraw from Lithuania's cities following a failed attempt to overthrow the unrecognized Republic of Lithuania.
5 FebruaryThe Azerbaijan Soviet Socialist Republic changes its name to the Republic of Azerbaijan.
The Republic of Kyrgyzstan changes the name of its capital from Frunze to Bishkek.
11 FebruaryIceland becomes the first UN member state to recognize the independence of a Republic of the Soviet Union, Lithuania, when its parliament votes that the 1940 Soviet annexation is legally void. Other states soon follow.[256]
28 FebruaryKuwait regains its independence, with the complete withdrawal of Iraqi forces.
15 MarchGermany becomes fully sovereign, as the Four Powers (France, the Soviet Union, United Kingdom, and United States) renounce their rights in the country dating from the post-war occupation in the Two Plus Four Agreement.
9 AprilThe Republic of Georgia secedes from the Soviet Union following a referendum. Tbilisi remains the capital.
29 AprilThe People's Socialist Republic of Albania changes its name to the Republic of Albania.
4 MayThe Assembly of the South Ossetian Soviet Republic votes to return to the status of a South Ossetian Autonomous Oblast; the Supreme Council of Georgia had dissolved the autonomous region on 10 December.[257]
18 MayThe Republic of Somaliland declares independence from Somalia. Hargeisa becomes the capital. All other countries continue to officially recognize Somaliland as part of Somalia.[258][259]
23 MayThe Soviet Socialist Republic of Moldova changes its name to the Republic of Moldova.
24 MayThe State of Eritrea gains de facto independence from the People's Democratic Republic of Ethiopia following a decades-long War of Independence.
7 JuneThe Socialist Republic of Macedonia changes its name to the Republic of Macedonia.[260]
19 JuneThe Soviet Union completely withdraws its forces from Hungary, ending an occupation begun in 1944.
25 JuneThe Republic of Slovenia secedes from Yugoslavia. Ljubljana remains the capital.
The Republic of Croatia secedes from Yugoslavia. Zagreb remains the capital.
27 JuneThe Soviet Union completely withdraws its forces from Czechoslovakia, ending an occupation begun in 1968
4 JulyColombia changes the name of its capital from Bogotá, Distrito Capital to Santa Fe de Bogotá with the promulgation of a new constitution.
21 JulyThe Somali Republic supersedes the Somali Democratic Republic, as rebel factions agree to restore the Constitution of 1960. Mogadishu remains the capital, though its authority is limited amidst ongoing civil war.[113][261]
22 JulyFollowing the victory of the EPRDF in the civil war, Ethiopia supersedes the People's Democratic Republic of Ethiopia. Addis Ababa remains the capital.[262]
2 AugustThe Socialist Republic of Montenegro changes its name to the Republic of Montenegro.[263]
20 AugustIn response to the Soviet coup d'état attempt, the Republic of Estonia announces the end of the transitional period and declares complete independence from the Soviet Union. Tallinn remains the capital.
21 AugustIn response to the Soviet coup d'état attempt, the Republic of Latvia announces the end of the transitional period and declares complete independence from the Soviet Union. Riga remains the capital.
24 AugustThe Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic secedes from the Soviet Union as Ukraine. Kiev remains the capital.
25 AugustThe Byelorussian Soviet Socialist Republic secedes from the Soviet Union. Minsk remains the capital.
27 AugustThe Republic of Moldova secedes from the Soviet Union. Chişinău remains the capital.
30 AugustThe Republic of Azerbaijan secedes from the Soviet Union. Baku remains the capital.
31 AugustThe Republic of Kyrgyzstan secedes from the Soviet Union. Bishkek remains the capital.
The Uzbek Soviet Socialist Republic secedes from the Soviet Union as the Republic of Uzbekistan. Tashkent remains the capital.
The Tajik Soviet Socialist Republic changes its name to the Republic of Tajikistan.
1 SeptemberThe South Ossetian Autonomous Oblast changes its name to the Republic of South Ossetia and annuls the law of 4 May, reverting to the status of independence from Georgia within the Soviet Union.[264]
2 SeptemberThe Nagorno-Karabakh Autonomous Oblast and Shahumyan district councils jointly declare independence from Azerbaijan as the Nagorno-Karabakh Republic within the Soviet Union. Stepanakert becomes the capital.[265]
6 SeptemberThe first meeting of the State Council of the Soviet Union recognizes the independence of Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania.[266]
A ceasefire is imposed in the war in Western Sahara, with Morocco controlling 80% of the territory within a defensive wall and the Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic governing the remaining Free Zone from Tifariti.[173]
8 SeptemberThe Republic of Macedonia secedes from Yugoslavia. Skopje remains the capital.
9 SeptemberThe Republic of Tajikistan secedes from the Soviet Union. Dushanbe remains the capital.
19 SeptemberThe Byelorussian Soviet Socialist Republic changes its name to the Republic of Belarus.
23 SeptemberFollowing a referendum, the Republic of Armenia reaffirms its August 1990 declaration of independence from the Soviet Union.
27 OctoberThe Turkmen Soviet Socialist Republic secedes from the Soviet Union as Turkmenistan. Ashgabat remains the capital.
1 NovemberThe Chechen Republic declares independence from the Soviet Union after elections. Grozny becomes the capital. The Russian SFSR declares the election illegal the next day.[267]
5 NovemberThe Pridnestrovian Moldavian Soviet Socialist Republic changes its name to the Pridnestrovian Moldavian Republic (Transnistria).
2 DecemberThe Russian SFSR recognizes the independence of Ukraine the day after it is affirmed by a referendum.
8 DecemberThe Russian SFSR, the Republic of Belarus, and Ukraine form the Commonwealth of Independent States as a successor organization to the Soviet Union.
10 DecemberThe Kazakh Soviet Socialist Republic changes its name to the Republic of Kazakhstan.
12 DecemberNigeria moves its capital from Lagos to Abuja.
16 DecemberThe Republic of Kazakhstan secedes from the Soviet Union. Alma-Ata remains the capital until 1997.
19 DecemberThe Serbian Autonomous Oblast of Krajina declares its independence from Croatia and loyalty to Yugoslavia as the Republic of Serbian Krajina . Knin becomes the capital.
21 DecemberThe Republic of South Ossetia declares independence from the Soviet Union. Tskhinvali remains the capital. Georgia continues to claim South Ossetia as part of its own territory.[268]
25 DecemberThe Russian Federation supersedes both the Soviet Union and the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic. Moscow remains the capital.
26 DecemberThe Soviet Union is formally dissolved at the final meeting of the Soviet of the Republics of the Supreme Soviet.
1992 6 JanuaryThe Nagorno-Karabakh Republic declares its complete independence following a referendum. Azerbaijan, which abolished the Nagorno-Karabakh Autonomous Oblast on 26 November, continues to claim its territory in full.[269]
The Iraqi Republic changes its name to the Republic of Iraq.[270][271]
12 FebruaryThe Mongolian People's Republic changes its name to Mongolia upon the promulgation of a new constitution.
26 FebruaryThe Serbian Autonomous Oblast of Eastern Slavonia, Baranja and Western Syrmia and the Serbian Autonomous Oblast of Western Slavonia join the Republic of Serbian Krajina.
3 MarchFollowing an independence referendum, the Socialist Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina secedes from the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia. Sarajevo remains the capital.
12 MarchMauritius changes its name to the Republic of Mauritius and severs all ties to the British monarchy as a Commonwealth realm.
The Chechen Republic changes its name to the Chechen Republic of Ichkeria upon the promulgation of a new constitution.[272]
15 MarchThe State of Cambodia cedes all government powers to the United Nations Transitional Authority in Cambodia tasked with organizing constituent assembly elections, in fulfillment of the 1991 Paris Peace Agreements.[273][274]
The People's Republic of the Congo changes its name to the Republic of the Congo following the promulgation of a new constitution by referendum.
7 AprilThe Serbian Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina declares independence from the Socialist Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina. Pale becomes the capital.
8 AprilThe Socialist Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina changes its name to the Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina.
24 AprilAn accord between Mujahideen and Afghan Army factions ends the civil war and creates the Islamic State of Afghanistan, superseding the Republic of Afghanistan. The new state immediately plunges into a new civil war.
27 AprilThe Federal Republic of Yugoslavia supersedes the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia. Belgrade remains the capital.
Armenia conquers Barxudarlı and Sofulu, two exclaves of Azerbaijan. They remain Azerbaijani territory only de jure.[275]
8 JuneArmenia conquers Yukhari Askipara, an exclave of Azerbaijan. It remains Azerbaijani territory only de jure.[275]
24 JuneA ceasefire is imposed in the war between the unrecognized Republic of South Ossetia and Georgia, with Georgia losing control of over 60% of the former South Ossetian Autonomous Oblast which it continues to claim in full.
21 JulyA ceasefire is imposed in the war between the unrecognized Transnistria and Moldova, with Moldova losing control of Bender and most of the Transnistria region both of which it continues to claim in full.
23 JulyThe Abkhaz faction of the Abkhazia Supreme Soviet effectively declares independence from Georgia by reinstating the 1925 constitution, precipitating a Georgian military response and the outbreak of war.[276]
8 AugustAzerbaijan conquers Artsvashen, an exclave of Armenia. It remains Armenian territory only de jure.[277]
12 AugustThe Serbian Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina changes its name to Republika Srpska.
27 AugustThe People's Republic of Angola changes its name to the Republic of Angola with the enactment of constitutional revisions.[278]
15 SeptemberRussia completely withdraws its forces from Mongolia, ending its military presence in the country since 1967.[279]
18 SeptemberThe Democratic Republic of Madagascar changes its name to the Republic of Madagascar upon the promulgation of a new constitution.[280][281]
22 SeptemberThe Republic of Kosova declares independence from Yugoslavia, though it only ever exercises partial control over most of the territory it claims and receives no international recognition. Pristina is the declared capital.
1 OctoberOman and Yemen resolve their border dispute, in particular over the Khuriya Muriya Islands which are confirmed as part of the territory of Oman.[282]
1993 1 JanuaryThe Czech Republic and the Slovak Republic gain full independence with the dissolution of the Czech and Slovak Federative Republic. Prague and Bratislava remain the respective capitals.
28 JanuaryKazakhstan changes the name of its capital from Alma-Ata to Almaty.
13 FebruaryPapua New Guinea reconquers Arawa, the capital of the Republic of Bougainville. The Bougainville Revolutionary Army wages an insurgency until the 1997–98 agreements leading to a 2019 independence referendum.[249]
8 AprilThe Republic of Macedonia becomes a member state of the United Nations as "the former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia (FYROM)" due to Greece's objection to its official name.
5 MayThe Republic of Kyrgyzstan changes its name to the Kyrgyz Republic.
24 MayThe independence of Eritrea is internationally recognized following a referendum.
23 JuneThe Republic of the Seychelles changes its name to the Republic of Seychelles.[283][284][285]
28 AugustThe Croatian Community of Herzeg-Bosnia declares itself the Croatian Republic of Herzeg-Bosnia with the intention of forcing the Owen–Stoltenberg plan upon Bosnia and Herzegovina. Mostar becomes the capital.
18 SeptemberRussia completely withdraws its forces from Poland, ending its military presence in the country since World War II.
24 SeptemberWith the promulgation of a new constitution by the Constituent Assembly elected in May, the United Nations Transitional Authority in Cambodia cedes its authority to the restored Kingdom of Cambodia.
27 SeptemberThe forces of Russia and the unrecognized Republic of Abkhazia conquer the Abkhazian capital of Sukhumi from Georgia, which continues to claim the entire territory of the Autonomous Republic of Abkhazia.
The secessionist Autonomous Province of Western Bosnia is established with the support of Serbian and Croatian forces intent on the partition of Bosnia. Velika Kladuša is the capital.
1 NovemberThe European Union is established between the twelve members of the European Communities: Belgium, Denmark, France, Germany, Greece, Ireland, Italy, Luxembourg, Netherlands, Portugal, Spain, and the United Kingdom.
1994 1 MarchSouth Africa transfers Walvis Bay and the Penguin Islands to Namibia.
28 MarchKazakhstan leases Baikonur Cosmodrome to Russia for twenty years, with automatic extension absent objections by either party.[286]
30 MarchIn a ceasefire agreement, the government-controlled territories of the Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina and the Croatian Republic of Herzeg-Bosnia combine to form the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina.
27 AprilThe nominally independent republics of Bophuthatswana, Ciskei, Transkei and Venda are incorporated back into South Africa.
4 MayAn agreement between Israel and the Palestine Liberation Organization, implementing the Oslo I Accord, creates the Palestinian National Authority.[287]
10 MayLibya completely withdraws its forces from the Aouzou Strip in northern Chad after a 21–year occupation, implementing a 3 February ICJ verdict which upheld Chad's sovereignty over the territory.[288]
12 MayA ceasefire is imposed in the First Nagorno-Karabakh War with the forces of the unrecognized Nagorno-Karabakh Republic, supported by Armenia, occupying more than 13% of the internationally recognized territory of Azerbaijan.
21 MayThe Democratic Republic of Yemen secedes from Yemen. Aden is the capital.
7 JulyYemeni government forces reconquer the Democratic Republic of Yemen.
31 AugustRussia completely withdraws its forces from eastern Germany, ending an occupation begun in 1945.
1 OctoberThe Republic of Palau gains full independence but enters into free association with the United States. Koror remains the capital. The US-administered United Nations Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands is terminated.
21 OctoberArgentina is awarded most of Laguna del Desierto, also claimed by Chile, following international arbitration.
23 DecemberThe unrecognized Gagauz Republic is reincorporated into Moldova. It is reorganized three weeks later as the Autonomous Territorial Unit of Gagauzia.
3 NovemberThe Taliban conquers Kandahar, the first city to fall under the control of the militant group in Afghanistan.
10 NovemberIraq recognizes the independence and territorial integrity of Kuwait following a new war scare on their borders.[289]
1995 1 JanuaryThree more states join the European Union: Austria, Finland, and Sweden.
The International Date Line is moved around Kiribati.
3 MayCroatian forces reconquer the Western Slavonia region of Serbian Krajina.
1 JulyOman and Saudi Arabia finalize the demarcation of their previously undefined border.[290]
26 JulyThe Autonomous Province of Western Bosnia changes its name to the Republic of Western Bosnia.
7 AugustCroatian and Bosnian forces reconquer most of Serbian Krajina.
The Republic of Western Bosnia is conquered by the forces of Bosnia and Herzegovina supported by Croatia.
21 AugustEthiopia changes its name to the Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia with the promulgation of a new constitution.
24 AugustThe Republic of Georgia changes its name to Georgia.
28 SeptemberThe Oslo II Accord begins the transfer of land to the Palestinian Authority. All of the Gaza Strip and 18% of the West Bank is eventually transferred to full Palestinian control, and 22% to joint Israeli-Palestinian control.[291]
14 OctoberUkraine officially changes the English name of its capital from Kiev to Kyiv.[292]
12 NovemberCroatia and the remaining portion of Serbian Krajina in Eastern Slavonia, Baranja and Western Syrmia reach an agreement to reincorporate the region into Croatia through a transitional United Nations protectorate.
14 DecemberThe Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina and Republika Srpska unite to form Bosnia and Herzegovina, superseding the Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina. Sarajevo remains the capital.
1996 15 JanuaryThe United Nations Transitional Administration for Eastern Slavonia, Baranja and Western Sirmium is established in the remaining territory of the former Serbian Krajina in order to reintegrate the region into Croatia.
FebruaryTanzania moves its capital from Dar-es-Salaam to Dodoma.
27 SeptemberThe Islamic Emirate of Afghanistan is established following the Taliban's conquest of Kabul, which becomes the state capital.
The Islamic State of Afghanistan moves its de facto capital to Mazar-i-Sharif following the evacuation of Kabul.
1997 23 JanuaryThe Chechen Republic of Ichkeria changes the name of its capital from Grozny to Dzokhar-Ghala.[293]
17 MayThe Republic of Zaire changes its name back to the Democratic Republic of the Congo.
25 MayThe Islamic State of Afghanistan moves its capital from Mazar-i-Sharif to Taloqan, as Mazar-i-Sharif becomes a battlefield in the war against the Taliban.
28 MayUkraine formally agrees to lease naval facilities in Sevastopol to Russia for twenty years, until 2017.
1 JulySovereignty over Hong Kong is transferred to China from the United Kingdom. Hong Kong becomes a special administrative region.
4 JulyThe Independent State of Western Samoa changes its name to the Independent State of Samoa.
27 JulyThe Sovereign Democratic Republic of Fiji changes its name to the Republic of the Fiji Islands upon the promulgation of a new constitution.
3 AugustThe State of Anjouan declares independence from the Comoros. Mutsamudu becomes the capital.[294]
11 AugustThe Democratic Republic of Mohéli declares independence from the Comoros. Fomboni becomes the capital.[295]
10 DecemberKazakhstan moves its capital from Almaty to Aqmola.[296]
1998 15 JanuaryThe United Nations Transitional Administration for Eastern Slavonia, Baranja and Western Sirmium concludes its operations and transfers full administrative authority over the region to Croatia.
6 MayKazakhstan changes the name of its capital from Aqmola to Astana.[296]
16 DecemberArgentina and Chile demarcate part of their undefined border in the Southern Patagonian Ice Field.
4 JulyChina is allocated 407 km2 (157 mi2) and Kazakhstan is allocated 537 km2 (207 mi2) of disputed territory in a treaty delimiting the border between the two countries.[297][298][299]
1 AugustThe Puntland State of Somalia declares "temporary" independence from Somalia. Garowe becomes the capital.[300][301]
1999 19 MarchFrance elevates the Overseas Territory of New Caledonia to the sui generis collectivity of New Caledonia.[302]
10 JuneThe United Nations Interim Administration Mission in Kosovo is formed in the Autonomous Province of Kosovo and Metohija of Yugoslavia.
20 JuneThe last forces of Yugoslavia withdraw from Kosovo.[303]
25 OctoberIndonesia relinquishes control over the disputed region of East Timor to the United Nations Transitional Administration in East Timor.
20 DecemberThe Republic of Venezuela changes its name to the Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela.[304]
Sovereignty over Macau is transferred to China from Portugal. Macau becomes a special administrative region.
30 DecemberChina and Vietnam sign a treaty resolving their border dispute, with China acquiring 114 km2 (44 mi2) and Vietnam acquiring 113 km2 (43.6 mi2) of disputed territory.[305]
31 DecemberThe United States transfers the operation of the Panama Canal and full sovereignty in the former Panama Canal Zone to Panama.[306]

2000s


YearDateEvent
2000 20 MarchSix weeks after the fall of Grozny, the Chechen Republic of Ichkeria is overthrown as a state following its defeat in the Battle of Komsomolskoye; as an insurgency it continues to resist Russian rule in Chechnya for years.
24 MayIsrael completely withdraws from its occupation zone in southern Lebanon, where it is replaced by United Nations Interim Force in Lebanon peacekeeping forces.
12 JuneSaudi Arabia and Yemen sign a treaty resolving their border dispute.
17 AugustColombia returns its capital city's name from Santa Fe de Bogotá back to Bogotá, Distrito Capital.[307]
5 SeptemberTaloqan, the de facto capital of the Islamic State of Afghanistan, falls to the Taliban's Islamic Emirate of Afghanistan. The capital moves to Fayzabad.[308]
2001 16 MarchThe ICJ resolves the territorial dispute between Bahrain and Qatar, awarding Fasht Al Azm, Qit'at Jaradah, and most of the Hawar Islands to Bahrain, and Fasht Dibal, Zubarah, and Janan Island to Qatar.[309]
21 MarchQatar and Saudi Arabia sign a treaty resolving their border dispute.[310]
1 JulyThe temporarily independent Puntland State of Somalia adopts a new constitution explicitly identifying itself as an "independent integral part of Somalia".[311]
11 SeptemberUnited States was attacked by The Taliban Causing Thousands of deaths
7 OctoberThe United States and a NATO-led alliance invade Afghanistan, beginning an occupation which continues up to the present.
13 NovemberThe capital of the Islamic State of Afghanistan returns to Kabul with the reconquest of the city by the forces of the Northern Alliance, beginning a cascading collapse of the Taliban forces of the Islamic Emirate of Afghanistan.
17 DecemberThe Islamic Emirate of Afghanistan is completely overthrown following its defeat in the Battle of Tora Bora. The Taliban soon reemerges as an insurgency.
23 DecemberThe Federal Islamic Republic of the Comoros changes its name to the Union of the Comoros.[312]
2002 14 FebruaryThe State of Bahrain changes its name to the Kingdom of Bahrain.[313]
10 MarchThe Union of the Comoros reabsorbs the de facto independent State of Anjouan and the Democratic Republic of Mohéli. Mutsamudu and Fomboni yield to Moroni as the capital.[314]
20 MayThe Democratic Republic of Timor-Leste gains independence with the promulgation of a constitution and the conclusion of the United Nations Transitional Administration in East Timor. Dili remains the capital.
21 MayThe United Kingdom changes the title of its British Dependent Territories to that of British Overseas Territories. The citizens of each British Overseas Territory gain full British citizenship.
2003 4 FebruaryThe Federal Republic of Yugoslavia changes its name to the State Union of Serbia and Montenegro.[315]
20 MarchUnited States-led coalition forces invade Iraq, beginning an occupation which lasts for more than eight years.
15 AprilUnited States forces conquer Tikrit, the last stronghold of Ba'athist Iraq.[316]
28 MarchFrance reorganizes the Territorial Collectivity of Saint Pierre and Miquelon as the Overseas Collectivity of Saint Pierre and Miquelon.[317]
France reorganizes the Overseas Territory of Wallis and Futuna as the Overseas Collectivity of Wallis and Futuna.[318]
France reorganizes the Overseas Territory of French Polynesia as the Overseas Collectivity of French Polynesia.[319]
26 MayThe Rwandese Republic changes its name to the Republic of Rwanda.[320]
2004 9 JanuaryKazakhstan agrees to a revision of the terms of Russia's lease of the Baikonur Cosmodrome, extending it to 2050 with no established options on further extensions.[286]
27 FebruaryFrance elevates the Overseas Collectivity of French Polynesia to the Overseas Country of French Polynesia.[321]
1 MayTen more states join the European Union: Cyprus, the Czech Republic, Estonia, Hungary, Latvia, Lithuania, Malta, Poland, Slovakia, and Slovenia.
1 SeptemberThe Antarctic Treaty Secretariat administering Antarctica and all lands and waters south of the 60th parallel south establishes its headquarters in Buenos Aires, Argentina.
7 DecemberThe Islamic State of Afghanistan changes its name to the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan with the end of the transitional period set out in the new constitution.[322][323][324]
2005 12 SeptemberIsrael completely withdraws its forces from the Gaza Strip. A Palestinian Civil War leads to Gaza effectively withdrawing from the Palestinian Authority and becoming a separate entity under Hamas by June 2007.
6 NovemberMyanmar moves its capital from Yangon to Naypyidaw.[325]
2006 3 JuneThe Republic of Montenegro secedes from the State Union of Serbia and Montenegro. Podgorica remains the capital.
5 JuneThe Republic of Serbia supersedes the State Union of Serbia and Montenegro. Belgrade remains the capital.
7 OctoberPalau moves its capital from Koror to Ngerulmud.[326]
2007 1 JanuaryBulgaria and Romania join the European Union.
15 JanuaryThe Kingdom of Nepal changes its name to the State of Nepal.[327]
21 FebruaryFrance detaches the Overseas Collectivity of Saint Barthélemy from Guadeloupe. Gustavia becomes the capital.
France detaches the Overseas Collectivity of Saint Martin from Guadeloupe. Marigot becomes the capital.
France integrates the Scattered Islands in the Indian Ocean into the French Southern and Antarctic Lands as its fifth district.[328]
22 OctoberThe Republic of Montenegro changes its name to Montenegro.
2008 17 FebruaryThe Republic of Kosovo declares independence from Serbia, which continues to claim it as the Autonomous Province of Kosovo and Metohija; other countries divide on recognizing its declaration. Pristina remains the capital.[329]
4 AugustThe State of Nepal changes its name to the Federal Democratic Republic of Nepal.[330]
11 AugustThe separatist forces of South Ossetia, supported by Russia, completely expel the forces of Georgia from the territory of the former South Ossetian Autonomous Oblast, which Georgia continues to claim in its entirety.
12 AugustThe separatist forces of Abkhazia, supported by Russia, completely expel the forces of Georgia from Upper Abkhazia, the last territory held by Georgia in the region which it continues to claim in its entirety.
14 AugustNigeria completes the transfer of Bakassi to Cameroon, fulfilling the terms of a 2002 ICJ ruling on the disputed territory.[331]
27 AugustRussia recognizes the independence of Abkhazia and South Ossetia from Georgia. Most countries continue to recognize these territories as part of Georgia.[332]
14 OctoberChina is ceded 174 km2 (67 mi2) of land by Russia as part of a treaty delimiting the borders and settling a territorial dispute between the two countries.[333]
2009 7 FebruaryThe Republic of Bolivia changes its name to the Plurinational State of Bolivia.[334]
14 JulyChina is ceded 9 km2 (3.5 mi2) of land by Kyrgyzstan as part of a treaty delimiting the borders between the two countries.[335][336]
1 SeptemberThe British Overseas Territory of Saint Helena and Dependencies changes its name to Saint Helena, Ascension and Tristan da Cunha. Jamestown on Saint Helena remains the capital.
24 NovemberThe United States cedes six islands in the Rio Grande river to Mexico and Mexico cedes three islands and two bancos after pending for 20 years.[337]

2010s


YearDateEvent
2010 21 AprilUkraine extends Russia's lease on naval facilities in Sevastopol for an additional twenty-five years beyond the 2017 expiration, until 2042, with further renewal options thereafter.[338]
10 OctoberThe Kingdom of the Netherlands dissolves the Netherlands Antilles.[339] New polities include:
21 OctoberThe Union of Myanmar changes its name to the Republic of the Union of Myanmar.[340]
2011 11 JanuaryChina is ceded 1322 km2 (510 mi2) of land by Tajikistan after the final ratification of boundary treaties between the two countries.[341]
2 FebruaryThe Republic of the Fiji Islands changes its name back to the Republic of Fiji.[342]
31 MarchImplementing the decision of a March 2009 referendum, France incorporates the Departmental Collectivity of Mayotte as the Overseas Department and Region of Mayotte.[343]
9 JulyFollowing a referendum in January, Southern Sudan gains independence from Sudan as the Republic of South Sudan. Juba remains the capital.[344]
1 SeptemberAmidst a civil war, Muammar Gaddafi moves the capital of the Libyan Arab Jamahiriya from Tripoli to Sirte, days after the rebel forces of the National Transitional Council, supported by NATO, conquered Tripoli.[345]
16 SeptemberLibya officially supersedes the Great Socialist People's Libyan Arab Jamahiriya, as the UN General Assembly seats the representatives of the National Transitional Council and recognizes the country's name change.[346][347]
20 OctoberThe Libyan Arab Jamahiriya is overthrown following its defeat in the Battle of Sirte. The government of Libya declares the end of the civil war three days later.[348]
18 DecemberThe United States ends its occupation of Iraq.[349]
31 DecemberSamoa and Tokelau switch to the western side of the International Date Line, skipping 30 December entirely.[350]
2012 1 JanuaryThe Hungarian Republic changes its name to Hungary.[351]
25 JanuaryThe National Movement for the Liberation of Azawad (MNLA) conquers Aguelhok, the first town to fall under the control of the militant separatist group in northern Mali.[352]
6 AprilThe State of Azawad declares independence from Mali, after the MNLA conquers northern Mali's largest cities between 30 March and 2 April. Timbuktu is proclaimed the capital; Gao serves as the provisional capital.[353]
26 MayGeorgia moves its legislative capital from Tbilisi to Kutaisi. Tbilisi remains the administrative capital.
15 JuneA standoff beginning April 8 over Scarborough Shoal ends with an agreement between China and the Philippines to both withdraw their forces: only the Philippines actually does so, leaving China in effective possession.[354]
12 JulyAnsongo, the last town controlled by the State of Azawad, is conquered by Ansar Dine, a militant group aiming to make Mali an Islamist state which had already conquered Azawad's largest cities on 27–28 June.[355]
20 AugustThe Somali Republic changes its name to the Federal Republic of Somalia.
14 DecemberChina declares an exclusive economic zone in the East China Sea which extends hundreds of kilometres into Japan's maritime claims.
19 NovemberThe ICJ resolves the territorial dispute between Nicaragua and Colombia, upholding Colombia's sovereignty over disputed islands while ceding Nicaragua much of the surrounding maritime territory.[356]
29 NovemberThe United Nations General Assembly votes to upgrade the status of the State of Palestine from "entity" to "non-member observer state," effectively granting it recognition.[357]
2013 8 JanuaryThe General National Congress changes the provisional name of Libya to the State of Libya, pending the adoption of a new constitution.[358]
1 JulyCroatia joins the European Union.
24 OctoberThe Republic of Cape Verde changes its official English name to the Republic of Cabo Verde,[359] following precedents set by Côte d'Ivoire and Timor-Leste.
11 NovemberThe ICJ clarifies its 1962 ruling on the disputed border between Cambodia and Thailand, awarding the promontory of Preah Vihear to Cambodia and Phu Ma-khuea hill to Thailand.
23 NovemberChina declares an Air Defense Identification Zone over the East China Sea, around half of which overlaps with the previously declared airspace of Japan, South Korea and Taiwan.
2014 4 JanuaryThe Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant captures Fallujah in Iraq, the first significant city the militant group is able to maintain control over.[360]
14 JanuaryAfter having been expelled from the city by Syrian rebels early in the month, the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant seizes total control of Raqqa, the largest city to fall under its rule in Syria.[361][362]
27 JanuaryThe ICJ publishes a new boundary resolving the maritime dispute between Chile and Peru.[363]
11 MarchThe Republic of Crimea declares independence from Ukraine. Sevastopol and Simferopol are the de facto capitals.
18 MarchThe Republic of Crimea is annexed by Russia as two separate federal entities: the Republic of Crimea and the federal city of Sevastopol. Most countries continue to recognize Crimea as part of Ukraine.[364]
11 MayThe Donetsk People's Republic and Luhansk People's Republic declare independence from Ukraine following referendums. Donetsk and Luhansk become their capitals. Both republics remain completely unrecognized.
10 JuneThe Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant completely conquers Mosul, the second largest city in Iraq.
29 JuneAbu Bakr al-Baghdadi, the leader of the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant, declares the foundation of a new caliphate, the Islamic State. Raqqa is the de facto capital.[365]
2015 20 FebruaryThe Donetsk People's Republic and Luhansk People's Republic consolidate their territories with the conquest of Debaltseve from Ukraine, the last major battle of the War in Donbass.
21 MarchAmidst a civil war, the Cabinet of Yemen provisionally moves the capital of Yemen to Aden, while the Supreme Political Council remains in the official capital of Sanaa.[366]
8 MayBurkina Faso and Niger agree to implement the ICJ's 2013 judgment on their frontier dispute case by exchanging 18 towns over the following year (Burkina Faso to gain 14, Niger to gain 4).[367]
31 JulyIndia and Bangladesh exchange 162 enclaves, simplifying their mutual border in the region of the former Cooch Behar princely state; Bangladesh gains a net 40 km2 (15 mi2).[368]
26 AugustSyria formally agrees to lease its Khmeimim Air Base to Russia with no time limit.[369]
11 DecemberThe Republic of The Gambia changes its name to the Islamic Republic of The Gambia by presidential decree.[370][371]
16 DecemberThe ICJ cedes 3 km2 to Costa Rica, resolving part of the San Juan River border dispute with Nicaragua.[372]
2016 5 AprilAfter four days of fighting, Azerbaijan reconquers 8–20 km2 (3.1–7.7 mi2) of territory controlled by the Nagorno-Karabakh Republic since 1994.
2 MayThe Czech Republic changes its official English short-form name to Czechia.[373]
1 JulyAustralia incorporates Norfolk Island within its domestic institutions and laws, implementing a March 2015 decision to revoke the territory's self-governing status.[374]
2017 18 JanuarySyria's lease of Khmeimim Air Base to Russia is amended from having no time limit to 49 years, renewable for subsequent 25-year periods beginning in 2066.[375]
Syria signs a lease granting Russia sovereign jurisdiction over the naval base at the port of Tartus for 49 years, renewable for subsequent 25-year periods beginning in 2066.[376]
29 JanuaryThe Islamic Republic of The Gambia changes its name back to the Republic of The Gambia.[377][378]
21 FebruaryThe unrecognized Nagorno-Karabakh Republic changes its name to the Republic of Artsakh after a constitutional referendum.[379][380]
29 MarchTurkey and the Turkish-backed Syrian National Army complete the conquest of a 2055 km2 (793 mi2) occupation zone from the Islamic State and the Syrian Democratic Forces, establishing the Northern Syria Security Belt.[381]
9 AprilFollowing a referendum, the partially recognized Republic of South Ossetia changes its name to the Republic of South Ossetia – the State of Alania.[382]
18 MayThe United States establishes a "55 KM area" around Al-Tanf effectively under its control, conducting its only attack on pro-government Syrian ground forces of the Syrian Civil War to prevent their advancing into the area.
24 JuneEgypt transfers Sanafir Island and Tiran Island to Saudi Arabia.[383]
20 JulyIraqi government forces, allied militias and the Peshmerga, supported by the US-led Joint Task Force and Iran, complete the reconquest of Mosul from the Islamic State.[384]
17 OctoberThe Syrian Democratic Forces, supported by the US-led Joint Task Force, complete the reconquest of Raqqa from the Islamic State.[385]
2018 1 JanuaryBelgium and the Netherlands exchange territory along the Meuse River, swapping Belgian Presqu'ile de L'llal and Presqu'ile d'Eijsden for Dutch Presqu'ile Petit-Gravier; the Netherlands gains a net 10 ha (24.7 acres).[386][387]
2 FebruaryThe International Court of Justice (ICJ) awards the Laguna Los Portillos and its barrier beach to Nicaragua and the remainder of the disputed territory on Isla Portillos to Costa Rica.[388]
24 MarchTurkey and the Turkish-backed Syrian National Army complete the conquest from the Kurdish People's Protection Units of over 2000 km2 (770 mi2) of Afrin, which is added to their Northern Syria Security Belt.
19 AprilThe Kingdom of Swaziland changes its name to the Kingdom of Eswatini.[389]
9 JulyEthiopia ends its occupation of Badme and returns the town to Eritrea following a peace summit, ending their twenty-year border conflict.[390]
16 DecemberGeorgia moves its legislative capital from Kutaisi back to Tbilisi.[391]
2019 16 JanuaryBurundi moves its capital from Bujumbura to Gitega.[392]
12 FebruaryThe Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia changes its name to the Republic of North Macedonia as part of the Prespa agreement, under which Greece will no longer veto the country's accession to NATO and the EU.[393][394]
20 MarchKazakhstan changes the name of its capital from Astana to Nur-Sultan.[395]
23 MarchThe Syrian Democratic Forces, supported by the US-led Joint Task Force and the Iraqi and Syrian governments, conquers the last territory controlled by the Islamic State in Syria or Iraq, though it continues as an insurgency.[396]
29 OctoberTurkey and the Turkish-backed Syrian National Army complete the conquest from the predominantly-Kurdish Syrian Democratic Forces of a 4820 km2 (1860 mi2) "safe zone", expanding their Northern Syria Security Belt.[397]
27 NovemberTurkey and the Libyan Government of National Accord sign a maritime boundary treaty, establishing exclusive economic zones which are rejected by Cyprus, Egypt, France, Greece, and the United Arab Emirates.[398]

2020s


YearDateEvent
2020 31 JanuaryThe United Kingdom withdraws from the European Union, entering a transition period in which it continues under EU laws and institutions until 31 December.[399]
6 AugustEgypt and Greece sign a maritime boundary treaty, establishing exclusive economic zones in the Mediterranean Sea which overlap with the claims made by Libya and Turkey in November 2019.[400]
10 NovemberArmenia and Azerbaijan impose a ceasefire ending the 2020 Nagorno-Karabakh war; by 15 December the Republic of Artsakh surrenders over 72% of its territory to Azerbaijan, and Russian forces are deployed to the remainder.[401][402][403][404]

See also


Notes


  1. Lists of non-disputed maritime claims can be found in the articles on exclusive economic zones and maritime boundary treaties.

References


  1. "Treaties, Cessions, and Federal Laws". American Samoa Bar Association. Archived from the original on 4 March 2016. Retrieved 11 May 2015.
  2. "National Marine Sanctuary of American Samoa. History". americansamoa.noaa.gov. Retrieved 18 January 2018.
  3. Salote Talagi (2016). Stephen Levine (ed.). Pacific Ways: Government and Politics in the Pacific Islands, Second Edition. Victoria University Press. p. Niue. ISBN 978-1-77656-026-4. Retrieved 29 October 2020.
  4. HL Deb 16 January 1902 vol 101 c57
  5. ’The Map of Africa by Treaty’ by Sir E. Hertslet pg. 77
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