Timeline of hydrogen technologies
This is a timeline of the history of hydrogen technology.
- c. 1520 – First recorded observation of hydrogen by Paracelsus through dissolution of metals (iron, zinc, and tin) in sulfuric acid.
- 1801 – Humphry Davy discovers the concept of the Fuel Cell.
- 1806 – François Isaac de Rivaz built the de Rivaz engine, the first internal combustion engine powered by a mixture of hydrogen and oxygen.
- 1809 – Thomas Forster observed with a theodolite the drift of small free pilot balloons filled with "inflammable gas"
- 1809 – Gay-Lussac's law (gas law, relating temperature and pressure)
- 1811 – Amedeo Avogadro – Avogadro's law a gas law
- 1819 – Edward Daniel Clarke invented the hydrogen gas blowpipe.
- 1820 – W. Cecil wrote a letter "On the application of hydrogen gas to produce a moving power in machinery"
- 1823 – Goldsworthy Gurney demonstrated limelight.
- 1823 – Döbereiner's Lamp a lighter invented by Johann Wolfgang Döbereiner.
- 1823 – Goldsworthy Gurney devised an oxy-hydrogen blowpipe.
- 1824 – Michael Faraday invented the rubber balloon.
- 1826 – Thomas Drummond built the Drummond Light.
- 1826 – Samuel Brown tested his internal combustion engine by using it to propel a vehicle up Shooter's Hill
- 1834 – Michael Faraday published Faraday's laws of electrolysis.
- 1834 – Benoît Paul Émile Clapeyron – Ideal gas law
- 1836 – John Frederic Daniell invented a primary cell in which hydrogen was eliminated in the generation of the electricity.
- 1839 – Christian Friedrich Schönbein published the principle of the fuel cell in the "Philosophical Magazine".
- 1839 – William Robert Grove developed the Grove cell.
- 1842 – William Robert Grove developed the first fuel cell (which he called the gas voltaic battery)
- 1849 – Eugène Bourdon – Bourdon gauge (manometer)
- 1863 – Etienne Lenoir made a test drive from Paris to Joinville-le-Pont with the 1-cylinder, 2-stroke Hippomobile.
- 1866 – August Wilhelm von Hofmann invents the Hofmann voltameter for the electrolysis of water.
- 1873 – Thaddeus S. C. Lowe – Water gas, the process used the water gas shift reaction.
- 1874 – Jules Verne – The Mysterious Island, "water will one day be employed as fuel, that hydrogen and oxygen of which it is constituted will be used"
- 1884 – Charles Renard and Arthur Constantin Krebs launch the airship La France.
- 1885 – Zygmunt Florenty Wróblewski published hydrogen's critical temperature as 33 K; critical pressure, 13.3 atmospheres; and boiling point, 23 K.
- 1889 – Ludwig Mond and Carl Langer coined the name fuel cell and tried to build one running on air and Mond gas.
- 1893 – Friedrich Wilhelm Ostwald experimentally determined the interconnected roles of the various components of the fuel cell.
- 1895 – Hydrolysis
- 1896 – Jackson D.D. and Ellms J.W., hydrogen production by microalgae (Anabaena)
- 1896 – Leon Teisserenc de Bort carries out experiments with high flying instrumental weather balloons.
- 1897 – Paul Sabatier facilitated the use of hydrogenation with the discovery of the Sabatier reaction.
- 1898 – James Dewar liquefied hydrogen by using regenerative cooling and his invention, the vacuum flask at the Royal Institution of Great Britain in London.
- 1899 – James Dewar collected solid hydrogen for the first time.
- 1900 – Count Ferdinand von Zeppelin launched the first hydrogen-filled Zeppelin LZ1 airship.
- 1901 – Wilhelm Normann introduced the hydrogenation of fats.
- 1903 – Konstantin Eduardovich Tsiolkovskii published "The Exploration of Cosmic Space by Means of Reaction Devices"
- 1907 – Lane hydrogen producer
- 1909 – Count Ferdinand Adolf August von Zeppelin made the first long distance flight with the Zeppelin LZ5.
- 1909 – Linde–Frank–Caro process
- 1910 – The first Zeppelin passenger flight with the Zeppelin LZ7.
- 1910 – Fritz Haber patented the Haber process.
- 1912 – The first scheduled international Zeppelin passenger flights with the Zeppelin LZ13.
- 1913 – Niels Bohr explains the Rydberg formula for the spectrum of hydrogen by imposing a quantization condition on classical orbits of the electron in hydrogen
- 1919 – The first Atlantic crossing by airship with the Beardmore HMA R34.
- 1920 – Hydrocracking, a plant for the commercial hydrogenation of brown coal is commissioned at Leuna in Germany.
- 1923 – Steam reforming, the first synthetic methanol is produced by BASF in Leuna
- 1923 – J. B. S. Haldane envisioned in Daedalus; or, Science and the Future "great power stations where during windy weather the surplus power will be used for the electrolytic decomposition of water into oxygen and hydrogen."
- 1926 – Wolfgang Pauli and Erwin Schrödinger show that the Rydberg formula for the spectrum of hydrogen follows from the new quantum mechanics
- 1926 – Partial oxidation, Vandeveer and Parr at the University of Illinois used oxygen in the place of air for the production of syngas.
- 1926 – Cyril Norman Hinshelwood described the phenomenon of chain reaction.
- 1926 – Umberto Nobile made the first flight over the north pole with the hydrogen airship Norge
- 1929 – Paul Harteck and Karl Friedrich Bonhoeffer achieve the first synthesis of pure parahydrogen.
- 1930 – Rudolf Erren – Erren engine – GB patent GB364180 – Improvements in and relating to internal combustion engines using a mixture of hydrogen and oxygen as fuel
- 1935 – Eugene Wigner and H.B. Huntington predicted metallic hydrogen.
- 1937 – The Zeppelin LZ 129 Hindenburg was destroyed by fire.
- 1937 – The Heinkel HeS 1 experimental gaseous hydrogen fueled centrifugal jet engine is tested at Hirth in March- the first working jet engine
- 1937 – The first hydrogen-cooled turbogenerator went into service at Dayton, Ohio.
- 1938 – The first 240 km hydrogen pipeline Rhine-Ruhr.
- 1938 – Igor Sikorsky from Sikorsky Aircraft proposed liquid hydrogen as a fuel.
- 1939 – Rudolf Erren – Erren engine – US patent 2,183,674 – Internal combustion engine using hydrogen as fuel
- 1939 – Hans Gaffron discovered that algae can switch between producing oxygen and hydrogen.
- 1941 – The first mass application of hydrogen in internal combustion engines: Russian lieutenant Boris Shelishch in the besieged Leningrad has converted some hundreds cars "GAZ-AA" which served posts of barrage balloons of air defense.
- 1943 – Liquid hydrogen is tested as rocket fuel at Ohio State University.
- 1943 – Arne Zetterström describes hydrox
- 1947 – Willis Lamb and Robert Retherford measure the small energy shift (the Lamb shift) between the 2s1/2 and 2p1/2 levels of hydrogen, providing a great stimulus to the development of quantum electrodynamics
- 1949 – Hydrodesulfurization (Catalytic reforming is commercialized under the name Platforming process)
- 1951 – Underground hydrogen storage
- 1952 – Ivy Mike, the first successful test of a nuclear explosive based on hydrogen (actually, deuterium) fusion
- 1952 – Non-Refrigerated transport Dewar
- 1955 – W. Thomas Grubb modified the fuel cell design by using a sulphonated polystyrene ion-exchange membrane as the electrolyte.
- 1957 – Pratt & Whitney's model 304 jet engine using liquid hydrogen as fuel tested for the first time as part of the Lockheed CL-400 Suntan project.
- 1957 – The specifications for the U-2 a double axle liquid hydrogen semi-trailer were issued.
- 1958 – Leonard Niedrach devised a way of depositing platinum onto the membrane, this became known as the Grubb-Niedrach fuel cell
- 1958 – Allis-Chalmers demonstrated the D 12, the first 15 kW fuel cell tractor.
- 1959 – Francis Thomas Bacon built the Bacon Cell, the first practical 5 kW hydrogen-air fuel cell to power a welding machine.
- 1960 – Allis-Chalmers builds the first fuel cell forklift
- 1961 – RL-10 liquid hydrogen fuelled rocket engine first flight
- 1964 – Allis-Chalmers built a 750-watt fuel cell to power a one-man underwater research vessel.
- 1965 – The first commercial use of a fuel cell in Project Gemini.
- 1965 – Allis-Chalmers builds the first fuel cell golf carts.
- 1966 – General Motors presents Electrovan, the world's first fuel cell automobile.
- 1966 – Slush hydrogen
- 1966 – J-2 (rocket engine) liquid hydrogen rocket engine flies
- 1967 – Akira Fujishima discovers the Honda-Fujishima effect which is used for photocatalysis in the photoelectrochemical cell.
- 1967 – Hydride compressor
- 1970 – Nickel hydrogen battery 
- 1970 – John Bockris or Lawrence W. Jones coined the term hydrogen economy 
- 1973 – The 30 km hydrogen pipeline in Isbergues
- 1973 – Linear compressor
- 1975 – John Bockris – Energy The Solar-Hydrogen Alternative – ISBN 0-470-08429-4
- 1979 – HM7B rocket engine
- 1981 – Space Shuttle Main Engine first flight
- 1988 – First flight of Tupolev Tu-155. This was a variant of the Tu-154 airliner designed to run on hydrogen.
- 1990 – The first solar-powered hydrogen production plant Solar-Wasserstoff-Bayern became operational.
- 1996 – Vulcain rocket engine
- 1997 – Anastasios Melis discovered that the deprivation of sulfur will cause algae to switch from producing oxygen to producing hydrogen
- 1998 – Type 212 submarine
- 1999 – Hydrogen pinch
- 2000 – Peter Toennies demonstrates superfluidity of hydrogen at 0.15 K
- 1784 Experiments
- Langins, Janis (8 Jun 1983). "Hydrogen production for ballooning during the French Revolution: An early example of chemical process development". Annals of Science. Taylor & Francis. 40 (6): 531–558. doi:10.1080/00033798300200381.
- 1809 – Fleming, History of Meteorology 25 Pag. 25
- "Pibal History". Retrieved 8 February 2016.
- "The Monthly Magazine". 1809. Retrieved 8 February 2016.
- "The Hydrogen Engine". Retrieved 8 February 2016.
- 1820 Cecil the letter
- Jules Verne. "The Mysterious Island by Jules Verne: Chapter 33". Retrieved 8 February 2016.
- 1896 Weather balloon
- Tsiolkovsky's Исследование мировых пространств реактивными приборами – The Exploration of Cosmic Space by Means of Reaction Devices (Russian paper) Archived 2008-10-19 at the Wayback Machine
- "A Students Guide to Refining – Energy – Articles – Chemical Engineering – Frontpage – Cheresources.com". Cheresources.com Community. Retrieved 8 February 2016.
- Improvements in and relating to internal combustion engines using a mixture of hydrogen and oxygen as fuel Archived 2013-01-05 at archive.today
- The Technological Steps of Hydrogen Introduction – pag 24
- Foh, S. "Underground hydrogen storage. Final report. [Salt caverns, excavated caverns, aquifers and depleted fields] (Technical Report) – SciTech Connect". OSTI 6536941.
- Sloop, John L. (1978). Liquid hydrogen as a propulsion fuel, 1945-1959. (The NASA history series) (NASA SP-4404). National Aeronautics and Space Administration. pp. 154–157.
- "ch8-11". Retrieved 8 February 2016.
- 1958 D 12 – Pag. 7 Archived 2008-12-17 at the Wayback Machine
- "Fuel Cell History – Fuel Cell Today". Retrieved 8 February 2016.
- 1964 Allis Chalmers Pag.1
- Eberle, Ulrich; Mueller, Bernd; von Helmolt, Rittmar. "Fuel cell electric vehicles and hydrogen infrastructure: status 2012". Energy & Environmental Science. Retrieved 2014-12-19.
- Nickel-Hydrogen Battery Technology—Development and Status Archived 2009-03-18 at the Wayback Machine
- Christina H. "SaveOnEnergy's Learning Center – Helping Customers since 2003" (PDF). Retrieved 8 February 2016.
- Lawrence W. Jones Toward a liquid hydrogen fuel economy, University of Michigan Engineering Technical Report UMR2320, March 13, 1970
- Sandia Corporation (2004). Fuel-Cell-Powered Mine Locomotive Archived 2014-12-24 at the Wayback Machine. Sandia National Laboratories.
- "E.ON inaugurates power-to-gas unit in Falkenhagen in eastern Germany". 28 August 2013. Retrieved 8 February 2016.
- "HyER » Enfarm, enefield, eneware!". Archived from the original on 15 February 2016. Retrieved 8 February 2016.
Heremans, Gino; Trompoukis, Christos (2017). "Vapor-fed solar hydrogen production exceeding 15% efficiency using earth abundant catalysts and anion exchange membrane". Sustainable Energy & Fuels. 1 (10): 2061–2065. doi:10.1039/C7SE00373K. Retrieved 2020-11-09.
Gallucci, Maria (2019-03-13). "Solar Panel Splits Water to Produce Hydrogen". IEEE Spectrum. IEEE. Retrieved 2020-11-09.
A research team in Belgium says its prototype panel can produce 250 liters of hydrogen gas per day
Röntzsch, Lars; Vogt, Marcus (February 2019). White paper - PowerPaste for off-grid power supply (Technical report). Fraunhofer Society. Retrieved 2021-03-22.