Timeline of knowledge about galaxies, clusters of galaxies, and large-scale structure

Timeline of galaxies, clusters of galaxies, and large-scale structure of the universe

Pre-20th century

Early 20th century

Mid-20th century

  • 1953 Gérard de Vaucouleurs discovers that the galaxies within approximately 200 million light-years of the Virgo Cluster are confined to a giant supercluster disk,
  • 1954 Walter Baade and Rudolph Minkowski identify the extragalactic optical counterpart of the radio source Cygnus A,
  • 1959 — Hundreds of radio sources are detected by the Cambridge Interferometer which produces the 3C catalogue. Many of these are later found to be distant quasars and radio galaxies
  • 1960 Thomas Matthews determines the radio position of the 3C source 3C 48 to within 5",
  • 1960 Allan Sandage optically studies 3C 48 and observes an unusual blue quasistellar object,
  • 1962 Cyril Hazard, M. B. Mackey, and A. J. Shimmins use lunar occultations to determine a precise position for the quasar 3C 273 and deduce that it is a double source,
  • 1962 Olin Eggen, Donald Lynden-Bell, and Allan Sandage theorize galaxy formation by a single (relatively) rapid monolithic collapse, with the halo forming first, followed by the disk.
  • 1963 Maarten Schmidt identifies the redshifted Balmer lines from the quasar 3C 273
  • 1973 Jeremiah Ostriker and James Peebles discover that the amount of visible matter in the disks of typical spiral galaxies is not enough for Newtonian gravitation to keep the disks from flying apart or drastically changing shape,
  • 1973 — Donald Gudehus finds that the diameters of the brightest cluster galaxies have increased due to merging, the diameters of the faintest cluster galaxies have decreased due to tidal distention, and that the Virgo cluster has a substantial peculiar velocity,
  • 1974 B. L. Fanaroff and J. M. Riley distinguish between edge-darkened (FR I) and edge-brightened (FR II) radio sources,
  • 1976 Sandra Faber and Robert Jackson discover the Faber-Jackson relation between the luminosity of an elliptical galaxy and the velocity dispersion in its center. In 1991 the relation is revised by Donald Gudehus,
  • 1977 R. Brent Tully and Richard Fisher publish the Tully–Fisher relation between the luminosity of an isolated spiral galaxy and the velocity of the flat part of its rotation curve,
  • 1978 Steve Gregory and Laird Thompson describe the Coma supercluster,
  • 1978 Donald Gudehus finds evidence that clusters of galaxies are moving at several hundred kilometers per second relative to the cosmic microwave background radiation,
  • 1978 Vera Rubin, Kent Ford, N. Thonnard, and Albert Bosma measure the rotation curves of several spiral galaxies and find significant deviations from what is predicted by the Newtonian gravitation of visible stars,
  • 1978 Leonard Searle and Robert Zinn theorize that galaxy formation occurs through the merger of smaller groups.

Late 20th century

Early 21st century

See also


  1. Josep Puig Montada (September 28, 2007). "Ibn Bajja". Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Retrieved 2008-07-11.
  2. Kepple, George Robert; Glen W. Sanner (1998). The Night Sky Observer's Guide. 1. Willmann-Bell, Inc. p. 18. ISBN 0-943396-58-1.
  3. "Observatoire de Paris (Abd-al-Rahman Al Sufi)". Retrieved 2007-04-19.
  4. "Observatoire de Paris (LMC)". Retrieved 2007-04-19.
  5. O'Connor, John J.; Robertson, Edmund F., "Abu Rayhan Muhammad ibn Ahmad al-Biruni", MacTutor History of Mathematics archive, University of St Andrews
  6. Mohamed, Mohaini (2000). Great Muslim Mathematicians. Penerbit UTM. pp. 49–50. ISBN 983-52-0157-9.
  7. Hamid-Eddine Bouali; Mourad Zghal; Zohra Ben Lakhdar (2005). "Popularisation of Optical Phenomena: Establishing the First Ibn Al-Haytham Workshop on Photography" (PDF). The Education and Training in Optics and Photonics Conference. Retrieved 2008-07-08.
  8. Livingston, John W. (1971). "Ibn Qayyim al-Jawziyyah: A Fourteenth Century Defense against Astrological Divination and Alchemical Transmutation". Journal of the American Oriental Society. American Oriental Society. 91 (1): 96–103 [99]. doi:10.2307/600445. JSTOR 600445.
  9. Britt, Robert Roy. "Milky Way’s Central Structure Seen with Fresh Clarity."
  10. SPACE.com 16 August 2005.
  11. Devitt, Terry "Galactic survey reveals a new look for the Milky Way." Archived 2006-02-09 at the Wayback Machine 16 August 2005
  12. "Dark matter galaxy hints seen 10bn light-years away". BBC News. 2012-01-18.
  13. Wall, Mike (2013-01-11). "Largest structure in universe discovered". Fox News.
  14. Morelle, Rebecca (2013-10-23). "'Most distant galaxy' discovered". BBC News. Retrieved 2020-07-28.
  15. Horvath I.; Hakkila J. & Bagoly Z. (2014). "Possible structure in the GRB sky distribution at redshift two". Astronomy & Astrophysics. 561: L12. arXiv:1401.0533. Bibcode:2014A&A...561L..12H. doi:10.1051/0004-6361/201323020. S2CID 24224684.
  16. Horvath I.; Hakkila J. & Bagoly Z. (2013). "The largest structure of the Universe, defined by Gamma-Ray Bursts". arXiv:1311.1104. Bibcode:2013arXiv1311.1104H. Cite journal requires |journal= (help)
  17. Klotz, Irene (2013-11-19). "Universe's Largest Structure is a Cosmic Conundrum". discovery. Retrieved 2013-11-22.
  18. Tully, R. Brent; Courtois, Hélène; Hoffman, Yehuda; Pomarède, Daniel (Sep 2014). "The Laniakea supercluster of galaxies". Nature. 513 (7516): 71–73. arXiv:1409.0880. Bibcode:2014Natur.513...71T. doi:10.1038/nature13674. ISSN 1476-4687. PMID 25186900. S2CID 205240232.
  19. Tempel, Elmo (2014-09-01). "Cosmology: Meet the Laniakea supercluster". Nature. 513 (7516): 41–42. Bibcode:2014Natur.513...41T. doi:10.1038/513041a. PMID 25186896. S2CID 4459417.
  20. "Newly identified galactic supercluster is home to the Milky Way". National Radio Astronomy Observatory. ScienceDaily. 3 September 2014.
  21. Irene Klotz (2014-09-03). "New map shows Milky Way lives in Laniakea galaxy complex". Reuters. Reuters.
  22. Elizabeth Gibney (3 September 2014). "Earth's new address: 'Solar System, Milky Way, Laniakea'". Nature. doi:10.1038/nature.2014.15819.
  23. Quenqua, Douglas (3 September 2014). "Astronomers Give Name to Network of Galaxies". New York Times. Retrieved 4 September 2014.
  24. Carlisle, Camille M. (3 September 2014). "Laniakea: Our Home Supercluster". Sky and Telescope. Retrieved 3 September 2014.
  25. Overbye, Dennis (6 March 2020). "This Black Hole Blew a Hole in the Cosmos - The galaxy cluster Ophiuchus was doing just fine until WISEA J171227.81-232210.7 — a black hole several billion times as massive as our sun — burped on it". The New York Times. Retrieved 6 March 2020.
  26. "Biggest cosmic explosion ever detected left huge dent in space". The Guardian. 27 February 2020. Retrieved 28 February 2020.
  27. Giacintucci, S.; Markevitch, M.; Johnston-Hollitt, M.; Wik, D. R.; Wang, Q. H. S.; Clarke, T. E. (27 February 2020). "Discovery of a Giant Radio Fossil in the Ophiuchus Galaxy Cluster". The Astrophysical Journal. 891 (1): 1. arXiv:2002.01291. Bibcode:2020ApJ...891....1G. doi:10.3847/1538-4357/ab6a9d. ISSN 1538-4357. S2CID 211020555.
  28. Overbye, Dennis (20 May 2020). "The Galaxy That Grew Up Too Fast". The New York Times. Retrieved 14 June 2020.
  29. "ALMA discovers massive rotating disk in early universe". phys.org. Retrieved 14 June 2020.
  30. Strickland, Ashley. "Astronomers find the Wolfe Disk, an unlikely galaxy, in the distant universe". CNN. Retrieved 14 June 2020.
  31. Neeleman, Marcel; Prochaska, J. Xavier; Kanekar, Nissim; Rafelski, Marc (May 2020). "A cold, massive, rotating disk galaxy 1.5 billion years after the Big Bang". Nature. 581 (7808): 269–272. arXiv:2005.09661. Bibcode:2020Natur.581..269N. doi:10.1038/s41586-020-2276-y. PMID 32433621. S2CID 218718343.
  32. Pomarède, Daniel; et al. (10 July 2020). "Cosmicflows-3: The South Pole Wall". The Astrophysical Journal. 897 (2): 133. arXiv:2007.04414. Bibcode:2020ApJ...897..133P. doi:10.3847/1538-4357/ab9952. S2CID 220425419. Retrieved 10 July 2020.
  33. Pomerede, D.; et al. (January 2020). "The South Pole Wall". Harvard University. 235. p. 453.01. Bibcode:2020AAS...23545301P. Retrieved 10 July 2020.
  34. Staff (10 July 2020). "Astronomers map massive structure beyond Laniakea Supercluster". University of Hawaii. Retrieved 10 July 2020.
  35. Overbye, Dennis (10 July 2020). "Beyond the Milky Way, a Galactic Wall - Astronomers have discovered a vast assemblage of galaxies hidden behind our own, in the "zone of avoidance."". The New York Times. Retrieved 10 July 2020.
  36. Mann, Adam (10 July 2020). "Astronomers discover South Pole Wall, a gigantic structure stretching 1.4 billion light-years across". Live Science. Retrieved 10 July 2020.
  37. Starr, Michelle (14 July 2020). "A Giant 'Wall' of Galaxies Has Been Found Stretching Across The Universe". ScienceAlert.com. Retrieved 19 July 2020.
  38. "Largest-ever 3D map of the universe released by scientists". Sky News. Retrieved 18 August 2020.
  39. "No need to Mind the Gap: Astrophysicists fill in 11 billion years of our universe's expansion history". SDSS. Retrieved 18 August 2020.