Timeline of knowledge about galaxies, clusters of galaxies, and large-scale structure


Timeline of galaxies, clusters of galaxies, and large-scale structure of the universe

Pre-20th century


Early 20th century


Mid-20th century


  • 1953 Gérard de Vaucouleurs discovers that the galaxies within approximately 200 million light-years of the Virgo Cluster are confined to a giant supercluster disk,
  • 1954 Walter Baade and Rudolph Minkowski identify the extragalactic optical counterpart of the radio source Cygnus A,
  • 1959 — Hundreds of radio sources are detected by the Cambridge Interferometer which produces the 3C catalogue. Many of these are later found to be distant quasars and radio galaxies
  • 1960 Thomas Matthews determines the radio position of the 3C source 3C 48 to within 5",
  • 1960 Allan Sandage optically studies 3C 48 and observes an unusual blue quasistellar object,
  • 1962 Cyril Hazard, M. B. Mackey, and A. J. Shimmins use lunar occultations to determine a precise position for the quasar 3C 273 and deduce that it is a double source,
  • 1962 Olin Eggen, Donald Lynden-Bell, and Allan Sandage theorize galaxy formation by a single (relatively) rapid monolithic collapse, with the halo forming first, followed by the disk.
  • 1963 Maarten Schmidt identifies the redshifted Balmer lines from the quasar 3C 273
  • 1973 Jeremiah Ostriker and James Peebles discover that the amount of visible matter in the disks of typical spiral galaxies is not enough for Newtonian gravitation to keep the disks from flying apart or drastically changing shape,
  • 1973 — Donald Gudehus finds that the diameters of the brightest cluster galaxies have increased due to merging, the diameters of the faintest cluster galaxies have decreased due to tidal distention, and that the Virgo cluster has a substantial peculiar velocity,
  • 1974 B. L. Fanaroff and J. M. Riley distinguish between edge-darkened (FR I) and edge-brightened (FR II) radio sources,
  • 1976 Sandra Faber and Robert Jackson discover the Faber-Jackson relation between the luminosity of an elliptical galaxy and the velocity dispersion in its center. In 1991 the relation is revised by Donald Gudehus,
  • 1977 R. Brent Tully and Richard Fisher publish the Tully–Fisher relation between the luminosity of an isolated spiral galaxy and the velocity of the flat part of its rotation curve,
  • 1978 Steve Gregory and Laird Thompson describe the Coma supercluster,
  • 1978 Donald Gudehus finds evidence that clusters of galaxies are moving at several hundred kilometers per second relative to the cosmic microwave background radiation,
  • 1978 Vera Rubin, Kent Ford, N. Thonnard, and Albert Bosma measure the rotation curves of several spiral galaxies and find significant deviations from what is predicted by the Newtonian gravitation of visible stars,
  • 1978 Leonard Searle and Robert Zinn theorize that galaxy formation occurs through the merger of smaller groups.

Late 20th century


Early 21st century


See also


References


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