Timeline of lighting technology
Artificial lighting technology began to be developed tens of thousands of years ago and continues to be refined in the present day.
- 125,000 BC Widespread control of fire by early humans.
- 70,000 BC A hollow rock, shell, or other natural found object was filled with moss or a similar material that was soaked in animal fat and ignited.
- c. 4500 BC oil lamps
- c. 3000 BC candles are invented.
- 1780 Aimé Argand invents the central draught fixed oil lamp.
- 1784 Argand adds glass chimney to central draught lamp.
- 1792 William Murdoch begins experimenting with gas lighting and probably produced the first gas light in this year.
- 1800 French watchmaker Bernard Guillaume Carcel overcomes the disadvantages of the Argand-type lamps with his clockwork fed Carcel lamp.
- 1800-1809 Humphry Davy invents the arc lamp when using Voltaic piles (battery) for his electrolysis experiments.
- 1802 William Murdoch illuminates the exterior of the Soho Foundry with gas.
- 1805 Philips and Lee's Cotton Mill, Manchester was the first industrial factory to be fully lit by gas.
- 1809 Humphry Davy publicly demonstrates first electric lamp over 10,000 lumens, at the Royal Society.
- 1813 National Heat and Light Company formed by Fredrich Winzer (Winsor)
- 1815 Humphry Davy invents the miner's safety lamp.
- 1823 Johann Wolfgang Döbereiner invents the Döbereiner's lamp.
- 1835 James Bowman Lindsay demonstrates a light bulb based electric lighting system to the citizens of Dundee.
- 1841 Arc-lighting is used as experimental public lighting in Paris.
- 1853 Ignacy Lukasiewicz invents the modern kerosene lamp.
- 1856 glassblower Heinrich Geissler confines the electric arc in a Geissler tube.
- 1867 A. E. Becquerel demonstrates the first fluorescent lamp.
- 1879 (About Christmas time) Col. R.E. Crompton illuminated his home in Porchester Gardens, using a primary battery of Grove Cells, then a generator which was better. He gave special parties and illuminated his drawing room and dining room. Source: Practical Electrical Engineering, Newnes. Article entitled "The Development of Electric Lighting".
- 1874 Alexander Lodygin patents an incandescent light bulb.
- 1875 Henry Woodward patents an electric light bulb.
- 1876 Pavel Yablochkov invents the Yablochkov candle, the first practical carbon arc lamp, for public street lighting in Paris.
- 1879 Thomas Edison and Joseph Wilson Swan patent the carbon-thread incandescent lamp. It lasted 40 hours.
- 1880 Edison produced a 16-watt lightbulb that lasts 1500 hours.
- 1882 Introduction of large scale direct current based indoor incandescent lighting and lighting utility with Edison's first Pearl Street Station
- c. 1885 Incandescent gas mantle invented, revolutionises gas lighting.
- 1886 Great Barrington, Massachusetts demonstration project, a much more versatile (long-distance transmission) transformer based alternating current based indoor incandescent lighting system introduced by William Stanley, Jr. working for George Westinghouse. Stanley lit 23 businesses along a 4000 feet length of main street stepping a 500 AC volt current at the street down to 100 volts to power incandescent lamps at each location.
- 1893 GE introduces first commercial fully enclosed carbon arc lamp. Sealed in glass globes, it lasts 100h and therefore 10 times longer than hitherto carbon arc lamps
- 1893 Nikola Tesla puts forward his ideas on high frequency and wireless electric lighting which included public demonstrations where he lit a Geissler tube wirelessly.
- 1894 D. McFarlan Moore creates the Moore tube, precursor of electric gas-discharge lamps.
- 1897 Walther Nernst invents and patents his incandescent lamp, based on solid state electrolytes.
- 1901 Peter Cooper Hewitt creates the first commercial mercury-vapor lamp.
- 1904 Alexander Just and Franjo Hanaman invent the tungsten filament for incandescent lightbulbs.
- 1910 Georges Claude demonstrates neon lighting at the Paris Motor Show.
- 1912 Charles P. Steinmetz invents the metal-halide lamp.
- 1913 Irving Langmuir discovers that inert gas could double the luminous efficacy of incandescent lightbulbs.
- 1917 Burnie Lee Benbow patents the coiled coil filament.
- 1920 Arthur H. Compton invents the sodium-vapor lamp.
- 1921 Junichi Miura creates the first incandescent lightbulb to utilize a coiled coil filament.
- 1925 Marvin Pipkin invents the first internal frosted lightbulb.
- 1926 Edmund Germer patents the modern fluorescent lamp.
- 1927 Oleg Losev creates the first LED (light-emitting diode).
- 1953 Elmer Fridrich invents the halogen light bulb.
- 1953 André Bernanose and several colleagues observe electroluminescence in organic materials.
- 1960 Theodore H. Maiman creates the first laser.
- 1962 Nick Holonyak Jr. develops the first practical visible-spectrum (red) light-emitting diode.
- 1963 Kurt Schmidt invents the first high pressure sodium-vapor lamp.
- 1972 M. George Craford invents the first yellow light-emitting diode.
- 1972 Herbert Paul Maruska and Jacques Pankove create the first violet light-emitting diode.
- 1981 Philips sells their first Compact Fluorescent Energy Saving Lamps, with integrated conventional ballast.
- 1981 Thorn Lighting Group exhibits the ceramic discharge metal-halide lamp.
- 1985 Osram answers with the first electronic Energy Saving Lamps to be very successful
- 1987 Ching W. Tang and Steven Van Slyke at Eastman Kodak create the first practical organic light-emitting diode (OLED).
- 1990 Michael Ury, Charles Wood, and several colleagues develop the sulfur lamp.
- 1991 Philips invents a fluorescent lightbulb that lasts 60,000 hours using magnetic induction.
- 1994 T5 lamps with cool tip are introduced to become the leading fluorescent lamps with up to 117 lm/W with good color rendering. These and almost all new fluorescent lamps are to be operated on electronic ballasts only.
- 1994 The first commercial sulfur lamp is sold by Fusion Lighting.
- 1995 Shuji Nakamura at Nichia labs invents the first practical blue and with additional phosphor, white LED, starting an LED boom.
- 2008 Ushio Lighting demonstrates the first LED Filament.
- 2011 Philips wins L Prize for LED screw-in lamp equivalent to 60W incandescent A-lamp for general use.
- "First Control of Fire by Human Beings—How Early?". Retrieved 2007-11-12.
- DuVall, Nell (1988). Domestic Technology: A Chronology of Developments. G.K. Hall. p. 270.
- Dr. Thomas Klett, Geschichte der Lichttechnik/History of Lighting
- http://txchnologist.com/post/77710091911/in-the-beginning-10-inventors-of-the-incandescent In The Beginning: 10 Inventors of the Incandescent Lightbulb
- Great Barrington Historical Society, Great Barrington, Massachusetts
- Great Barrington 1886 - Inspiring an industry toward AC power
- Bernard Gorowitz Ed., The General Electric Story
- W. Bernard Carlson, Tesla: Inventor of the Electrical Age, page 132
- note: at St. Louis, Missouri, Tesla public demonstration called, "On Light and Other High-Frequency Phenomena", (Journal of the Franklin Institute, Volume 136 By Persifor Frazer, Franklin Institute, Philadelphia, Pa)
- "A brief history of high intensity discharge hid lighting". Shine Retrofits. Retrieved 21 December 2017.
- "Sodium Lamp". Edison Center. Archived from the original on 20 September 2014. Retrieved 21 December 2017.
- "20th Century Inventors: Tungsten Halogen Lamp". American History. Retrieved 21 December 2017.
- Bernanose, A.; Comte, M.; Vouaux, P. (1953). "A new method of light emission by certain organic compounds". J. Chim. Phys. 50: 64. doi:10.1051/jcp/1953500064.
- Bernanose, A.; Vouaux, P. (1953). "Organic electroluminescence type of emission". J. Chim. Phys. 50: 261. doi:10.1051/jcp/1953500261.
- Schmidt, Kurt. "High pressure sodium vapor lamp". Google Patents. Retrieved 21 December 2017.
This article needs additional citations for verification. (June 2008)