Timeline of scientific thought
This is a list of important landmarks in the history of systematic philosophical inquiry and scientific analysis of phenomena. The list seeks to highlight important stages in the development of thoughts and analysis towards conceptualizing and understanding phenomena. This list seeks to include all major landmarks in systematic analysis of phenomena across disciplines that seeks to implement formal methods and systematic formal analysis of phenomena. Thus it seeks to list major landmarks across all scientific philosophy and methodological sciences including physical sciences, scientific philosophy, formal disciplines or pure sciences, behavioural sciences, social sciences, biological sciences, life sciences and other related disciplines.
This article needs additional citations for verification. (September 2012)
|period, or, date||name, or, place||scientific thought||astronomy||biology||chemistry||cosmology||economics||education||engineering||geography, geology||human sciences||mathematics||medicine||paleo-||philosophy||physics||technology (applied science)|
|approximately 3.3 million years BCE||Kenya (place)||stone tools|
|approximately the end of the 5th millennia to the beginning of the 4th millennia||Uruk (city) separation from nature in an artificial environment allows the perception of nature as a separate subject (c.f. Fowler (11th citation) Thales, for example)||construction technique|
|4th millennia||Mesopotamia||counting records||accounting||Sexagesimal (base 60) numeral system|
|sometime during or after the beginning of the late 3rd millennia||Assyria||hypothetic causation||suggestion for therapeutic alleviation of dreams with evil content|
|2nd millennia||Enuma Anu Enlil (divinatory omen texts)|
|possibly December the 2nd 1878||Enuma Anu Enlil Tablets 50 & 51||observation of solar eclipse|
|approximately 585||(Greek) Thales||discovery of nature|
|400 BCE||Hippocrates||tekhnē realization of extension in time from technology of approximately 3.3 million years before||description of the scalpel|
|4th century BCE||ancient Greece||Axiomatic science based on the logico-deductive method founded. owing to Euclid's Elements, which is at the root of formal system|
|350 BC||(Greek) Aristotle||Physics|
|3rd century BCE||Eratosthenes||earth; size of; distance from earth to sun and moon|
|150s BCE||Seleucus of Seleucia||1st extant source of lunar tide. although possibly Pytheas of Massilia was an earlier thinker (c.f. Aëtius )||tides caused by the moon|
|116 - 27 AD||(Roman) Marcus Terentius Varro||"..certain minute creatures which cannot be seen by the eyes.."||idea of germs existing|
|5th century CE||Hindu-Arabic numeral system (decimal) begins to be used|
|630||(Arabic) Abiyun al-Bitriq||astronomical instruments|
|776-869||(Arabic) Al-Jahiz||first scientist to discuss on natural selection in his "Book of Animal"|
|780-850||(Arabic) Muhammad ibn Musa al-Khwarizmi||Foundation of modern Algebra and Algorithm|
|806||(Arabic) Muḥammad ibn Ibrāhīm al-Fazārī||Invented first astrolabe for navigation|
|801-873||(Arabic) Al-Kindi||Father of cryptography, cryptanalysis and frequency analysis|
|850-950||attributed to Jabir ibn Hayyan||Influential writings on chemistry|
|858-929||(Arabic) Al-Battani||Calculation of the values for the precession of the equinoxes (54.5" per year, or 1° in 66 years) and the obliquity of the ecliptic (23° 35')||Produced many Trigonometric formulas|
|859||(Arabic) Fatima al-Fihri||Founded world's first degree granting university - "University of al-Qarawiyyin"|
|973-1050||(Arabic) Al-Beruni||Foundation of Chronology and Indology|
|10th century CE||(Arabic) Muhammad ibn Zakarīya Rāzi (Rhazes)||refutation of Aristotelian classical elements and Galenic humorism||discovery of measles and smallpox||discovered kerosene and distilled petroleum|
|1021||(Arabnic) Ibn al-Haytham||Book of Optics Father of scientific method||first accurate vision theory|
|1020s||Avicenna||The Canon of Medicine||Standard medical textbook in Europe for 600 years|
|1027s||Avicenna||Book of Healing||First accurate description of Newton's First Law of Motion|
|1048-1131||(Arabic) Omar Khayyam||Geometric Algebra, a precursor to Descartes' Analytic Geometry; Solution of cubic equations|
|1058-1111||(Arabic) Al-Ghazali||Logic, Philosophy, Business Ethics|
|1121||Al-Khazini||variation of gravitation and gravitational potential energy at a distance; the decrease of air density with altitude|
|1135-1213||Sharaf al-Dīn al-Ṭūsī||First to propose the idea of a mathematical function||Invented linear Astrolabe|
|12th century||Ibn Bajjah (Avempace)||discovery of reaction (precursor to Newton's third law of motion)|
|12th century||Averroes||relationship between force, work and kinetic energy|
|12th century||Hibat Allah Abu'l-Barakat al-Baghdaadi (Nathanel)||relationship between force and acceleration (a vague foreshadowing of a fundamental law of classical mechanics and a precursor to Newton's second law of motion)|
|1206||Ismail al-Jazari||Inventor of classic Automata, Segmental Gear, Crankshaft, Camshaft that drives modern world|
|1220–1235||Robert Grosseteste||rudimentals of the scientific method (see also: Roger Bacon)|
|1242||Ibn al-Nafis||pulmonary circulation and circulatory system|
|1247||Nasir al-Din al-Tusi||Invention of famous Tusi Couple|
|13th Century||Ibn al-Shatir||Production of a new lunar model|
|13th century||Theodoric of Freiberg||Correct explanation of rainbow phenomenon|
|13th century||William of Saint-Cloud||pioneering use of camera obscura to view solar eclipses|
|Before 1327||William of Ockham||Occam's Razor|
|1332-1406||Ibn Khaldun||Pioneer of histeriography, sociology, demography and economics|
|1429||Ulugh Beg||astronomy-related mathematics, trigonometry and spherical geometry|
|1460||Ali Qushji||Development of astronomical physics|
|1494||Luca Pacioli||first codification of the Double-entry bookkeeping system, which slowly developed in previous centuries|
|1430-1500||Ahmad ibn Mājid||Navigator and Cartographer; Guided Vasco da Gama to complete the first all water trade route between Europe and India|
|during 1508 to 1511 Commentariolus - describes orbitals - 1543, published as De revolutionibus orbium coelestium||Copernicus||heliocentric model|
|1550||Taqi ad-Din Muhammad ibn Ma'ruf||Invented steam turbine -today known as Steam Jacks|
|1570s||Tycho Brahe||detailed astronomical observations|
|1600||William Gilbert||Earth's magnetic field|
|1609||Johannes Kepler||first two laws of planetary motion|
|1610||Galileo Galilei||Sidereus Nuncius||telescopic observations|
|1614||John Napier||use of logarithms for calculation|
|1628||William Harvey||Blood circulation|
|17th century||René Descartes||creates Cartesian coordinate system — allowing reference to a point in space as a set of numbers, and allowing algebraic equations to be expressed as geometric shapes in a two-dimensional coordinate system (and conversely, shapes to be described as equations).|
|17th Century||Baruch Spinoza||– opposed Cartesian mind body dualism. He considered the nature of reality of physical and mental worlds to be the same. Spinoza was determinist and believed that even human behaviour is fully determined, with freedom being our capacity to know and accept that we are determined.|
|1665||Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society||first peer reviewed scientific journal published.|
|1669||Nicholas Steno||Proposes that fossils are organic remains embedded in layers of sediment, basis of stratigraphy|
|1675||Anton van Leeuwenhoek||Observes Microorganisms by Microscope|
|1675||Leibniz||developed Infinitesimal calculus and its widely used mathematical notation. Later he presented the theory of Monads and developed the Binary number system which is elemental for modern digital computing. His Law of Continuity and Transcendental Law of Homogeneity found mathematical implementation only in the 20th century.|
|possibly before 1684 - probably before 1685||Isaac Newton||law of universal gravitation basis for classical physics|
|1687||Isaac Newton||Laws of motion basis for classical physics|
|1735||Carl Linnaeus||published the first edition of his major work Systema Naturae. The tenth edition of this book is considered the starting point of zoological nomenclature. In 1753 he published Species Plantarum which is the primary starting point of plant nomenclature as it exists today.|
|1763||Bayes' theorem||named for Thomas Bayes who first suggested using the theorem to update beliefs was significantly edited and updated by Richard Price after the death of Thomas Bayes and read at the Royal Society. This would later serve as foundation of Bayesian inference in statistics||foundation of Bayesian inference in statistics|
|1767||James Denham-Steuart||used the term supply and demand in his Inquiry into the Principles of Political economy, published in 1767. Later, Adam Smith used it in his 1776 book The Wealth of Nations, and David Ricardo titled one chapter of his 1817 work Principles of Political Economy and Taxation "On the Influence of Demand and Supply on Price".|
|1776||Adam Smith||The Wealth of Nations|
|1778||Antoine Lavoisier (and Joseph Priestley)||discovery of oxygen leading to end of Phlogiston theory|
|1796||Georges Cuvier||Establishes extinction as a fact|
|1800||Alessandro Volta||discovers electrochemical series and invents the battery||the battery||
|1805||John Dalton||Atomic Theory in (Chemistry)||Atomic Theory|
|1859||Charles Darwin||published his theory with compelling evidence for evolution in his book On the Origin of Species||evidence for evolution|
|1866||Gregor Mendel||published his work which demonstrated that the inheritance of certain traits in pea plants follows particular patterns, now referred to as the laws of Mendelian inheritance.||laws of Mendelian inheritance|
|1869||Dmitri Mendeleev||Periodic table|
|1877||Ludwig Boltzmann||Statistical definition of entropy|
|1887||Michelson–Morley experiment||was performed in 1887 by Albert A. Michelson and Edward W. Morley to detect the relative motion of matter through the stationary luminiferous aether ("aether wind").|
|1890s||Santiago Ramón y Cajal||discovered the axonal growth cone, and provided the definitive evidence for what would later be known as "neuron theory", experimentally demonstrating that the relationship between nerve cells was not one of continuity, but rather of contiguity. "Neuron theory" stands as the foundation of modern neuroscience.|
|1899–1900||Sigmund Freud||developed his theory of the unconscious mind and began his works on psychodynamic theory and psychosexual development of human organism. He proposed that human thought and behavior is complex process of unconscious processes in the mind|
|1900||Max Planck||Planck's law of black body radiation, basis for quantum theory|
|1905||Albert Einstein||theory of special relativity, explanation of Brownian motion, and photoelectric effect|
|1906||Walther Nernst||Third law of thermodynamics|
|1911||Ernest Rutherford||Atomic nucleus|
|1911||Oskar Heinroth||rediscovered the phenomenon of psychological Imprinting, reported by Douglas Spalding in 1877. It was extensively worked on in the 20th century by Nikolaas Tinbergen, Karl von Frisch and Konrad Lorenz who demonstrated a "critical period" and other aspects concerning organization and elicitation of individual and social behaviour patterns in animals, earning them a Nobel prize in 1973.|
|1915||Albert Einstein||theory of general relativity|
|1924||Wolfgang Pauli||quantum Pauli exclusion principle|
|1925||Erwin Schrödinger||Schrödinger equation (Quantum mechanics)|
|1927||Werner Heisenberg||Uncertainty principle (Quantum mechanics)|
|1927||Georges Lemaître||Theory of the Big Bang|
|1928||Paul Dirac||Dirac equation (Quantum mechanics)|
|1929||Edwin Hubble||Hubble's law of the expanding universe|
|1930s||Keynes||introduced Keynesian revolution, overturning neoclassical economics that held free markets would, in the short to medium term, automatically provide full employment, as long as workers were flexible in their wage demands. Keynes instead argued that aggregate demand determined the overall level of economic activity, and that inadequate aggregate demand could lead to prolonged periods of high unemployment.|
|1931||Friedrich Hayek||elaborated the "Austrian Theory of the Business Cycle". He argued that the business cycle resulted from the central bank's inflationary credit expansion and its transmission over time, leading to a capital misallocation caused by the artificially low interest rates.|
|1931||Kurt Gödel||stated the incompleteness theorem which states that for any self-consistent recursive axiomatic system powerful enough to describe the arithmetic of the natural numbers (for example Peano arithmetic), there are true propositions about the naturals that cannot be proved from the axioms.||-|
|1934||James Chadwick||Discovery of the neutron|
|1934||Karl Popper||emphasized the idea of falsifiability as the criterion demarcating science from non-science.|
|1937||Alan Turing||Introduced the mathematical concept of a Turing machine|
|1937||Kurt Lewin||on the basis of Herbert Blumer's interactionist perspective, suggested that neither nature (inborn tendencies) nor nurture (how experiences in life shape individuals) alone can account for individuals' behavior and personalities, but rather that both nature and nurture interact to shape each person. This is expressed as Lewin's Equation for behavior B=ƒ(P,E). Earlier he coined the notion of genidentity,|
|1940s||Benjamin Lee Whorf||brought focus to the Principle of linguistic relativity which implies that the structure of a language affects the weltanschauung or worldview of the speakers of the language and their cognition of the world. Whorf's works tried to show that there is relationship between language and thought. The idea was introduced earlier by Humboldt and then worked on by Edward Sapir in the 1920s.|
|1942||Joseph Schumpeter||introduced the idea creative destruction, sometimes known as "Schumpeter's gale" in his work Capitalism, Socialism and Democracy (1942), where in he described the way in which capitalist economic development arises out of the destruction of some prior economic order.|
|1943||Oswald Avery||proves that DNA is the genetic material of the chromosome|
|1943||Walter Pitts and Warren McCulloch||wrote the seminal paper entitled "A Logical Calculus of Ideas Immanent in Nervous Activity" (1943) and proposed the first mathematical model of a neural network. Their work also presented ideas drawn upon the work of Leibniz with later implications for cellular automata.|
|1944||John von Neumann and Stanislaw Ulam||introduced the mathematical idea of a cellular automata. This set the foundations for the later discipline of complexity science and agent based modeling|
|1944||John von Neumann and Oskar Morgenstern||wrote the seminal book Theory of games and economic behavior and began the interdisciplinary research field of game theory|
|1947||William Shockley, John Bardeen and Walter Brattain||invent the first transistor|
|1948||Claude Elwood Shannon & Warren Weaver||'A mathematical theory of communication' a seminal paper in Information theory.|
|1948||Norbert Wiener||introduced the concept of Cybernetics in his work Cybernetics: Or the Control and Communication in the Animal and the Machine|
|1948||Richard Feynman, Julian Schwinger, Sin-Itiro Tomonaga and Freeman Dyson||Quantum electrodynamics|
|1950||Ludwig von Bertalanffy||began General systems theory with his publication "An Outline of General System Theory" in the British Journal for the Philosophy of Science Vol. 1 (No. 2)|
|1950s||Kenneth Arrow, Gérard Debreu and Lionel W. McKenzie||introduced the modern conception of general equilibrium in economics. Gerard Debreu presents this model in Theory of Value (1959). Though an earlier form of general equilibrium was presented by Leon Walras in 1874.|
|1950s||Leon Festinger||developed the Theory of Cognitive Dissonance and Social Comparison Theory, and discovered nature of the role of propinquity in the formation of social ties while also making other contributions to the study of social networks, psychological social psychology and sociological social psychology.|
|1951||John Bowlby||developed attachment theory which states that human individuals, especially as children, needs to develop a stable and long lasting relationship with at least one primary caregiver for social and emotional development to occur normally. Relationships later in life are built on this primary foundation. The theory states that in human evolution, attachment behaviour increased the chances of survival.|
|1952||Jonas Salk||developed and tested first polio vaccine|
|1953||Crick and Watson||helical structure of DNA, basis for molecular biology|
|1953||Anatol Rapoport||introduced mathematical models in the study of information transmission in human interaction and for the management of conflict and cooperation in human life|
|1953||Ludwig Wittgenstein||wrote his seminal work Philosophical Investigations in which he stated that conceptual confusions surrounding language use are at the root of most philosophical problems.|
|1954||Jean Piaget||elaborated on Genetic epistemology and the theory of cognitive development in his work "La construction du réel chez l'enfant" (The construction of reality in the child).|
|1956||Frank Harary and Dorwin Cartwright||mathematically formalized generalizations of Fritz Heider's psychological theory of cognitive balance to give formalization of interpersonal network patterns. This laid the foundations for micro level social network analysis and small group research and group dynamics research in sociology and sociological social psychology|
|1957||Noam Chomsky||wrote Syntactic Structures which laid the foundation for the idea of transformational grammar. He also introduced the idea of poverty of the stimulus which states that natural language grammar is unlearnable given the relatively limited data available to children learning a language, and therefore that this knowledge is supplemented with some sort of innate linguistic capacity. A tenet of generative grammar.|
|1957||Herbert Simon||coined the term Bounded rationality in psychology as an alternative basis for the mathematical modeling of decision making, as used in economics and related disciplines which views rationality as a maximization process as described in rational choice theory. Instead, "bounded rationality" views rationality as a Satisficing process. He was awarded the Nobel Prize in 1978.|
|October 1957||launch of Sputnik 1|
|1958||William Phillips||introduced Phillips curve in economic theory. He described the observation of an inverse relationship between money wage changes and unemployment in the British economy over the period examined. In 1960 Paul Samuelson and Robert Solow took Phillips' work and made explicit the link between inflation and unemployment: when inflation was high, unemployment was low, and vice versa.|
|1960s||Paul Ekman||conducted seminal research on the specific biological correlates of specific emotions, demonstrating the universality and discreteness of emotions in a Darwinian approach. This served as one of the basis for E. O. Wilson's works on Sociobiology in the 1970s and later helped in the emergence of the approach of Evolutionary Psychology in the 1990s through the work of Leda Cosmides and John Tooby|
|1962||Thomas Kuhn||stated that scientific fields undergo periodic "paradigm shifts" rather than solely progressing in continuous way; which open up new approaches to understanding that scientists would never have considered valid before; and that the notion of scientific truth, at any given moment, cannot be established solely by objective criteria but is defined by a consensus of a scientific community|
|1963||Stanley Milgram||first published a series of experiments now known as Milgram experiment which demonstrated how people showed obedience to orders in a social system when the orders were given by authority figures even when people were asked to perform actions against their wish and conscience. The studies were done in order to explain conformity and obedience in society as seen during the Holocaust.|
|1963||Lawrence Morley, Fred Vine, and Drummond Matthews||Paleomagnetic stripes in ocean crust as evidence of plate tectonics (Vine–Matthews–Morley hypothesis).|
|1964||Murray Gell-Mann and George Zweig||postulate quarks leading to the standard model|
|1968||Robert Rosenthal and Lenore Jacobson||1968 experimentally demonstrated Self fulfilling prophecy in social relationships through their field experiment which showed that if teachers were led to expect enhanced performance from some children, then those children did indeed show that enhancement. This is also known as Late bloomers effect|
|1968–1970||Terry Winograd||made the artificial intelligence and natural language processing program SHRDLU that was concerned with the problem of providing a computer with sufficient "understanding" to be able to use natural language.|
|1969||German computer pioneer Konrad Zuse||published his book Calculating Space, proposing that the physical laws of the universe are discrete by nature, and that the entire universe is the output of a deterministic computation on a single cellular automaton; "Zuse's Theory" became the foundation of the field of study called digital physics|
|1969||Invention of Internet|
|1970||George Akerlof||elaborated the idea of economic activity under asymmetric information. He described information asymmetry, which occurs when the seller knows more about a product than the buyer. Later, Akerlof, Michael Spence, and Joseph Stiglitz jointly received the Nobel Memorial Prize in Economic Sciences in 2001 for their work on economic behavior under asymmetric information.|
|1970||John Horton Conway||made the computer program Game of Life, also known simply as Life, a cellular automaton in which its evolution is determined by its initial state, requiring no further input. The game of life simulates the rise, fall and alterations of a society of living organisms.|
|1970s||Amos Tversky and Daniel Kahneman||published series of discoveries on the psychology of human judgment and decision making describing the pervasive nature of systematic human cognitive bias and handling of risk in everyday life.|
|1972||Paleontologists Niles Eldredge and Stephen Jay Gould||published a landmark paper developing this theory and called it punctuated equilibria|
|1972||Michael D. Cohen, James G. March and Johan Olsen||proposed the Garbage can model of organizational decision making. They published the model along with a computer code. Earlier James G. March presented the Behavioral theory of the firm in 1963 and made a compendium of basic Organizational studies, Management science, and organizational behavior in his edition "A Handbook of Organizations" (1965).|
|1973||Mark Granovetter||published his seminal work in modern sociology and social network theory on the spread of information in social networks known as "The Strength of Weak Ties" describing how weak ties enable reaching populations and audiences that are not accessible via strong ties.|
|1977||Voyager program launched two unmanned space missions, the probes Voyager 1 and Voyager 2 to study planetary systems|
|1981–1984||Robert Axelrod and W. D. Hamilton||described the evolution of cooperation between cognitive entities and gave a mathematical and computational model describing the phenomena|
|1986||David Rumelhart and James McClelland||described the idea of Parallel Distributed Processing in modeling human cognition in psychology. They made mathematical and computational models of psychological information processing and described computer simulations of perception, giving testable models of neural information processing and introducing Connectionism.|
|1987||John C. Turner and Michael Hogg||along with other colleagues developed the Self categorization theory which gives a psychological theory for dynamics in group processes. It states that the self is not the foundational aspect of cognition, rather the self is a product of cognitive processes that occur in social processes. Earlier John Turner worked with Henri Tajfel (1979) on the precursor theory Social identity theory.|
|1988||The concept of a Quantum cellular automata was introduced thus advancing quantum computation and quantum computer|
|1970s–1988||Marvin Minsky & Seymour Papert||started developing what came to be called The Society of Mind theory. They state how intelligence could be a product of the interaction of non-intelligent parts. Minsky says that the biggest source of ideas about the theory came from his work in trying to create a machine that uses a robotic arm, a video camera, and a computer to build with children's blocks.|
|1988||Luigi Luca Cavalli-Sforza||reconstructed human evolution and migration patterns in human history in his work in population genetics. He claimed to show a strong association between language families and genetic trees of the same populations, proposing for genetic–linguistic coevolution.|
|1989–1990||Tim Berners-Lee||invented the World Wide Web. He made a proposal for an information management system in March 1989, and on 25 December 1990, with the help of Robert Cailliau and a young student at CERN, he implemented the first successful communication between a Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP) client and server via the Internet.|
|1996||Joshua M. Epstein||along with Robert Axtell developed the first large scale agent-based computational model, the Sugarscape, to explore the role of social phenomenon such as seasonal migrations, pollution, sexual reproduction, combat, and transmission of disease and even culture. With this work Epstein laid the foundation for what he later called as Generative social science|
|1997||Roslin Institute||Dolly the sheep was cloned.|
|1998||Gerson Goldhaber and Saul Perlmutter||observed that the expansion of the universe is accelerating|
|2000||Alison Gopnik and Andrew N. Meltzoff and Patricia K. Kuhl||stated that the same mechanisms used by scientists to develop scientific theories are used by children to develop causal models of their environment. They state that the cognitive development of children in early life is made possible by three factors: innate knowledge, advanced learning ability, and the evolved ability of parents to teach their offspring.|
|2001||The first draft of the human genome is completed.|
|2002||Ray Jackendoff||published his theory of conceptual semantics a comprehensive theory on the foundations of language, in the monograph (2002): Foundations of Language. Brain, Meaning, Grammar, Evolution. Earlier he worked with Fred Lerdahl, on musical cognition, presenting a Generative theory of tonal music.|
|2002||Daniel Wegner||published his book stating that the experience of free will is an illusion. Wegner conducted a series of experiments in which people experience an illusion of control, feeling that their free will shapes events when actually it were determined by someone else. According to Wegner the fact that this illusion of free will can be created shows that it is an illusion and that it is "the mind's best trick".|
|2009||The Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology and Life Sciences Corporation||completed making a draft sequencing of the genome of the closest human relative the Neanderthal|
|2010||J. Craig Venter Institute||creates the first synthetic bacterial cell.|
|2011||a team led by Shinji Nishimoto||made break through in Thought identification when they partially reconstructed visual images from only brain recordings of neural activity of volunteers who were seeing actual visual pictures or images.|
|2012||Peter Higgs||Higgs Boson is discovered at CERN (confirmed to 99.999% certainty)|
- Kelly, Robert L (12 February 2019). The Fifth Beginning What Six Million Years of Human History Can Tell Us about Our Future. University of California Press. p. 20. ISBN 9780520303485. Retrieved May 26, 2021 – via Microsoft Bing - Google Books.
They're the beginning of technology ... that would eventually result in cities, planes, bridges, cars, lunar rovers, artificial limbs, and computers ...Those stone tools also sent us on a path that would lead us to alter our environment ...
- Uruk britishmuseum.org
- Marcin Z. Paszke https://www.cambridge.org/core/journals/iraq/article/abs/date-palm-and-date-palm-inflorescences-in-the-late-uruk-period-c-3300-bc-botany-and-archaic-script/8EAB92932F9D73F08831C94FC11D77B3 Published online by Cambridge University Press: 06 December 2019
- Liverani, Mario (2006); Mieroop, Marc Van de; Bahrani, Zainab (ed.) Uruk The First City Equinox
- Montgomery, Scott L; Kumar, Alok (12 June 2015). "3". A History of Science in World Cultures Voices of Knowledge (Ebook). Taylor & Francis. p. 54. ISBN 9781317439066.
...it seems to have needed the city to appear first...The very first of them - Uruk, Ur, Girsi, Nippur, Eridu - were experiments...
- Høyrup, Jens (2018). Scarborough, John; Keyser, Paul Turquand (eds.). Social Base and Role and Gross Development, in, The Oxford Handbook of Science and Medicine in the Classical World. Oxford University Press. ISBN 9780199734146. Retrieved 25 May 2021 – via Google books. Lay summary – Google books.
With a focus on science in the ancient societies of Greece and Rome, including glimpses into Egypt, Mesopotamia, India and China, The Oxford Handbook of Science and Medicine in the Classical World offers an in depth synthesis of science and medicine circa 650 BCE to 650 CE...
- Hoffman, Curtiss (December 2004). "Dumuzi's Dream: Dream Analysis in Ancient Mesopotamia". Dreaming. 14 (4). doi:10.1037/1053-0718.104.22.168. Retrieved May 25, 2021.
- Oppenheim, A Leo (1956). "The Interpretation of Dreams in the Ancient Near East. With a Translation of an Assyrian Dream-Book". Transactions of the American Philosophical Society. 104 South Fifth Street, Philadelphia, PA 19106: American Philosophical Society. 46 (3): 185. doi:10.2307/1005761. JSTOR 1005761. Archived from the original on May 25, 2021. Retrieved May 25, 2021.CS1 maint: location (link)
- Tuman, V S. "An attempt to Date Text 3 of Enuma Anu Enlil, Tablets 50-51 "Tentative date December 2, — 1878"". Archive for History of Exact Sciences. 233 Spring Street New York, NY 10013: Springer. 45 (2): 1 (95). JSTOR 41681280. Retrieved 25 May 2021.CS1 maint: location (link)
- Rochberg, Francesca (1999). "Empiricism in Babylonian Omen Texts and the Classification of Mesopotamian Divination as Science". Journal of the American Oriental Society. Hatcher Graduate Library University of Michigan Ann Arbor, MI 48109-1205: American Oriental Society. 119 (4). JSTOR 604834. Retrieved May 25, 2021.
...It seems to me perfectly reasonable to apply the term empiricism in the characterization of Babylonian divination...(p.569)CS1 maint: location (link)
- Michael Fowler. "Index of Lectures and Overview of the Course". galileo.phys.virginia.edu. Retrieved May 25, 2021.
- Brill, Jason B; Harrison, Evan K; Sise, Michael J; Ignacio, Romeo C. "The history of the scalpel: From flint to zirconium-coated steel". bulletin.facs.org Bulletin of the American College of Surgeons. Retrieved May 26, 2021.CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
- James, Ian (25 February 2019). "Tekhne". oxfordre.com/view/10.1093/acrefore Oxford Research Encyclopedia. Oxford University Press. doi:10.1093/acrefore/9780190201098.013.121. Retrieved 26 May 2021.
- "technē 2019-20 Application Form Guidance Notes 2019/20". Retrieved 26 May 2021.
- R. P. Hardie and R. K. Gaye. "translation of Physics". classics.mit.edu. Retrieved 25 May 2021.
- Sachs, Joe (1995). Aristotle's Physics: A Guided Study. Rutgers University Press, 1995. ISBN 0813521920.
- Ewart, Paul (2019). "1 Introduction and Structure of the Course". Optics The Science of Light (Ebook) (1st ed.). IOP Publishing, Temple Circus, Temple Way, Bristol United Kingdom; 1210 Fifth Avenue, Suite 250, Sane Rafael, CA 94901 (Morgan & Claypool): Morgan & Claypool Publishers. p. 1-1. doi:10.1088/2053ab2231ch1. ISBN 9781643276762. Retrieved 12 June 2021 – via Google Books, Microsoft Bing.CS1 maint: location (link)
- Irby, Georgia L (4 April 2016). "11. Hydrology: Ocean, Rivers and other waterways 3. The Nature of the Oceans and Seas Tides". In Irby, Georgia L (ed.). A Companion to Science, Technology, and Medicine in Ancient Greece and Rome. Blackwell Companions to the Ancient World. 2. 1 (illustrated 1st ed.). College of William and Mary: John Wiley & Sons. p. 184. doi:10.1002/9781118373057.ch0. ISBN 1118372670. Retrieved 19 June 2021 – via Microsoft Bing-Google Books.
- "The history of germ theory in the College collections". Royal College of Physicians of Edinburgh. Retrieved 25 May 2021.
- Ifrah, Georges. 1999. The Universal History of Numbers : From Prehistory to the Invention of the Computer, Wiley. ISBN 0-471-37568-3.
- O'Connor, J.J. and E.F. Robertson. 2000. 'Indian Numerals', MacTutor History of Mathematics Archive, School of Mathematics and Statistics, University of St. Andrews, Scotland.
- Page 26, (2nd chapter) in: Ronald L. Numbers (ed.) Galileo Goes to Jail, and Other Myths about Science and Religion (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 2009). Note: the first tree chapters of the book can be found here "Archived copy" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 2011-07-19. Retrieved 2011-02-13.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link).
- L.M. Smith (2008-10-01). "Luca Pacioli: The Father of Accounting". Acct.tamu.edu. Archived from the original on 2011-08-18. Retrieved 2011-08-11.
- "UPDATED:OCTober 24, 2019 ORIGINAL:NOVember 9, 2009 Nicolaus Copernicus HISTORY.COM EDITORS". www.history.com. Archived from the original on 24 May 2021. Retrieved 24 May 2021 – via Tor.
- Bhattacharya shows probably erroneous information @ Newton Gravity c.f. Janiak, Ruffner @ "1685", "84" respectively here) Bhattacharya, Amitabh (projectsforschool.com) (10 September 2016). "Ten most important scientific discoveries". The Columbia Electronic Encyclopedia (6th edition); accessed by: Sandbox Networks, projectsforschool.com. Archived from the original on 24 May 2021. Retrieved 24 May 2021.
- "John Napier and logarithms". Ualr.edu. Retrieved 2011-08-12.
- Ruffner, J A (May 2012). "Newton's "De gravitatione": a review and reassessment". Archive for History of Exact Sciences. Springer. 66 (3). doi:10.1007/s00407-012-0093-x. Retrieved 24 May 2021.
- Newton, Isaac; Janiak, Andrew (18 November 2004). Janiak, Andrew; Mundy, Martha (eds.). Isaac Newton: Philosophical Writings. Cambridge University Press. p. 12. Retrieved 24 May 2021 – via Google Books. Lay summary – Google books (24 May 2021).
- T. W. Fisher (1999). "Taxonomy and biological control". In Thomas S. Bellows; L. E. Caltagirone; D. L. Dahlsten; Carl B. Huffaker; G. Gordh (eds.). Handbook of Biological Control: Principles and Applications of Biological Control. Academic Press. pp. 45–55. ISBN 978-0-12-257305-7.
- Thomas M. Humphrey, 1992. "Marshallian Cross Diagrams and Their Uses before Alfred Marshall," Economic Review, Mar/Apr, Federal Reserve Bank of Richmond, pp. 3–23.
- Dewsbury, D. A. (2003). "The 1973 Nobel Prize for Physiology or Medicine: Recognition for behavioral science?". American Psychologist 58 (9): 747–752. doi:10.1037/0003-066X.58.9.747.
- Sansone, C.; C. C. Morf; A. T. Panter (2003). The Sage Handbook of Methods in Social Psychology. Sage. ISBN 978-0-7619-2535-4.
- Lewin, K. (1922). Der Begriff der Genese in Physik, Biologie und Entwicklungsgeschichte. (Lewin's Habilitationsschrift)
- Science and linguistics" first published in 1940 in MIT Technology Review (42:229-31)
- Carroll, John B. (ed.) (1956). Language, Thought, and Reality: Selected Writings of Benjamin Lee Whorf. Cambridge, Mass.: Technology Press of Massachusetts Institute of Technology. ISBN 978-0-262-73006-8.
- 1953, "Spread of information through a population with sociostructural bias: I. Assumption of transitivity." in: Bulletin of Mathematical Biophysics, 15, 523–533.
- Cartwright, Dorwin & Harary, Frank. (1956). "Structural Balance: A Generalization of Heider's Theory." Psychological Review 63:277–293.
- 1957. Models of Man. John Wiley. Presents mathematical models of human behaviour.
- Garcia, Mark. "60 years ago, the Space Age began". nasa.gov. Retrieved 11 June 2021.
- No Authorship Indicated (April 1992). "Paul Ekman". American Psychologist. 47 (4): 470–471. doi:10.1037/0003-066x.47.4.470.
- Milgram, Stanley (1963). "Behavioral Study of Obedience". Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology. 67 (4): 371–8. CiteSeerX 10.1.1.599.92. doi:10.1037/h0040525. PMID 14049516. as PDF.
- Milgram, Stanley (1974). Obedience to Authority; An Experimental View. Harpercollins. ISBN 978-0-06-131983-9.
- Rosenthal, R.; Jacobson, L. (1968). Pygmalion in the classroom (PDF). New York: Holt, Rinehart & Winston.
- Rosenthal, Robert; Jacobson, Lenore (1992). Pygmalion in the classroom (Expanded ed.). New York: Irvington.
- "Roads and Crossroads of Internet History" by Gregory Gromov. 1995
- Tversky, A.; Kahneman, D. (1971). "Belief in the law of small numbers". Psychological Bulletin 76 (2): 105–110. doi:10.1037/h0031322
- Tversky, A.; Kahneman, D. (1974). "Judgment under uncertainty: Heuristics and biases". Science 185 (4157): 1124–1131. doi:10.1126/science.185.4157.1124
- Tversky, A.; Kahneman, D. (1981). "The framing of decisions and the psychology of choice". Science 211 (4481): 453–458. doi:10.1126/science.7455683
- Cohen, Michael D.; March, James G.; Olsen, Johan P. (1972). "A Garbage Can Model of Organizational Choice". Administrative Science Quarterly 17 (1): 1–25. doi:10.2307/2392088. JSTOR 2392088.
- Richard M. Cyert and James G. March, A Behavioral Theory of the Firm. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall, 1963. 2nd ed., Oxford: Blackwell Publishers, 1992. Translated into Chinese, French, German, Italian, and Japanese.
- James G. March, ed., Handbook of Organizations. Chicago, IL: Rand McNally, 1965.
- Granovetter, M. S. (1973). "The Strength of Weak Ties". The American Journal of Sociology 78 (6): 1360–1380. doi:10.1086/225469. JSTOR 2776392
- Carey, Benedict (March 18, 2011). "David Rumelhart Dies at 68; Created Computer Simulations of Perception". The New York Times.
- Grossing, G and Zeilinger, A (1988) Quantum cellular automata, Complex Systems (2) pp. 197–208 http://www.complex-systems.com/pdf/02-2-4.pdf
- Cavalli-Sforza L.L., Piazza A., Menozzi P. and Mountain J. (1988) Reconstruction of human evolution: bringing together genetic, archaeological, and linguistic data. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA. 85: 6002–6006.
- "cern.info.ch – Tim Berners-Lee's proposal". Info.cern.ch. Retrieved 21 December 2011.
- Quittner, Joshua (29 March 1999). "Tim Berners Lee—Time 100 People of the Century". Time Magazine.
He wove the World Wide Web and created a mass medium for the 21st century. The World Wide Web is Berners-Lee's alone. He designed it. He loosed it on the world. And he more than anyone else has fought to keep it open, nonproprietary and free.
- Epstein, Joshua M.; Axtell, Robert L. (1996). Growing Artificial Societies: Social Science From the Bottom Up. MIT/Brookings Institution. pp. 224. ISBN 978-0-262-55025-3.
- Epstein, Joshua M. (January 8, 2007). Generative Social Science: Studies in Agent-Based Computational Modeling. Princeton University. pp. 352. ISBN 978-0-691-12547-3.
- Gopnik, A., Meltzoff, A. N., & Kuhl, P. K. (2000). The scientist in the crib: What early learning tells us about the mind. New York: Harper Paperbacks.
- Wegner, D. M. (2002). The illusion of conscious will. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
- Blackmore, Susan J. (15 November 2005). "Daniel Wegner". Conversations on consciousness. Oxford University Press. pp. 245–257. ISBN 978-0-19-280622-2. Retrieved 21 March 2011.
- Nadelhoffer, Thomas (11 June 2010). Moral Psychology: Historical and Contemporary Readings. John Wiley and Sons. p. 236. ISBN 978-1-4051-9019-0. Retrieved 21 March 2011.
- Wegner, Daniel M. (2003). The mind's best trick: how we experience conscious will. Trends in Cognitive Sciences, Vol. 7, No. 2, pp. 65–69.
- Shinji Nishimoto, An T. Vu, Thomas Naselaris, Yuval Benjamini, Bin Yu, Jack L. Gallant, Reconstructing Visual Experiences from Brain Activity Evoked by Natural Movies, Current Biology, Available online 22 September 2011, ISSN 0960-9822, doi:10.1016/j.cub.2011.08.031. Neuroscience, Psychology, biology, Life sciences and philosophy
- Biever, Celeste; Heuer, Rolf; Oddone, Pier; Gianotti, Fabiola (4 July 2012). "Celebrations as Higgs boson is finally discovered". CERN. www.newscientist.com. Archived from the original on 25 May 2021. Retrieved 25 May 2021 – via Microsoft Bing. Cite magazine requires