Timeline of the Texas Revolution
This is a timeline of the Texas Revolution, spanning the time from the earliest independence movements of the area of Texas, over the declaration of independence from Spain, up to the secession of the Republic of Texas from Mexico.
The first shot of the Texas Revolution was fired at the Battle of Gonzales on October 2, 1835. This marked the beginning of the revolution. Over the next three months, the Texian colonists drove all Mexican army troops out of the province. In January 1836, Mexican president and general Antonio López de Santa Anna led Mexican troops into Texas to put down the rebellion. General Jose Urrea marched half of the troops up the Texas coast in the Goliad campaign, while Santa Anna led the rest of the troops to San Antonio de Bexar. After a thirteen-day siege, Santa Anna's army defeated the small group of Texians at the Battle of the Alamo and continued east. Many Texians, including the government, fled their homes in the Runaway Scrape. On March 19 the Texas troops marched into an open prairie outside of Goliad during a heavy fog. When they stopped to rest their animals, Urrea and his main army surrounded them. The Texas force numbered at least 300 soldiers, and the Mexicans had 300 to 500 troops. With no choice but battle, James Fannin chose to stand and fight near Coleto Creek. Santa Anna and his troops searched for the Texian government and the Texian army led by Sam Houston. On April 21, 1836, the Texians defeated Santa Anna's army at the Battle of San Jacinto; Santa Anna was captured the following day. The Mexican army retreated back to Mexico City, ending the Texas Revolution. Texas was now an independent colony and later joined the United States.
Prelude to war: 1823–1834
|Year||Political events||Military events|
|Month||Political Events||Military Events|
|Date||Political Events||Military Events|
|January 5||James Grant and Frank Johnson are ordered by the Texas General Council to attack Matamoros. They strip the Alamo fort of most of its remaining men and supplies. The few left to support the Alamo fort select James C. Neill as their commander.|
|January 6||Santa Anna arrives at Saltillo.|
|January 7||James Walker Fannin is ordered by the Texas General Council to attack Matamoros.|
|January 11||James Bowie and William Blowout arrive at Goliad to support a Matamoros expedition.|
|January 19||James Bowie and James Bonham arrive at the Alamo fort with 30 men.
Houston orders Francis W. Thornton to command at Goliad.
|February 1||Elections are held in settlements across Texas for an independence convention.|
|February 2||James Bowie pleads to Smith for supplies.|
|February 3||William Travis arrives at the Alamo fort with 30 men.|
|February 4||Fannin and troops march to Refugio to link up with Grant and Johnson.|
|February 7||Fannin at Refugio and is elected colonel of the volunteer troops who will gather around Goliad.
Fannin receives information of a Mexican advance upon Texas and an awaiting ambush at Matamoros. He abandons a Matamoros expedition.
|February 8||David Crockett arrives in Bexar, near the Alamo with 12 men.|
|February 9||James Grant and Frank Johnson continue on their Matamoros Expedition, gathering horses around San Patricio and South Texas.|
|February 11||Alamo commander J.C. Neill leaves the Alamo command due to a family illness. He appoints Travis commander.|
|February 12||James Fannin leaves Refugio with his troops and assumes command at Presidio La Bahia in Goliad.|
|February 16||Santa Anna crosses the Rio Grande.|
|February 17||Travis sends out letters pleading for men and supplies.
General José de Urrea crosses the Rio Grande.
|February 21||Santa Anna arrives at the Medina River.|
|February 22||Heavy rains swell the Medina and spoil a surprise attack by Sesma's cavalry.|
|February 25||Fannin, commander of troops at Goliad, receives Travis' plea for aid. Fannin orders Chenoweth to abandon Copano and sends his company to hold the Cibolo in anticipation of Fannin's relief march to aid the Alamo defenders.|
|February 26||James Fannin attempts his relief march to the Alamo compound but turns back. R.M Williamson arrives in Gonzales to help organize the Alamo relief forces gathering there .|
|February 27||Mexican General José de Urrea attacks and defeats Frank Johnson and a small band of Texians at the Battle of San Patricio.|
|February 28||Juan Seguin and his relief forces waiting on the Cibolo Creek encounter the Goliad advance led by Francis L. DeSauque and John M. Chenoweth while near the Cibolo. They inform Seguin that Fannin was en route to relieve the Alamo defenders and should only be about two days away.|
|February 29||Houston arrives at Washington on the Brazos.||The Gonzales relief forces arrive on the Cibolo below Bexar.|
|March 12||Battle of Refugio begins: Amon B. King and his men are attacked by General Urrea, and Texian troops commanded by Lt. Col. William Ward are dispatched for relief.|
|March 13||Ward's troops arrive and the Mexicans are repelled, fighting continues.|
|March 14||After several hours of fighting, Amon King, William Ward and the Texians attempt to fall back to Victoria.|
|March 15||King's troops are captured by the Mexicans.|
|March 17||Albert C. Horton's scouts locate Col. Juan Morales nearing Goliad with the Jiménez and San Luis battalions.|
|March 18||Albert C. Horton's cavalry and Urrea's advance forces skirmish near Fort Defiance.|
|March 20||Urrea receives reinforcements. Mexican troops now total near 1000. Fannin surrenders.|
|March 21||Battle of Copano: General Urrea captures the port of Copano. The Mexicans held on to the port until the end of the war, using it to obtain reinforcements and send the injured and prisoners to Mexico.|
|March 23||William Ward surrenders.|
|March 24||General Antonio Gaona departs Bexar on an eastward path towards Nacogdoches.|
|March 28||Houston orders Wiley Martin and Mosley Baker with Juan Seguín to guard his retreat thus delaying Santa Anna's army from crossing the Brazos River.|
|March 29 – 31||
|April 5||General Antonio Gaona, upon new orders from Santa Anna and after an eight-day delay, abandons his occupation of Mina to proceed to San Felipe de Austin.|
|April 7||Santa Anna's army reaches San Felipe and is pinned down by Baker's men.|
|April 8||Santa Anna joins Ramirez y Sesma at Beason's Crossing.|
|April 15||Santa Anna and his army arrive at Harrisburg.|
|April 18||Houston and his army arrive outside of Harrisburg.|
|April 22||Santa Anna captured.|
|April 23||News of Santa Anna's defeat and capture reaches Santa Anna's second-in-command, General Vicente Filisola.|
|April 25||All Mexican troops in Texas (2,573 men) assemble at Elizabeth Powell's Tavern near Old Fort, including General José de Urrea's troops, where in a council of war headed by Filisola, they agree to withdraw south of the Colorado River.|
|April 28||Retreating Mexican army crosses the Colorado River at the Atascosito Crossing near present-date Columbus, Texas. Because of heavy rains and dwindling food and supplies, the Mexicans continue to withdraw south.|
|May 10||Mexican army reaches the Atascosita Road at Victoria.|
|May 14||Treaties of Velasco signed by Republic of Texas officials and General Santa Anna.|
|May 17||Mexican army arrives in Goliad.|
|May 28||Lead elements of Mexican army arrive in San Patricio.|
|May 31||Mexican army arrives on the west bank of the Nueces River.|
|June 4||Mexican army at the Alamo fort formally surrenders to Juan Seguin, military chief of San Antonio.|
|June 5 – June 12||Mexican army camps at Rancho Chiltipiquin. Extreme heat from the summer season forces the army to further move on.|
|June 15||Filisola, leading the defeated and demoralized Mexican army, crosses the Rio Grande back into Mexico and arrives later that day at Matamoros, Tamaulipas.|
- de la Teja (1991), p. 77.
- Lindley (2003), p. 133.
- Hill, Jim Dan. The Texas Navy: In Forgotten Battles And Shirtsleeve Diplomacy, P 29.