Timeline of women's suffrage in Georgia (U.S. state)


This is a timeline of women's suffrage in Georgia. Women's suffrage in Georgia started in earnest with the formation of the Georgia Woman Suffrage Association (GWSA) in 1892. GWSA helped bring the first large women's rights convention to the South in 1895 when the National American Woman's Suffrage Association (NAWSA) held their convention in Atlanta. GWSA was the main source of activism behind women's suffrage until 1913. In that year, several other groups formed including the Georgia Young People's Suffrage Association (GYPSA) and the Georgia Men's League for Woman Suffrage. In 1914, the Georgia Association Opposed to Women's Suffrage (GAOWS) was formed by anti-suffragists. Despite the hard work by suffragists in Georgia, the state continued to reject most efforts to pass equal suffrage. In 1917, Waycross, Georgia allowed women to vote in primary elections and in 1919 Atlanta granted the same. Georgia was the first state to reject the Nineteenth Amendment. Women in Georgia still had to wait to vote statewide after the Nineteenth Amendment was ratified on August 26, 1920. Native American and African American women had to wait even longer to vote. Georgia ratified the Nineteenth Amendment in 1970.

Atlanta Equal Suffrage group in parade in Atlanta, Georgia in 1913

19th century


1880s

1887

  • Georgia passes a "cumulative" poll tax, where individuals had to pay all back taxes to the poll in order to vote.[1]

1890s

1890

1894

  • The Equal Suffrage League of Atlanta forms as a chapter of GWSA.[3]

1895

1896

1899

  • November: GWSA holds their first convention at Atlanta.[3][8]

20th century


Petition of the Women of Georgia for a Women's Suffrage Amendment, 12 June 1913

1900s

1900

1901

  • November: GWSA holds their annual convention.[3]

1902

  • Women in Atlanta petition the local government to vote in municipal elections, but they are rejected.[3]
  • November: GWSA holds their annual convention in Atlanta at the Universalist Church.[10]

1903

1905

1906

1907

  • The state legislature passes a law that only men of "good character" may vote and all poll taxes must be paid six months in advance of the election.[13]

1908

1909

  • Women in Atlanta petition the local government again for municipal suffrage, but are rejected.[14]

1910s

1913

1914

  • The Equal Suffrage Party of Georgia is organized.[3]
  • The Georgia chapter of WCTU is more open to women's suffrage at their convention.[21]
  • Spring: The Georgia Association Opposed to Woman Suffrage is formed.[3]
  • March: Women's suffrage rally is held in Atlanta with Jane Addams as a featured speaker.[3]
  • May 2: McLendon speaks on the steps of the State Capitol and members of GWSA sell copies of the Woman's Journal.[21]
  • June 25: Representative Barry Wright introduces an equal suffrage amendment in the House of the Georgia General Assembly.[22]
  • June 30: J. W. Bush introduces a similar measure in the Georgia Senate.[23]
  • July: State suffrage convention held at Hotel Ansley.[21]
  • December: Suffragists enter the Advertizing Men's Parade, where they win three prizes.[20]

1915

  • March: The Atlanta Equal Suffrage Association hosts a suffrage program including a speech by Rebecca Latimer Felton and a showing of Your Girl and Mine.[19]
  • August: The Georgia legislature votes against women's suffrage.[24]
  • November: State suffrage convention is held in Atlanta.[25]
  • November: Suffrage parade is held, with Eleanor Raoul leading on horseback.[25]
  • December: Suffrage rally held in Atlanta with Jean Margaret Gordon speaking.[26]

1916

  • Equal suffrage measures are introduced in both houses of the Georgia legislature, but do not pass.[27]
  • February: Suffragists get 10,000 signers on a petition to the city council of Atlanta to support municipal suffrage.[25]
  • October 28: The Equal Suffrage Party of Georgia holds its annual convention in Atlanta.[28]

1917

1919

  • January 15: The Equal Suffrage Party of Georgia holds its annual convention in Savannah.[31]
  • May 3: White women in Atlanta gain the right to vote in municipal primary elections.[3][30][32]

1920s

1920

  • March: The Equal Suffrage Party of Georgia dissolves and forms the League of Women Voters (LWV) of Georgia.[3][33]
  • July 24: Georgia is the first state to reject the Nineteenth Amendment.[34]
  • September 8: McLendon and other women attempted to vote and to register to vote, but were turned away.[31]

1921

  • The Georgia legislature passed a law allowing women to vote and hold public office.[35]

1922

  • White Georgia women are able to vote statewide.[3]

1924

1950s

1956

  • The Georgia LWV changes their bylaws to allow people of any race to join.[37]

1960s

1965

1970s

1970

  • February 20: Georgia ratifies the Nineteenth Amendment.[34]

See also


References


  1. Summerlin 2009, p. 25.
  2. Summerlin 2009, p. 27-28.
  3. Eltzroth, E. Lee (5 September 2002). "Woman Suffrage". New Georgia Encyclopedia. Retrieved 2020-10-16.
  4. Summerlin 2009, p. 32.
  5. K.M.M. (March 1895). "Visit From Susan B. Anthony". The Bulletin of Atlanta University (63). pp. 3–4. Retrieved 16 October 2020 via HBCU Library Alliance.
  6. Taylor 1944, p. 78.
  7. Pirani, Fiza (16 August 2020). "Remembering suffragettes with Georgia ties as 19th Amendment turns 100". AJC. Retrieved 2020-10-16.
  8. Anthony 1902, p. 583.
  9. Dittmer, John (1980). Black Georgia in the Progressive Era, 1900-1920. University of Illinois Press. p. 95. ISBN 978-0-252-00813-9.
  10. "Georgia Woman Suffrage Association Meet at Atlanta, GA". Davenport Morning Star. 1902-11-26. p. 2. Retrieved 2020-10-21 via Newspapers.com.
  11. Harper 1922, p. 122.
  12. Harper 1922, p. 123.
  13. Dittmer, John (1980). Black Georgia in the Progressive Era, 1900-1920. University of Illinois Press. p. 101. ISBN 978-0-252-00813-9.
  14. Harper 1922, p. 124.
  15. Harper 1922, p. 126.
  16. Taylor 1958, p. 347.
  17. Harper 1922, p. 126-127.
  18. "Georgia Suffragists to Have Department in Constitution". The Atlanta Constitution. 1913-06-15. p. 5. Retrieved 2020-10-21 via Newspapers.com.
  19. Taylor 1958, p. 353.
  20. Taylor 1958, p. 351.
  21. Harper 1922, p. 128.
  22. Taylor 1959, p. 17.
  23. Taylor 1959, p. 18.
  24. Taylor 1959, p. 21.
  25. Harper 1922, p. 129.
  26. Taylor 1958, p. 350.
  27. Taylor 1959, p. 22.
  28. Harper 1922, p. 136.
  29. Taylor 1958, p. 348.
  30. Taylor 1959, p. 23.
  31. Harper 1922, p. 132.
  32. Harper 1922, p. 138.
  33. Harper 1922, p. 130.
  34. "Georgia and the 19th Amendment". U.S. National Park Service. Retrieved 2020-10-16.
  35. Summerlin 2009, p. 118.
  36. "Weekend Read: Challenging the whitewashed history of women's suffrage". Southern Poverty Law Center. Retrieved 2020-10-21.
  37. Pirani, Fiza (17 August 2020). "An unfinished movement: Reflecting on 100 years of women's suffrage in Georgia". AJC. Retrieved 2020-10-16.

Sources