Timeline of women's suffrage in Missouri


This is a timeline of women's suffrage in Missouri. Women's suffrage in Missouri started in earnest after the Civil War. In 1867, one of the first women's suffrage groups in the U.S. was formed, called the Woman Suffrage Association of Missouri. Suffragists in Missouri held conventions, lobbied the Missouri General Assembly and challenged the Supreme Court of the United States (SCOTUS). The case that went to SCOTUS in 1874, Minor v. Happersett was not ruled in the suffragists' favor. Instead of challenging the courts for suffrage, Missouri suffragists continued to lobby for changes in legislation. In April 1919, they gained the right to vote in presidential elections. On July 3, 1919, Missouri becomes the eleventh state to ratify the Nineteenth Amendment.

League of Women Voters rally in St. Louis Sept 13, 1920

19th century


St. Louis County Woman Suffrage Association advert May 27, 1870

1860s

1866

  • December: Senator B. Gratz Brown of Missouri states publicly that he is for universal suffrage for anyone, regardless of "race, color, or sex."[1]
  • Women petition the Missouri General Assembly to remove the word "male" from the description of a voter in the state constitution.[2]

1867

  • May: The Woman Suffrage Association of Missouri (WSAM) is formed.[3][4]
  • October: A women's rights convention is held in St. Louis with large attendance numbers.[5]

1868

1869

  • February: Members of WSAM petition the Missouri General Assembly for women's suffrage.[7]
  • October: Missouri Woman Suffrage Convention is held in St. Louis.[8]
  • October: Virginia Minor gives a speech at the convention, introducing the idea that the Fourteenth Amendment already gives women the right to vote.[9]

1870s

1870

  • May: The St. Louis County Woman Suffrage Association is formed.[10]
  • November: Delegates are chosen to attend the annual American Woman Suffrage Association (AWSA) in Cleveland.[11]
  • The St. Louis County Woman Suffrage Association sends a "memorial" to the United States Congress to amend the U.S. Constitution to support women's suffrage.[12]

1871

1872

  • October 15: Virginia Minor attempts to register to vote and is denied based on her gender.[9]
  • November: AWSA holds its third annual convention in St. Louis.[14]

1873

1875

  • In Minor v. Happersett, SCOTUS rules that the United States Constitution does not confer suffrage and until new laws were written, women would not vote in the United States.[15][9][16]
  • Women attempted to get a constitutional amendment for women's suffrage in the state constitutional convention, but failed.[12]

1876

1879

1880s

1881

  • Women petition the Missouri General Assembly for a constitutional amendment for women's suffrage.[19]

1883

  • Women petition the Missouri General Assembly for "general and presidential suffrage for women."[19]

1889

  • January 24: Virginia Minor speaks to the United States Senate Committee on Woman Suffrage.[20]

1890s

1892

  • Women's suffrage convention featuring women from around the United States is held in Kansas City.[21]
  • The Kansas City Equal Suffrage League was formed in 1892 with Kersey Coates as president.[22]

1894

1895

  • The Missouri Equal Suffrage Association (MESA) is formed.[23]

1896

1897

  • Delegates to the Missouri General Assembly request a constitutional amendment for women's suffrage.[25]
  • January: Mary C. C. Bradford goes on a three week lecture tour in Missouri.[26]
  • December: A state suffrage convention is held in Bethany.[27]

1898

1899

20th century


1900s

Kate Richards O'Hare speaks at the Women's Independence Day rally in St. Louis May 2, 1914

1901

  • The state suffrage convention is held in St. Louis.[27]

1910s

1911

  • February 4: The Kansas City Woman Suffrage Association is formed.[29]
  • February 14: Several large women's suffrage organizations in Missouri merge into the Missouri Equal Suffrage Association (MESA).[30]

1912

  • September: State suffrage convention is held in Sedalia.[31]
  • November 30: Suffragists in Joplin, Missouri organize and affiliate with the Women's Equal Suffrage League.[32]

1913

1914

  • May 2: Rally held in St. Louis And Carthage, Missouri on National Suffrage Day.[35][36]
  • Spring: The St. Louis Times publishes a "special suffrage edition."[37]
  • The Columbia Equal Suffrage League canvasses house-to-house to promote women's suffrage and record the number of people supporting women's suffrage.[3]
  • Emily Newell Blair becomes the first editor of the first suffrage journal in the state, Missouri Woman.[38]

1915

  • Suffrage magazine, The Missouri Woman, is first published.[39]

1916

The Missouri Woman magazine cover "Votes for Women" June 1916

1917

  • February: Suffragists petition the Missouri General Assembly for limited suffrage.[45]
  • May: The state women's suffrage convention took place in Kansas City.[46]

1919

1920s

1920

See also


References


  1. Morris 1930, p. 68.
  2. Cooperman, Jeannette (2020-04-28). "St. Louis suffragists played a key role in advocating for the 19th Amendment 100 years ago". St. Louis Magazine. Retrieved 2020-09-21.
  3. "Missouri Women: Suffrage to Statecraft". University of Missouri. Retrieved 2020-09-21.
  4. "Woman Suffrage Association of Missouri Formed". St. Louis Historic Preservation. Retrieved 2020-09-21.
  5. Fordyce 1920, p. 290.
  6. "Woman Suffrage". Daily Missouri Republican. 1868-07-24. p. 2. Retrieved 2020-09-24 via Newspapers.com.
  7. "Virginia Minor -". Archives of Women's Political Communication. Retrieved 2020-09-22.
  8. "Virginia Minor". Historic Missourians - The State Historical Society of Missouri. Retrieved 2020-09-21.
  9. Anderson, Caiti (2016-04-22). "Minor v. Happersett: The Supreme Court and Women's Suffrage". State of Elections. Retrieved 2020-09-21.
  10. "Woman Suffrage Call". The Missouri Republican. 1870-05-27. p. 2. Retrieved 2020-09-24 via Newspapers.com.
  11. "Woman Suffrage Association". The Missouri Republican. 1870-11-09. p. 2. Retrieved 2020-09-24 via Newspapers.com.
  12. Morris 1930, p. 82.
  13. Morris 1930, p. 71.
  14. O'Neil, Tim (19 November 2011). "A Look Back • Suffragists meet in St. Louis in 1872". STLtoday.com. Retrieved 2020-09-21.
  15. "Virginia Minor and Women's Right to Vote - Gateway Arch National Park (U.S. National Park Service)". NPS. Retrieved 2020-09-21.
  16. "Legal Case of Minor v. Happersett". History of U.S. Woman's Suffrage. Retrieved 2020-09-27.
  17. Davidson, Clarissa Start (1972). "Women's Role in Missouri History, 1821-1971". Missouri Almanac, 1971-1972. Retrieved 2020-09-24.
  18. Morris 1930, p. 73.
  19. Morris 1930, p. 74.
  20. "Statement before the U.S. Senate Committee on Woman Suffrage - Jan. 24, 1889". Archives of Women's Political Communication. Retrieved 2020-09-22.
  21. Anthony 1902, p. 790.
  22. McBride 1920, p. 320.
  23. Morris 1930, p. 76.
  24. Morris 1930, p. 77.
  25. Morris 1930, p. 78.
  26. Anthony 1902, p. 791.
  27. Morris 1930, p. 79.
  28. Anthony 1902, p. 792.
  29. McBride 1920, p. 321.
  30. Van Es 2014, p. 28.
  31. Atkinson 1920, p. 303.
  32. Van Es 2014, p. 55-56.
  33. Van Es 2014, p. 28-29.
  34. "Alma Nash & Her Band". Missouri Women. 2010-11-16. Retrieved 2020-09-21.
  35. Van Es 2014, p. 29.
  36. Van Es 2014, p. 56.
  37. Scott 1920, p. 372.
  38. Driscoll, Carol (July 2020). "Emily Newell Blair: Missouri's Suffragette". Missouri Life. 47 (5): 40–43 via EBSCOhost.
  39. Scott 1920, p. 373.
  40. Leighty 1920, p. 347.
  41. Van Es 2014, p. 30.
  42. "Suffrage Special Will Stop". The Wichita Daily Eagle. 1916-04-04. p. 9. Retrieved 2020-01-20 via Newspapers.com.
  43. Scott 1920, p. 374.
  44. Passmore 1920, p. 368.
  45. Passmore 1920, p. 369.
  46. Leighty 1920, p. 349.
  47. O'Connor, Candace (1994). "Women Who Led the Way". Missouri Almanac, 1993-94. Retrieved 2020-09-24.
  48. Van Es 2014, p. 31.
  49. "National American Women Suffrage, St. Louis, 3-25-19". Library of Congress, Washington, D.C. 20540 USA. Retrieved 2020-09-22.
  50. Van Es 2014, p. 33.
  51. "History of the Missouri LWV". 2012-04-14. Retrieved 2020-09-24.
  52. Scott 1920, p. 377.
  53. "Founded November 13, 1919". MyLO. 2020-02-06. Retrieved 2020-09-22.

Sources