Togo

Togo (/ˈtɡ/ (listen)), officially the Togolese Republic (French: République togolaise), is a country in West Africa. It is bordered by Ghana to the west, Benin to the east and Burkina Faso to the north.[7] The country extends south to the Gulf of Guinea, where its capital and largest city Lomé is located.[8] Togo covers 57,000 square kilometres (22,008 square miles), making it one of the smallest countries in Africa, with a population of approximately 8 million,[9] as well as one of the narrowest countries in the world with a width of less than 115 km (71 mi) between Ghana and its slightly larger eastern neighbor, Benin.[10][11]

Togolese Republic
République togolaise  (French)
Motto: "Travail, Liberté, Patrie"[1] (French)
"Work, Liberty, Homeland"
Anthem: "Terre de nos aïeux" (French)
(English: "Land of our ancestors")
Location of Togo (dark blue)

in the African Union (light blue)

Capital
and largest city
Lomé
6°8′N 1°13′E
Official languagesFrench
Recognised national languagesEwe  Kabiye
Spoken languages
List:
Ethnic groups
99% Ewe, Kabye, Tem, Gourma, and 33 other African groups
1% European, Indian & Syro-Lebanese[2]
Religion
Demonym(s)Togolese
GovernmentUnitary dominant-party presidential republic
 President
Faure Gnassingbé
Victoire Tomegah Dogbé
LegislatureNational Assembly
Independence
 from France
27 April 1960
Area
 Total
56,785 km2 (21,925 sq mi) (123rd)
 Water (%)
4.2
Population
 2020 estimate
8,608,444[2] (100th)
 2010 census
6,191,155
 Density
125.9/km2 (326.1/sq mi) (93rde)
GDP (PPP)2019 estimate
 Total
$14.919 billion
 Per capita
$1,821[4]
GDP (nominal)2019 estimate
 Total
$5.592 billion
 Per capita
$682[4]
Gini (2015) 43.1[5]
medium
HDI (2019) 0.515[6]
low · 167th
CurrencyWest African CFA franc (XOF)
Time zoneUTC (GMT)
Driving sideright
Calling code+228
ISO 3166 codeTG
Internet TLD.tg
  1. Such as Ewe, Mina and Aja.
  2. Largest are the Ewe, Mina, Kotokoli Tem and Kabyè.
  3. Mostly European, Indian & Syrian-Lebanese.
  4. Estimates for this country explicitly take into account the effects of excess mortality due to AIDS; this can result in lower life expectancy, higher infant mortality and death rates, lower population and growth rates, and changes in the distribution of population by age and sex than would otherwise be expected.
  5. Rankings based on 2017 figures (CIA World Factbook – "Togo")

From the 11th to the 16th century, various tribes entered the region from all directions. From the 16th century to the 18th century, the coastal region was a major trading center for Europeans to purchase slaves, earning Togo and the surrounding region the name "The Slave Coast". In 1884, Germany declared a region including present-day Togo as a protectorate called Togoland. After World War I, rule over Togo was transferred to France. Togo gained its independence from France in 1960.[12][2] In 1967, Gnassingbé Eyadéma led a successful military coup d'état after which he became president of an anti-communist, single-party state. Eventually, in 1993, Eyadéma faced multiparty elections, which were marred by irregularities, and he won the presidency three times. At the time of his death, Eyadéma was the longest-serving leader in modern African history, having been president for 38 years.[13] In 2005, his son Faure Gnassingbé was elected president. He continues to hold the office as of 2021.

Togo is a tropical, sub-Saharan nation,[7] whose economy depends highly on agriculture,[12] with a climate that provides good growing seasons. While the official language is French,[12] many other languages are spoken, particularly those of the Gbe family. The largest religious group consists of those with indigenous beliefs, and there are significant Christian and Muslim minorities.[12] Togo is a member of the United Nations, African Union, Organisation of Islamic Cooperation, South Atlantic Peace and Cooperation Zone, Francophonie, and Economic Community of West African States.