Traffic congestion

Traffic congestion is a condition in transport that is characterised by slower speeds, longer trip times, and increased vehicular queueing. Traffic congestion on urban road networks has increased substantially, since the 1950s.[1] When traffic demand is great enough that the interaction between vehicles slows the speed of the traffic stream, this results in some congestion. While congestion is a possibility for any mode of transportation, this article will focus on automobile congestion on public roads.

Heavy traffic jam in Garden Ring, Moscow
Traffic jam in Los Angeles, 1953
Traffic jam on the Rohtang Pass between Manali and Spiti

As demand approaches the capacity of a road (or of the intersections along the road), extreme traffic congestion sets in. When vehicles are fully stopped for periods of time, this is known as a traffic jam[2][3] or (informally) a traffic snarl-up.[4][5] Traffic congestion can lead to drivers becoming frustrated and engaging in road rage.

Mathematically, traffic is modeled as a flow through a fixed point on the route, analogously to fluid dynamics.