Transnistria, officially the Pridnestrovian Moldavian Republic (PMR), is an unrecognized breakaway state located in the narrow strip of land between the river Dniester and the Moldovan–Ukrainian border that is internationally recognized as part of Moldova. Its capital and largest city is Tiraspol. Transnistria has been recognised by only three other unrecognised or partially recognized breakaway states: Abkhazia, Artsakh and South Ossetia. Transnistria is designated by the Republic of Moldova as the Transnistria autonomous territorial unit with special legal status (Romanian: Unitatea teritorială autonomă cu statut juridic special Transnistria), or Stînga Nistrului ("Left Bank of the Dniester").
Pridnestrovian Moldavian Republic
We chant thy praises of Pridnestrovia
Recognised by the United Nations as de jure part of Moldova
and largest city
|Government||Unitary semi-presidential republic|
|Partially recognised state|
|2 September 1990|
• Independence from Soviet Union declared
|25 August 1991|
• Succeeds the Pridnestrovian Moldavian Soviet Socialist Republic
|5 November 1991|
|2 March – 21 July 1992|
|3 non-UN membersc|
|4,163 km2 (1,607 sq mi)|
• Water (%)
• 2018 estimate
|469,000 (not ranked)|
|114/km2 (295.3/sq mi)|
|GDP (nominal)||2007 estimate|
• Per capita
|Currency||Transnistrian rubled (PRB)|
|Time zone||UTC+2 (EET)|
• Summer (DST)
|Internet TLD||.ru, .md, .su and .com|
The region's origins can be traced to the Moldavian Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic which was formed in 1924 within the Ukrainian SSR. During World War II, the Soviet Union took parts of the Moldavian ASSR, which was dissolved, and of the Kingdom of Romania's Bessarabia to form the Moldavian Soviet Socialist Republic in 1940. The present history of the region dates to 1990, amidst the disintegration of the Soviet Union, when the Pridnestrovian Moldavian Soviet Socialist Republic was established in hopes that it would remain within the Soviet Union should Moldova seek unification with Romania or independence, the latter occurring in August 1991. Shortly afterwards, a military conflict between the two parties started in March 1992 and was concluded by a ceasefire in July of the same year.
As part of that agreement, a three-party (Russia, Moldova, Transnistria) Joint Control Commission supervises the security arrangements in the demilitarised zone, comprising twenty localities on both sides of the river. Although the ceasefire has held, the territory's political status remains unresolved: Transnistria is an unrecognised but de facto independent semi-presidential republic with its own government, parliament, military, police, postal system, currency and vehicle registration. Its authorities have adopted a constitution, flag, national anthem and coat of arms. After a 2005 agreement between Moldova and Ukraine, all Transnistrian companies that seek to export goods through the Ukrainian border must be registered with the Moldovan authorities. This agreement was implemented after the European Union Border Assistance Mission to Moldova and Ukraine (EUBAM) took force in 2005. Most Transnistrians have Moldovan citizenship, but many also have Russian, Romanian, or Ukrainian citizenship. The main ethnic groups are Russians, Moldovans, and Ukrainians.
Transnistria, along with Abkhazia, South Ossetia, and Artsakh, is a post-Soviet "frozen conflict" zone. These four partially recognised states maintain friendly relations with each other and form the Community for Democracy and Rights of Nations.