Transnistria, officially the Pridnestrovian Moldavian Republic (PMR),[lower-alpha 2] is an unrecognized breakaway state located in the narrow strip of land between the river Dniester and the Moldovan–Ukrainian border that is internationally recognized as part of Moldova. Its capital and largest city is Tiraspol. Transnistria has been recognised by only three other unrecognised or partially recognized breakaway states: Abkhazia, Artsakh and South Ossetia.[8] Transnistria is designated by the Republic of Moldova as the Transnistria autonomous territorial unit with special legal status (Romanian: Unitatea teritorială autonomă cu statut juridic special Transnistria),[9] or Stînga Nistrului ("Left Bank of the Dniester").[10][11][12]

Pridnestrovian Moldavian Republic

  • Приднестровская Молдавская Республика (Russian)
    Pridnestrovskaya Moldavskaya Respublika

  • Republica Moldovenească Nistreană  (Romanian)
    Moldovan Cyrillic: Република Молдовеняскэ Нистрянэ

  • Придністровська Молдавська Республіка (Ukrainian)
    Prydnistrovska Moldavska Respublika
We chant thy praises of Pridnestrovia
StatusUnrecognised state
Recognised by the United Nations as de jure part of Moldova
and largest city
46°50′25″N 29°38′36″E
Official languages
Ethnic groups
Demonym(s)Transnistrian, Pridnestrovian
GovernmentUnitary semi-presidential republic
Vadim Krasnoselsky
Aleksandr Martynov
Alexander Shcherba
LegislatureSupreme Council
Partially recognised state
 Independence from SSR of Moldova declared
2 September 1990
 Independence from Soviet Union declared
25 August 1991
5 November 1991[5]
2 March – 21 July 1992
3 non-UN membersc
4,163 km2 (1,607 sq mi)
 Water (%)
 2018 estimate
469,000[6] (not ranked)
114/km2 (295.3/sq mi)
GDP (nominal)2007[7] estimate
US$1.0 billion
 Per capita
CurrencyTransnistrian rubled (PRB)
Time zoneUTC+2 (EET)
 Summer (DST)
Calling code+373e
Internet, .md, .su and .com
  1. Russian is the main official language.
  2. Romanian is officially called Moldovan in Transnistria and is written with the Moldovan Cyrillic alphabet.
  3. Limited to the breakaway Republic of Abkhazia, Republic of Artsakh and South Ossetia (see Community for Democracy and Rights of Nations).
  4. Moldovan leu used in those areas under Moldovan control and in the security zone.
  5. +373 5 and +373 2.

The region's origins can be traced to the Moldavian Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic which was formed in 1924 within the Ukrainian SSR. During World War II, the Soviet Union took parts of the Moldavian ASSR, which was dissolved, and of the Kingdom of Romania's Bessarabia to form the Moldavian Soviet Socialist Republic in 1940. The present history of the region dates to 1990, amidst the disintegration of the Soviet Union, when the Pridnestrovian Moldavian Soviet Socialist Republic was established in hopes that it would remain within the Soviet Union should Moldova seek unification with Romania or independence, the latter occurring in August 1991. Shortly afterwards, a military conflict between the two parties started in March 1992 and was concluded by a ceasefire in July of the same year.

As part of that agreement, a three-party (Russia, Moldova, Transnistria) Joint Control Commission supervises the security arrangements in the demilitarised zone, comprising twenty localities on both sides of the river. Although the ceasefire has held, the territory's political status remains unresolved: Transnistria is an unrecognised but de facto independent semi-presidential republic with its own government, parliament, military, police, postal system, currency and vehicle registration.[13][14][15][16] Its authorities have adopted a constitution, flag, national anthem and coat of arms. After a 2005 agreement between Moldova and Ukraine, all Transnistrian companies that seek to export goods through the Ukrainian border must be registered with the Moldovan authorities.[17] This agreement was implemented after the European Union Border Assistance Mission to Moldova and Ukraine (EUBAM) took force in 2005.[18] Most Transnistrians have Moldovan citizenship,[19] but many also have Russian, Romanian, or Ukrainian citizenship.[20][21] The main ethnic groups are Russians, Moldovans, and Ukrainians.

Transnistria, along with Abkhazia, South Ossetia, and Artsakh, is a post-Soviet "frozen conflict" zone.[22][23] These four partially recognised states maintain friendly relations with each other and form the Community for Democracy and Rights of Nations.[24][25][26]