Treaty of Bucharest (1812)


The Treaty of Bucharest between the Ottoman Empire and the Russian Empire, was signed on 28 May 1812, in Manuc's Inn in Bucharest, and ratified on 5 July 1812, at the end of the Russo-Turkish War of 1806–12.[1] The Ottomans had done poorly in the war. The Sublime Porte above all wanted to stay out of the impending conflict between Napoleon and Russia. The Russians wanted no side war and thus they made peace in order to be free for the potential war with France. The Ottomans had extricated themselves from a potentially disastrous war with a slight loss of territory. This treaty became the basis for future Russo-Ottoman relations.[2]

Southeast Europe after the treaty, Bessarabia shown in light green

Under its terms, the Budjak and the eastern half of the Principality of Moldavia, between Prut and Dniester Rivers, with an area of 45,630 km2 (17,617.8 sq mi) (Bessarabia), was ceded by the Ottoman Empire (to which Moldavia was a vassal) to Russia. Also, Russia obtained trading rights on the Danube.

In Transcaucasia, the Ottomans renounced their claims to most of western Georgia by accepting the Russian annexation of the Kingdom of Imereti, in 1810.[3][4] In return they retained control of Akhalkalaki, Poti, and Anapa previously captured by the Russo-Georgian troops in the course of the war[5]

Furthermore a truce was signed (Article 8 of the Treaty) with the rebelling Serbs and autonomy given to Serbia.[6]

The Treaty of Bucharest, signed by the Russian commander Mikhail Kutuzov, was ratified by Alexander I of Russia 13 days before Napoleon's invasion of Russia.

References


  1. Robarts, Andrew (2008). "Bucharest, Treaty of". In Ágoston, Gábor; Masters, Bruce (eds.). Encyclopedia of the Ottoman Empire. Facts On File. p. 94. ISBN 978-0-8160-6259-1.
  2. F. Ismail. "The making of the treaty of Bucharest, 1811-1812," Middle Eastern Studies (1979) 15#2 pp 163-192.
  3. William Edward David Allen, Paul Muratoff. Caucasian Battlefields: A History of the Wars on the Turco-Caucasian Border, 1828-1921, Cambridge University Press 2010, p.19, ISBN 978-1-108-01335-2
  4. Frederik Coene. The Caucasus - An Introduction, Routledge 2010, p.125, ISBN 9780415666831
  5. John F. Baddeley. Russian Conquest of the Caucasus, Longman, Green and Co. 1908, Chapter V
  6. Ćirković 2004, pp. 182.

Sources