Treaty of London (1839)

The Treaty of London of 1839, also called the First Treaty of London, the Convention of 1839, the Treaty of Separation, the Quintuple Treaty of 1839, or the Treaty of the XXIV articles, was a treaty signed on 19 April 1839 between the Concert of Europe, the United Kingdom of the Netherlands and the Kingdom of Belgium. It was a direct follow-up to the 1831 Treaty of the XVIII Articles which the Netherlands had refused to sign, and the result of negotiations at the London Conference of 1838–1839.[1]

Treaty of London
Belgian borders claimed before The Treaty of the XXIV articles.
TypeMultilateral Treaty
Signed19 April 1839 (1839-04-19)
LocationLondon, United Kingdom
  • Austria
  • Belgium
  • France
  • German Confederation
  • Netherlands
  • Russia
  • United Kingdom

Under the treaty, the European powers recognised and guaranteed the independence and neutrality of Belgium and established the full independence of the German-speaking part of Luxembourg. Article VII required Belgium to remain perpetually neutral.[2]